• A HARDWARE PLATFORM FOR COGNITIVE RADIO

      Kosbar, Kurt; Pratt, Jason; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Cognitive radio is a reasonably new branch of research aimed at more fully utilizing the RF spectrum. This is accomplished by allowing wireless communication systems to dynamically choose a frequency band, and a modulation technique, based on the current state of the RF spectrum as perceived by the cognitive radio network. This paper will give a brief introduction of cognitive radio networks, and describe a hardware platform designed at the IFT/UMR Telemetry Learning Center. The test-bed will accommodate future research into cognitive networks, by allowing the user to dynamically change both its carrier frequency and modulation technique through software. A general description of the design of the platform is provided.
    • DIVERSITY BRANCH SELECTION IN REAL WORLD APPLICATION

      Formeister, Richard; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Multipath propagation continues to be the dominant channel impairment in many aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) applications. Avoidance and diversity techniques continue to be the only practical means to combat this problem. In 2004 limited results from the development of a new post-detection, no-hit diversity selector were reported. Late breaking results from flight test were reported orally. A review of the methodology, flight test results and conclusions are presented in this paper. Also presented is an update describing enhancements of the implementation which emphasize operational flexibility as well as support for alternate demodulator products.
    • MODELING OF THE PLASMA FORMATION DUE TO LASER IRRADIENCE DURING DIRECTED-ENERGY TESTING

      Rajendran, Saravanakanthan; Keidar, Michael; Boyd, Iain D.; Jones, Charles H.; Mork, Brian; University of Michigan; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Real-time transmission of airborne images to a ground station is highly desirable in many telemetering applications. Such transmission is often through an error prone, time varying wireless channel, possibly under jamming conditions. Hence, a fast, efficient, scalable, and error resilient image compression scheme is vital to realize the full potential of airborne reconnaisance. JPEG2000, the current international standard for image compression, offers most of these features. However, the computational complexity of JPEG2000 limits its use in some applications. Thus, we present a scalable low complexity coder (SLCC) that possesses many desirable features of JPEG2000, yet having high throughput. Continuous radio-wave telemetry is required during planned tests of directed-energy weapons systems in order to characterize in situ the effects of laser irradiation on different target materials. Unfortunately, the incident radiation can cause disruption of the radio signal during the directed-energy testing. Several phenomena associated with directed-energy impact can lead to communication path losses, such as ablation, charged particle emission, charring, and chemical changes in the target materials. Directed-energy impact on the target material leads to target heating and consequent ablation. In this paper, a numerical model has been developed to describe the laser induced ablation of metal surfaces. The model describes the absorption of the laser energy by the metal and the resulting temperature rise in the surface. This temperature rise then induces ablation of the target material. Results for an aluminum target irradiated with a KrF laser were obtained. Temperature profiles in the target material and surface temperature changes are presented along with the ablation rate as a function of time as the aluminum target is irradiated. This report presents results for cases when laser energy absorption by the plasma plume created above the surface is not significant.
    • SCALABLE LOW COMPLEXITY CODER FOR HIGH RESOLUTION AIRBORNE VIDEO

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Lalgudi, Hariharan G.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Nadar, Mariappan S.; University of Arizona; Siemens Corporate Research (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Real-time transmission of airborne images to a ground station is highly desirable in many telemetering applications. Such transmission is often through an error prone, time varying wireless channel, possibly under jamming conditions. Hence, a fast, efficient, scalable, and error resilient image compression scheme is vital to realize the full potential of airborne reconnaisance. JPEG2000, the current international standard for image compression, offers most of these features. However, the computational complexity of JPEG2000 limits its use in some applications. Thus, we present a scalable low complexity coder (SLCC) that possesses many desirable features of JPEG2000, yet having high throughput.
    • TECHNOLOGY CONVERGENCE: OBSERVATIONS ON TRANSITIONAL APPROACHES FOR DATA ACQUISITION IN A TCP/IP ENVIRONMENT

      Weir, Malcolm; Ampex Data Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper discusses how IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recording techniques could be employed in a network-centric environment, while maintaining as many of the strengths of the traditional approach. In the course of that discussion, aspects of the published standard which would have to be disregarded or reinterpreted for a network-centric approach to be adopted are illustrated.
    • A HIGH-ACCURACY AND LOW-COMPLEXITY CARRIER-OFFSET-FREQUENCY ESTIMATOR

