• A WIDEBAND CHANNEL MODEL FOR SHF-BAND TELEMETRY OVER WATER

      Rice, Michael; Lei, Qiang; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Data recorded during multipath channel sounding experiments, conducted off the coast of Pt. Mugu Naval Air Station at 8.0 GHz was used to model the multipath interference at SHF band over water. The modeling results show that a three ray model consisting of line-of-sight propagation and two reflected propagation paths is a good fit for the measured channel frequency responses. The properties of the multipath reflections are determined by geometry and sea state. For calm seas, the first reflection is a large amplitude short-delay reflection whereas for rough seas, the first reflection has a smaller amplitude and longer delay. The second reflection has a smaller amplitude and larger delay when the sea is calm.
    • ENHANCING THE PCM/FM LINK - WITHOUT THE MATH

      Fewer, Colm; Wilmot, Sinbad; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Since the 1970s PCM/FM has been the dominant modulation scheme used for RF telemetry. However more stringent spectrum availability as well as increasing data rates means that more advanced transmission methods are required to keep pace with industry demands. ARTM Tier-I and Tier-II are examples of how the PCM/FM link can be enhanced. However these techniques require a significant increase in the complexity of the receiver/detector for optimal recovery. This paper focuses on a quantitative approach to improving the rate and quality of data using existing PCM/FM links. In particular ACRA CONTROL and BAE SYSTEMS set themselves the goal of revisiting the pre-modulation filter, diversity combiner and bit-sync. By implementing programmable adaptive hardware, it was possible to explore the various tradeoffs offered by modifying pulse shapes and spectral occupancy, inclusion of forward error correction and smart source selection. This papers looks at the improvements achieved at each phase of the evaluation.
    • A WIRELESS NETWORK-BASED RFNET SOLUTION FOR FLIGHT TEST

      Xuming, Fan; Xiaoxian, Bai; Baoqiang, Zhao; Junmin, Zhang; Chinese Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      An rfNET solution based on IEEE 802.11 wireless network is presented to perform one-way remote transmission of airborne instrumentation data and multi-channel video images in flight test by modifying the wireless network bridge and UDP protocol. Its architecture and structure is introduced briefly and the results of ground transmission test and flight demonstration transmission are provided. It also points out the major problems of this solution for engineering application and their solutions.
    • EVALUATING IEEE 1588 IN A HOMOGENOUS SWITCHED NETWORK TEST ARTICLE SEGMENT

      Wilmot, Sinbad; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA CONTROL INC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      At the 2007 iNet Technology Demonstrator multiple vendors are asked to participate to develop and evaluate protocols for time synchronization, configuration identification and heterogeneous data packet transfer. The iNet initiative from RCC is aimed at focusing and collating telemetry network developments within the wider sphere of commercial and military network developments. The KAM-500 is an inherently networked data-acquisition system offering seamless gateways to many heterogeneous data sources, such as different sensor devices, avionics-busses, networks and video sources. This paper offers insights into the impact of traffic and network configuration on the performance of heterogeneous data acquisition in a homogenous-switched network based a 1588 enabled controller module.
    • TELEMETRY AND COMMAND FRAME ROUTING IN A MULTI-MISSION ENVIRONMENT

      Bester, Manfred; Stroozas, Brett; Bester Tracking Systems, Inc.; Stroozas Flight Ops (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In a modern ground control network for space communications, secure peer-to-peer TCP/IP network socket connections are typically used to transfer real-time telemetry and command frames between satellite operations centers and remote ground stations. Reliable and timely reconfiguration of data paths for upcoming pass supports becomes rather complex when many spacecraft and ground stations are involved. This paper describes a routing software application that was developed to facilitate switching of telemetry and command data paths between multiple ground stations and spacecraft command and control systems, and to forward telemetry streams to multiple client applications in parallel. Fully automated configuration and monitoring of the data flows is accomplished via a remote control interface that is tied into a pass scheduling system. The software is part of the SatTrack Suite and currently supports multi-mission flight operations, including those of the recently launched THEMIS constellation mission at Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley.
    • REORDERING PACKET BASED DATA IN REAL-TIME DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS

      Kilpatrick, Stephen; Rasche, Galen; Cunningham, Chris; Moodie, Myron; Abbott, Ben; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Ubiquitous internet protocol (IP) hardware has reached performance and capability levels that allow its use in data collection and real-time processing applications. Recent development experience with IP-based airborne data acquisition systems has shown that the open, pre-existing IP tools, standards, and capabilities support this form of distribution and sharing of data quite nicely, especially when combined with IP multicast. Unfortunately, the packet based nature of our approach also posed some problems that required special handling to achieve performance requirements. We have developed methods and algorithms for the filtering, selecting, and retiming problems associated with packet-based systems and present our approach in this paper.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A NETWORK-CENTRIC DATA ACQUISITION, RECORDING, AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Moodie, Myron; Newton, Todd; Abbott, Ben; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The growth of the Internet and the resulting increasing speeds and decreasing prices of network equipment have spurred much interest in applying networks to flight test applications. However, the best-effort, variable-latency nature of network transport causes challenges that must be addressed to provide reliable data acquisition and timing performance. This paper describes the major issues that must be addressed when designing and implementing real-time networking applications. An overview of a recently implemented large-scale, network-centric data acquisition, recording, and telemetry system for commercial flight test applications provides a real-world example of what is currently achievable.
    • NETGEN: A MODEL-DRIVEN TOOL FOR RAPID PROTOTYPING AND SIMULATION OF NETWORK-BASED FLIGHT TEST SYSTEMS

      Price, Jeremy C.; Moore, Michael S.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      When network-centric flight test system components are developed concurrently, it is necessary to produce relevant simulated network traffic for exercising the network devices and other processing subsystems prior to system integration. Having an accurate and repeatable pattern of simulated network traffic is extremely important for debugging and subsystem integration. The simulated network traffic must be both representative of the real system and repeatable to aid test efforts. Our solution to this problem was to develop a model-driven network traffic generator – NETGEN. Using NETGEN to resolve errors, stress test, and verify requirements, we have achieved otherwise unattainable correctness, reliability, and success in our systems.
    • FAST ACQUISITION ALGORITHM FOR HYBRID DS/FH RECEIVER

      Bo, Zhang; Yixun, Ren; Dongkai, Yang; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University; TT&C and Telecommunication Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper introduced a fast scanning and waiting acquisition method for a DS/FH receiver used in the telemetry field. Mathematic model of the hybrid DS/FH system’s acquisition process is given and discussed. The average acquisition time expression using this method and generalized average acquisition time formula is derived also. The validity of the proposed algorithm is verified after simulation. In the circumstances of Additive Gauss White Noise for the channel, simulation result at Ec/N0= -15dB shows that the average acquisition time is decreased almost 4 times than that of waiting and searching method.
    • PERFORMANCE CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTI-BAND ANTENNAS FOR AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY

      Temple, Kip; Jefferis, Robert; Selbrede, Robert; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      This paper baselines the performance of common, single band telemetry blade antennas in two telemetry bands and compares that performance to two very differing multi-band antenna designs. A description of each antenna is presented followed by flight testing results and conclusions. Results are in the form of received signal strength versus geographic location, derived in-flight antenna patterns, link availability, and bit error analysis.
    • LOW-COST RAPID-RESPONSE EMBEDDED ANTENNA DESIGN FOR US ARMY 60MM MORTARS

      Katulka, G.; Hall, R.; Peregino, P.; Muller, P.; Hundley, N.; McGee, R.; Army Research Laboratory; Dynamic Sciences Inc.; Data Matrix Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the US Army are engaged in a high-risk/high-payoff project for the development of precision-guided 60mm mortars for the benefit of the optically designated attack munition (ODAM). This paper describes the antenna design and performance characteristics required for a telemetry-based onboard diagnostic system. Efforts executed at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD met our primary objective to demonstrate rapid response low-cost capability for body-mounted antennas compatible with commercially-available telemetry products. This presentation reviews the theoretical design and antenna radiation pattern characteristics, tuning process, and returned in-flight signal strength along the trajectory. Experimental results compared favorably with theoretical link analyses. Lessons learned, ongoing applications, and future improvements are also presented.
    • MOBILE GROUND TRACKING STATION DESIGN MODIFICATIONS AND PLACEMENT PREPARATION FOR CROWDED AIRSPACE

