• SHF MULTIPATH CHANNEL MODELING RESULTS

      Rice, Michael; Lei, Qiang; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents the results of land-based SHF channel modeling experiments. Channel modeling data were collected at Edwards AFB, California at S-Band, X-Band and Ku-band. Frequency domain analysis techniques were used to evaluate candidate channel models. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed to search for the optimum channel parameters. The model parameters corresponding to different frequencies were compared for multipath events captured at approximately the same locations. A general trend was observed where the magnitude of the first multipath reflection decreased as frequency increased and the delay remained relatively unchanged.
    • WHY CHANGE FROM PCM? CASE STUDY OF THE AIRBUS A380 ETHERNET BASED DATA ACQUISITION NETWORK

      Sweeney, Paul; ACRA CONTROL Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The adaptation of ubiquitous Ethernet technology to airborne FTI systems is a relatively recent development, offering multiple advantages to FTI applications, including a high data throughput and ability to integrate COTS equipment with ease. For large-scale FTI applications – such as on the Airbus A380 - the use of traditional PCM based data acquisition systems results in enormously complex system architectures, with difficulties in system design, implementation, commissioning, test and maintenance. However, on the A380, the use of the Ethernet-based, IENA protocol alleviated these problems, in addition to offering several additional advantages. This paper explores the theoretical and practical implications of using Ethernet-based data acquisition in an FTI application, with direct comparison to an equivalent PCM based system.
    • BEST SOURCE SELECTORS AND MEASURING THE IMPROVEMENTS

      Gatton, Tim; Wyle Laboratories Telemetry and Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      After years of tracing the evolution and solutions to finding the best data, I learned that it isn’t best source selection that we all want. What we need is best data selection.
    • A ROBUST DIGITAL WIRELESS LINK FOR TACTICAL UAV’S

      Takacs, Edward; Durso, Christopher M.; Dirdo, David; Array Wireless; Pacific Microwave Research, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      A conventionally designed radio frequency amplifier operated in its linear region exhibits low DC to RF conversion efficiency. Typically, for a power amplifier designed for digital modulation applications, the amplifier is operated “backed-off” from its P1dB point by a factor of 10 or -10 dB. The typical linear amplifier is biased for either Class A or Class A/B operation depending on the acceptable design trade-offs between efficiency and linearity between these two methods. A novel design approach to increasing the efficiency of a linear RF power amplifier using a modified Odd-Way Doherty technique is presented in this paper. The design was simulated, built and then tested. The design yields improvements in efficiency and linearity.
    • PERFORMANCE TRADE-OFFS WHEN IMPLEMENTING TURBO PRODUCT CODE FORWARD ERROR CORRECTION FOR AIRBORNE TELEMETRY

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Hardware implementing forward error correction (FEC) is currently available for utilization by the airborne telemetry system designer. This paper will discuss the potential benefits along with drawbacks when using this technology. Laboratory testing is supplemented with real-world flight testing. Performance results comparing FEC and non-FEC systems are presented for both IRIG-106 Pulse Code Modulation/Frequency Modulation, PCM/FM, (or Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying, CPFSK, with filtering, or ARTM Tier 0) and Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, Telemetry Group version (SOQPSK-TG or ARTM Tier I) waveforms.
    • AN AIRCRAFT T&E METHODOLOGY BASED ON THE IEEE 1451 FAMILY OF STANDARDS

      Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Koola, Paul; Garner, Mark; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper describes a methodology for aircraft T&E processes that exploits the advantages of the IEEE 1451 family of standards, including the design, implementation, test, and maintenance of instrumentation systems. The methodology includes the use of handheld and desktop applications that support the design of sensor networks, commissioning of sensors, sensor health monitoring, sensor plug-and-play capability, alarm management, and reports. The methodology incorporates the use of existing instrumentation support systems that have traditionally been used for aircraft T&E processes.
    • CHALLENGES IN MONITORING MODERN INSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS

      Blott, Michaela; ACRA CONTROL LTD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The adoption of commercial off the shelf networks, such as Ethernet, FireWire and FibreChannel, within the avionics community has dramatically changed the architecture of avionics busses and instrumentation networks. Higher bandwidth links and unified interconnects simplify existing infrastructure and wiring. But due to their point-to-point nature, networking topologies are fundamentally different from systems built on legacy bus technologies such as CAIS and MIL-STD-1553. Switched networks and ring topologies pose various challenges for the implementation of network monitoring hardware, and affect the design of bus monitors and distributed data acquisition systems. This paper discusses some of these issues. In particular we address deployment issues, architectural choices such as pass-through versus tap approach, as well as handling of bandwidth requirements and complex communication protocols. We illustrate on the basis of a FireWire monitoring system how these obstacles have been overcome for one given application.
    • A Low Cost TDRSS Compatible Transmitter Option

      Whiteman, Don; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The NASA Space-based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) program has developed and tested a low cost Ku-Band transmitter alternative for TDRSS applications based on an existing IRIG shaped offset quaternary phase shift keying (SOQPSK) transmitter. This paper presents information related to the implementation of this low cost system, as well as performance measurements of the alternative TDRSS transmitter system compared with an existing QPSK TDRSS transmitter.
    • MICROCONTROLLER BASED PCM ENCODERS FOR TELEMETRY INSTRUMENTATION

      Borgen, Gary; US Navy (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Encoders used in Telemetry Instrumentation systems have traditionally been implemented using sequencer or state-machine based micro-architectures with distributed control and signal acquisition components. This architecture requires the use of many discrete electronic components and custom micro-code programming or state machine development for the control of the systems. The advent of relatively high-speed microcontrollers with embedded signal acquisition subsystems has brought about the ability to implement highly integrated PCM Encoder systems using fewer components and standardized programming methods. This paper will discuss sequencer based PCM encoders for background and then introduce the concept of Microcontroller Based PCM Encoders for Telemetry Instrumentation. Specific design examples will be introduced. Advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques will be discussed.
    • TRENDS IN COTS STORAGE SOLUTIONS FOR DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS

      Tsur, Ofer; M-Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper discusses data storage requirements for data acquisition systems, and evaluates the ability of three of the most popular COTS data storage solutions - mechanical disk, ruggedized mechanical disk and solid-state flash disk - to meet these requirements today and in the future. It addresses issues of capacity, data reliability, endurance, form factor, cost and security. It concludes with a discussion of trends to implement high-speed serial interfaces in data acquisition systems, and the challenges that these trends pose for COTS storage solutions.
    • CAN BUS USED FOR DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM CONTROLS (AUTOMOTIVE SOLUTION FOR AIRCRAFT PROBLEM)

      Johnson, Bruce; Smith, John; NAWCAD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper discusses using the CAN (Control Area Network) Bus protocol for control and status of flight test data acquisition systems. The application of the CAN (Control Area Network) on an F/A-18 aircraft will be discussed in detail.
    • A LOOK AT CELLULAR PACKET DATA PERFORMANCE FOR APPLICATION IN iNET

      Dean, Richard; Webley, Kayonne; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) environment is meant to build and improve on the existing unidirectional legacy telemetry links. The optimized network would have to be capable of providing bi-directional, spectrally efficient, reliable, dynamically allocated, real time or near real time access to video and other types of test data over a shared bandwidth, high capacity network. Developed specifically for providing a reliable means of communications for large numbers of users, cellular technology seems particularly suited to addressing iNET’s needs. This paper investigates the creation of a cellular model for enhanced throughput for data users wherein a user would dynamically be allocated high data rates dependent on parameters such as the received signal to noise ratio (SNR). Our future work will develop the average data performance, comparing both the time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) environments for potential application in iNET.
    • Implementation of IRIG-106-05 Chapter 10

      Lamphear, Eric; Berard, Alfredo J.; Campa, Raul; Wyzgowski, Tom; 46th Test Wing/ Flight Test Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      For the last 30 years Magnetic Tape Systems have been the primary means of recording data from airborne instrumentation systems. Increasing data rates and harsh environmental requirements have often exceeded the ability of tape-based systems to keep pace with technology. This paper examines operational and data reduction benefits when employing the IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Solid State Recorder Standard introduced by the Range Commanders Council (RCC) Telemetry Group (TG). This paper provides method of installation and retrofit of legacy recorders in F16, F15, A-10, and B-52 aircraft.
    • A FLEXIBLE DATA ACQUISITION, CONTROL AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR EXPERIMENTAL PAYLOADS