      Rice, Michael; Palmer, Joseph; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      A single-tone frequency estimator for a non-uniformly sampled sinusoid is proposed. A nonuniformly sampled sinusoid may be generated from the received training sequences of a telemetry link. The frequency of the sinusoid matches the carrier-frequency-offset (CFO) of the received signal, and estimation of this quantity allows a receiver to compensate for the CFO. The performance bounds of this type of estimator have been investigated in the literature, though little work has been published on practical algorithms. The estimator proposed in this paper is a generalization of phase-increment estimators previously described in the literature. It exhibits a low computational complexity yet converges to theoretical bounds at high SNR. The paper argues that a periodic training sequence structure, combined with the new estimator, allows for a high-accuracy and lowcomplexity CFO compensator.
    • AJAX: A NEW TWIST ON EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES

      Gilorma, Mike; Apogee Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) has improved web applications in a way that has enhanced performance and made the user experience more like that of a desktop application. As the performance of PCs increases and broadband Internet access is more prevalent, switching between web pages is less painful than ever. One of the biggest advantages of AJAX is the ability for a web application to update only a small piece of data without refreshing the whole page. AJAX also allows for piecewise validation of user entry as opposed to the standard form entry with which we have become so accustomed. This paper describes how AJAX enabled applications are different from classic web applications and shows the advantages and disadvantages from both client and server sides of an AJAX enabled application. AJAX is not a new technology, but rather a new approach to web applications that uses standards already in place for XHTML, CSS, DOM, XML, and JavaScript. It is this new approach that eliminates the full page refresh that was so commonplace and now gives web applications the ability to look and feel more like desktop applications.
    • TURBO-CODED APSK FOR TELEMETRY

      Shaw, Christopher; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper considers the use of Amplitude-Phase Shift Keying (APSK) for a telemetry system. Variable rate turbo codes are used to improve the power efficiency of 16- and 32-APSK. We discuss compensation techniques for power amplifier nonlinearities. Simulation results show the improved spectral efficiency of this modulation scheme over those currently defined in telemetry standards.
    • WIRELESS SENSOR SYSTEM FOR AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS

      Pellarin, Steve; Musteric, Steven; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Adding an instrumentation / telemetry system to a test article has historically required an intrusive installation. Power, wiring, and available space typically present significant challenges. There has been a long-standing need in the test and training community for a non-intrusive, flexible and modular instrumentation and telemetry system that can be installed on an aircraft or other test article without the need for permanent modifications. In addition, as available space in aircraft weapon bays, small weapons, and unmanned vehicles becomes a premium, the miniaturization of remote sensors and telemetry units becomes critical. This paper describes the current status of the Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System (ASMT) Initial Test Capability Project. It discusses the challenges that have been overcome in developing a wireless sensor network system for use in an airborne test environment. These include wireless sensor packaging design, selection of operating frequencies, COTS wireless devices, batteries, system synchronization and data bandwidth calculations. The paper will also document the progress to date including preliminary test results.
    • NETWORK-BASED DISTRIBUTED DATA ACQUISITION AND RECORDING FOR SMALL SYSTEMS

      Hildin, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Some of the first applications of network-based data acquisition systems have been for large aircraft. These systems contained numerous network nodes including data acquisition units, switches, recorders, network management units, and others. One of the desirable aspects of a networked-based system is the ability to scale such a system to meet increasing test requirements. Similarly, these systems lend themselves to scaling down, as well, to meet the testing needs of smaller test articles. These needs may include fewer nodes and/or physically smaller components. The testing of smaller vehicles places slightly different requirements on the testing process. In general, there is a greater need for real-time analysis, flexibility and ad-hoc testing. This paper will attempt to show how a small to medium sized test article can benefit from the same powerful, feature-rich network-based data acquisition and recording system as used on larger programs. The paper will also show how a smaller system can deliver on this promise without sacrificing performance and functionality.
    • FIBRE CHANNEL BUS MONITORING WITH AIRBORNE DATA MULTIPLEXER / RECORDER SYSTEM