      Altan, Hal; Honeywell International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      As the frequency spectrum becomes more crowded each day, preparation for placement of tracking ground station in tracking environment gains more importance. Existence of high power weather ground radars, airport approach equipment, and various other RF sources in the environment necessitates the test teams to be more cautious. This paper discusses, implemented design changes to an S-band antenna system to reduce the in-band interfering power, calculation of the effects from nearby interferers, analysis of the environment during placement of the mobile ground system by Honeywell telemetry teams.
    • GROUND SUPPORT FOR THE SPACE-BASED RANGE FLIGHT DEMONSTRATION 2

      Burkes, Darryl A.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      The primary objective of the NASA Space-Based Range Demonstration and Certification program was to develop and demonstrate space-based range capabilities. The Flight Demonstration 2 flights at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were conducted to support Range Safety (commanding and position reporting) and high-rate (5 Mbps) Range User (video and data) requirements. Required ground support infrastructure included a flight termination system computer, the ground-data distribution network to send range safety commands and receive range safety and range user telemetry data and video, and the ground processing systems at the Dryden Mission Control Center to process range safety and range user telemetry data and video.
    • TELEMETRY SYSTEMS SUSTAINMENT

      Trimble, Michael L.; Wells, John E.; Wurth, Timothy J.; NuWaves Engineering (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Tactical training ranges provide an opportunity for all of the armed forces to assess operational readiness. To perform this task the various training ranges have deployed numerous telemetry systems. The current design efforts in place to upgrade the capabilities and unify the ranges under one telemetry system do not address the training ranges' need to maintain their training capability with the legacy systems that have been deployed until the new systems are ready. Two systems that have recently undergone sustainment efforts are the Player and Event Tracking System (TAPETS) and the Large Area Tracking Range (LATR). TAPETS is a telemetry system operated by the U.S. Army Operational Test Command. The TAPETS system is comprised of the ground mobile station Standard Range Unit (SRU) and the aircraft Inertial Global Positioning System (GPS) Integration (IGI) Pod. Both systems require a transponder for the wireless communications link. LATR is an over the horizon telemetry system operated by the U.S. Navy at various test ranges to track ground based, ship based, and airborne participants in training exercises. The LATR system is comprised of Rotary Wing (RW), Fixed Wing (FW) Pods, Fixed Wing Internal (FWI), Ship, and Ground Participant Instrumentation Packages (PIPs) as well as Ground Interrogation Station (GIS) and relay stations. Like the TAPETS system, each of these packages and stations also require a transponder for the wireless communications link. Both telemetry systems have developed additional capabilities in order to better support and train the Armed Forces, which consequently requires more transponders. In addition, some areas were experiencing failures in their transponders that have been deployed for many years. The available spare components of some systems had been depleted and the sustainment requirements along with the increased demand for assets were beginning to impact the ability of the systems to successfully monitor the training ranges during exercises. The path to maintaining operational capability chosen for the TAPETS system was a mixed approach that consisted of identifying a depot level repair facility for their transponders and funding the development of new transponder printed circuit boards (PCB's) where obsolescence prevented a sufficient number of repairable units. In the case of LATR, the decision was made to create new transponders to take advantage of cost effective state-of-the-art RF design and manufacturing processes. The result of this effort is a new transponder that is operationally indistinguishable from the legacy transponder in all installation environments. The purpose of this paper is to present two successful system sustainment efforts with different approaches to serve as models for preserving the current level of training range capabilities until the next generation of telemetry systems are deployed. While the two programs illustrated here deal primarily with the transponder components of the systems, these same methods can be applied to the other aspects of legacy telemetry system sustainment efforts.
    • FIXED RANGE DEVELOPMENT