      Berdugo, Albert; Pesciotta, Eric; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Modern aircraft now employ widely accepted and standardized technology commonly found in COTS applications. One such technology, Fibre Channel, has been deployed to transport both low and high-speed measurement data. Data as varied as “command and control”, “Radar Sensors” and “video” are being transmitted over fibre channel on many aircrafts. Some of these applications require data monitoring in listening mode only where transmission from the instrumentation equipment is not allowed or possible. As a result, standard off the shelf Fibre Channel devices cannot be used, and a development of a general purpose Fibre Channel monitor/ analyzer device and product is required. This paper discusses the concept, merits, and implementation of fibre channel bus monitoring in modern data acquisition systems. Techniques for tapping into an optical fibre channel network, as well as, a recording format for IRIG106 Chapter 10 are included. An overview of fibre channel topologies and protocols is also provided.
    • TOWARDS FULLY AUTOMATED INSTRUMENTATION TEST SUPPORT

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Imagine that a test vehicle has just arrived at your test facility and that it is fully instrumented with sensors and a data acquisition system (DAS). Imagine that a test engineer logs onto the vehicle’s DAS, submits a list of data requirements, and the DAS automatically configures itself to meet those data requirements. Imagine that the control room then contacts the DAS, downloads the configuration, and coordinates its own configuration with the vehicle’s setup. Imagine all of this done with no more human interaction than the original test engineer’s request. How close to this imaginary scenario is the instrumentation community? We’re not there yet, but through a variety of efforts, we are headed towards this fully automated scenario. This paper outlines the current status, current projects, and some missing pieces in the journey towards this end. This journey includes standards development in the Range Commander’s Council (RCC), smart sensor standards development through the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts, efforts by the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project, and other projects involved in reaching this goal.
    • METADATA MODELING FOR AIRBORNE DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS

      Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Pesciotta, Eric; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Many engineers express frustration with the multitude of vendor specific tools required to describe measurements and configure data acquisition systems. In general, tools are incompatible between vendors, forcing the engineer to enter the same or similar data multiple times. With the emergence of XML technologies, user centric data modeling for the flight test community is now possible. With this new class of technology, a vendor neutral, standard language to define measurements and configure systems may finally be realized. However, the allure of such a universal language can easily become too abstract, making it untenable for hardware configuration and resulting in a low vendor adoption rate. Conversely, a language that caters too much to vendor specific configuration will defeat its purpose. Achieving this careful balance is not trivial, but is possible. Doing so will produce a useful standard without putting it out of the reach of equipment vendors. This paper discusses the concept, merits, and possible solutions for a standard measurement metadata model. Practical solutions using XML and related technologies are discussed.
    • THE ARCHITECTURE OF AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS

      Roach, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The development of network-based data acquisition systems has resulted in a new architecture for supporting flight instrumentation that has the potential to revolutionize the way we test our aircraft. Unlike conventional flight test instrumentation, networks provide for a two-way communication path between all elements of the system, utilize packetized data, support communication protocols, have dynamic quality of service levels, can be subject to loss of data, utilize asynchronous transmission behavior and provide an even higher level of time synchronization. Different flight test architectures can be realized which combine each of the previous attributes in different ways; finding the best architecture for a set of given applications while minimizing cost and complexity is a very difficult problem. For the last 3 years, the Network Products Division at Teletronics has been involved in the design and evaluation of aircraft instrumentation networks for both customers and the iNET program. This paper describes the result of these efforts by discussing the high-level design of a modular architecture for an aircraft instrumentation network.
    • INTEGRATING ENGINEERING UNIT CONVERSIONS AND SENSOR CALIBRATION INTO INSTRUMENTATION SETUP SOFTWARE

      Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Historically, different aspects of the configuration of an airborne instrumentation system were specified in a variety of different software applications. Instrumentation setup software handled the definition of measurements and PCM Formats while separate applications handled pre-flight checkout, calibration and post-flight data analysis. This led to the manual entry of the same data multiple times. Industry standards such as TMATS strive to address this problem by creating a data-interchange format for passing setup information from one application to another. However, a better alternative is to input all of the relevant setup information about the sensor and the measurement when it is initially created in the instrumentation vendor’s software. Furthermore, an additional performance enhancement can be achieved by adding the ability to perform sensor calibration and engineering unit conversions to pre-flight data visualization software that is tightly coupled with the instrumentation setup software. All of the setup information can then be transferred to the ground station for post-flight processing and data reduction. Detailed reports can also be generated for each measurement. This paper describes the flow of data through an integrated airborne instrumentation setup application that allows sensors and measurements to be defined, acquired, calibrated and converted from raw counts to engineering units. The process of performing a sensor calibration, configuring engineering unit conversions, and importing calibration and transducer data sheets will also be discussed.
    • ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR A VARIABLE BIT RATE DATA ACQUISITION TELEMETRY ENCODER

      Lee, Jeffrey C.; L-3 Communications – Telemetry-West (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Modern telemetry systems require flexible bit rate telemetry encoders in order to optimize mission formats for varying data rate requirements and/or signal to noise conditions given a fixed transmitter power. Implementing a variable bit rate telemetry encoder requires consideration of several possible architectural topologies that place different system requirements on data acquisition modules within the encoder in order to maintain adequate signal fidelity of sensor information. This paper focuses on the requirements, design considerations and tradeoffs associated with differing architectural topologies for implementing a variable bit rate encoder and the resulting implications on the encoder systems data acquisition units.
    • OVERVIEW OF AN INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTATION DATA SYSTEM USED BY THE F-35 LIGHTNING II FLIGHT TEST PROGRAM

      Vu, Doug; Berdugo, Albert; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Co.; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Joint Strike Fighter program is the largest DOD contract ever awarded. There are three F-35 Lightning II variations, each intended to meet the specific needs of the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and U.S. Allies. The Data System required for this flight test program challenged the conventional ways used in instrumenting test aircraft. Typical data systems available today don’t provide the level of hardware and software integration required for today’s complex applications. For example, cockpit control panels, recording systems, TM transmitters, data acquisition systems and avionic bus interface units are all independent systems. Additionally, avionic bus catalogs, ground-based systems, and flight setup software have historically been independent components. This paper will describe the hardware and software components used by the F-35 flight test program to provide an integrated system. A special emphasis will be given to the methods used to accommodate rapid changes to the IEEE-1394B avionic bus catalog including the acquisition of that data, and the use of an IRIG-106 Chapter 10 distributed multiplexer / recorder system, which is being used simultaneously as a data acquisition system.
    • A NEXT GENERATION AIRCRAFT POWER MONITORING SYSTEM

      Grossman, Hy; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Historically, aircraft power monitoring has required the use of multiple signal conditioning functions to measure various parameters including voltage, current, frequency and phase. This information was then post processed to determine the characteristics of the 3-phase power quality on the aircraft. Recent developments in embedded DSP processors within signalconditioning systems provide the instrumentation engineer with expanded capabilities for realtime on-board power quality monitoring. Advantages include reduced space and bandwidth requirements and minimal wiring intrusion. For each phase, output data may include peak positive and negative voltages and currents, peak-to-peak, average and RMS voltages and currents, phase power (real and apparent), phase power factor, phase period (frequency), phase shift measurement from phase 1 (the reference phase) to phase 2, and from phase 1 to phase 3. In addition, a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is performed on each phase voltage to provide Total Harmonic Distortion measurements. This paper describes the methods employed in the implementation of these functions on a single signal-conditioning card in order to provide detailed information about the power quality of a three-phase aircraft power source.
    • DEVELOPMENT, EVALUATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A SURFACE-MOUNT, HIGH-G ACCELEROMETER

      Peregino, Philip J., II; Bukowski, Edward F.; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Endevco model 7270A high-g accelerometer has been used successfully in numerous flight tests at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory. The accelerometer is available in ranges as low as 6,000 g’s up to 200,000 g’s so they can be used in a variety of situations to measure setback, set forward and balloting in artillery rounds, mortars and tank projectiles to name a few. However, one of the disadvantages of the model 7270A is its physical size, in the era of die level and surface mount components, the 7270A is relatively large. The sensing element is packaged inside a metal case with screw holes for mounting to a rigid surface. In addition, there are wires protruding from the case for electrical connections. In the area of munitions, small cavities don’t always afford the room for a large gauge. It was desirable to repackage the die in a smaller container and make it a surface mount component for a printed circuit board. A contract was developed for Endevco to repackage the die and to develop a tri-axial version with the repackaged die. The newly developed accelerometers were tested and evaluated by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory.
    • APPLICATIONS OF A HARDWARE SPECIFICATION FOR INSTRUMENTATION METADATA

      Hamilton, John; Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Mike; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In this paper, we discuss the benefits of maintaining a neutral-format hardware specification along with the telemetry metadata specification. We present several reasons and methods for maintaining the hardware specifications, as well as several potential uses of hardware specification. These uses include cross-validation with the telemetry metadata and automatic generation of both metadata and instrumentation networks.