      Reid, Robert J.; Naval Undersea Warfare Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      In FY07 the Naval Undersea Warfare Center in Newport Rhode Island began the development of 2 major undersea tracking range replacements programs. The first program is called the Southern California ASW Range (SOAR) Refurbishment (SOAR-R) and the second program is called the Barking Sands Undersea Range Expansion (BSURE) Refurbishment (BSURE-R). These ranges will be located off the coast of San Clemente Island, California and Kauai, Hawaii respectively. The in-water instrumentation of the undersea tracking range is a series acoustic receive and transmit sensors nodes that are interconnected electrically and optically through a cable. These sensors make up arrays. A wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) telemetry schema is being developed for these arrays.
    • DATA DISPLAY INTERCHANGEABILITY FOR HETEROGENEOUS PLATFORMS

      Ross, Robert W.; K/Bidy, Gilles; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      A test range facility may consist of a heterogeneous array of computer and workstation assets, given the need to support various new and legacy projects. The data display and analysis software for this heterogeneous environment can be equally diverse, with different application software available and/or supported on the workstations. The demands of managing an operator team skilled in the use of the various software applications, along with the support and maintenance costs, can be restrictive to a cost-effective and productive operation environment. The need for data display and analysis software that can run on all platforms in a heterogeneous environment plays a major role in creating an effective workforce capable of supporting multiple projects without the need to specialize on specific data display software. Likewise, the costs of maintenance and support are greatly reduced. A pure Java™ data display and analysis software product can meet the requirements of this need.
    • EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL-OFF-THE-SHELF LITHIUM BATTERIES FOR USE IN BALLISTIC TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

      Bukowski, Edward F.; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      As technological advances continue to be made in the commercial sectors of portable and wireless communication products, additional advancements in battery technology have also been made. These advancements have allowed for the rapid growth of a large variety of commercially available batteries which have the capability to meet or even exceed the current power and size requirements for numerous ballistic telemetry systems. The replacement of a custom built battery with a COTS battery would provide immediate advantages such as lower cost, shorter lead times and higher availability. The overall objective of this paper is to provide ballistic telemetry systems engineers and designers with multiple low cost, readily available alternatives to traditional custom made power sources.
    • A FLEXIBLE SWITCHING ARCHITECTURE FOR DIVERSE SIGNAL TYPES

      Gery, Brian; Apogee Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Modern telemetry systems often require signal switching hardware to facilitate signal routing reconfiguration between missions. As these systems have grown more complex with high signal counts and diverse signal types in the same system, the need for flexible switching hardware that can adapt to these changing requirements has emerged. A novel architecture for diverse signal switching hardware is presented that addresses the changing requirements of modern telemetry systems. While conventional commercial switching gear handles each signal type in a separate group, the proposed architecture allows digital and analog signal types to be switched, multiplexed, scaled, and combined (as the signal types allow) all within the same chassis, and between signal types.
    • PLASMA DENSITY REDUCTION USING ELECTROMAGNETIC E×B FIELD DURING REENTRY FLIGHT

      Kim, Minkwan; Keidar, Michael; Boyd, Iain D.; Morris, David; University of Michigan; ElectroDynamic Applications Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      As a vehicle reenters or flies at hypersonic speed through the atmosphere, the surrounding air is shock heated and becomes weakly ionized. The plasma layer thus formed causes a communication problem known as ‘radio blackout’. At sufficiently dense plasma conditions, the plasma layer either reflects or attenuates radio wave communications to and from the vehicle. In this paper, we propose an electromagnetic field configuration as a method to allow communication through the plasma layer. Theoretical models show that this may address the blackout problem under a range of conditions. Preliminary experimental results are also presented.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF AN UNMANNED AIRBORNE TELEMETRY TRACKING AND RELAY SYSTEM

      Pho, Tam P.; Wysong, Henry D.; Aerocross Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)
      Aerocross Systems, Inc. is developing a low-cost unmanned airborne telemetry relay system to augment the USAF Air Armament Center’s Eglin Gulf Range instrumentation resources. The system is designed to remotely autotrack and relay S-Band telemetry and VHF/UHF voice communications from test articles beyond the line-of-sight of land-based instrumentation. The system consists of a medium altitude/endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), a Mission Control Station, and a remotely operated telemetry/voice tracking and relay instrumentation suite. Successfully developed and deployed, the system will contribute to lower range costs while enhancing range instrumentation performance.