      Wilkins, Bryce; Erwin, Daniel A.; University of Southern California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Experimental science payloads vary greatly in design for the purpose of performing specialized tasks. As such, their supporting control, data acquisition and telemetry subsystems are often expensive custom designed units with specific abilities, thus limiting reuse. This paper presents a payload control, data acquisition and telemetry system capable of providing a range of functionality to science payloads as a consequence of its accommodating architecture, programmability, and physical modular design. Details of the system and its capabilities are presented followed by an actual configuration of the system as the backbone of a micro-electro-mechanical-systems technology demonstration payload designed for suborbital flight.
    • TELEMETRY GROUND STATION CONFIGURATION FOR THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION (JAMI) TIME SPACE POSITION INFORMATION (TSPI) UNIT (JTU)

      Meyer, Steven J.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Joint Advance Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) program has developed a Time Space Position Information (TSPI) unit (JTU). The JTU employs a novel use of GPS technology and inertial measurement units (IMU) to provide a real time trajectory for high dynamic missile systems. The GPS system can function during high g maneuvers that an air-to-air missile might encounter. The IMU is decoupled from the GPS sensor. The IMU data is a secondary navigation source for the JTU and will provide platform attitude. The GPS data and IMU data are sent to the ground in a telemetry packet called TUMS (TSPI Unit Message Structure). The TUMS packet is sent to a computer that hosts the JAMI Data Processing (JDP) software, which performs a Kalmam filter on the GPS and IMU data to provide a real-time TSPI solution to the range displays. This paper focuses on the equipment and software needed at a telemetry ground station to display the real time TPSI solution on the range displays. It includes an overview of the system data flow. This overview should help a potential user of the system understand what is involved in running the JAMI system. The post mission tools to provide an accurate trajectory and end-game scoring will not be discussed in this paper.
    • Relational Database for Visual Data Management

      Kosbar, Kurt; Lord, Dale; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Often it is necessary to retrieve segments of video with certain characteristics, or features, from a large archive of footage. This paper discusses how image processing algorithms can be used to automatically create a relational database, which indexes the video archive. This feature extraction can be performed either upon acquisition or in post processing. The database can then be queried to quickly locate and recover video segments with certain specified key features
    • The Integration of Ground-based Real-time Telemetry Processing, On-board Chapter 10 Aircraft Data Recorders, and 802.11G Links

      Dawson, Daniel M.; Wyle Laboratories, Telemetry and Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As part of the iNET Team’s plan to demonstrate to the validity and benefits of adding a network connection to a test vehicle, Wyle Laboratories Telemetry and Data Systems is developing a network-based command structure that allows ground-based users to request data previously archived on-board a test article in response to real-time data monitoring. This synthesis of real-time telemetry monitoring with traditional ground-based post-test data analysis provides flight test engineers with near real-time, error free data while the aircraft is on station. Additionally, this approach maximizes the use of available telemetry bandwidth by allowing users to dynamically request different data sets for downloading. This paper addresses the command structure of the interface; the utilization of IRIG 106 Chapter 10 data structures in a network environment, and provides performance metrics of the test case.
    • THE CTEIP TEST AND TRAINING ENABLING ARCHITECTURE, TENA, AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT IN REALIZING DOD TEST AND TRAINING RANGE INTEROPERABILITY

      Hudgins, B. Gene; Lucas, Jason; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      While military asset testing and training might be seen as complementary in supporting military prepareness, they cannot complement each other without an effective and efficient method of distributing data laterally across geographically separated data gathering, analysis, and display systems. This cost-effective integration of range data and telemetry resources is critical to ensuring the war worthiness of today’s advanced weapon systems such as the Joint Strike Fighter and the sensor and weapon platforms such as the highly sophisticated unmanned vehicles that are beginning to populate the air, land, and sea areas of operations. To ensure the advantages of range interoperability are available across the DoD Test and Training ranges, a Central Test and Evaluation Program (CTEIP) project has developed and is refining the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA). The core of TENA is the TENA Common Infrastructure, including the TENA Middleware and TENA Repository. The TENA Middleware is the high-performance, real-time, low-latency communication infrastructure used by range instrumentation software and tools during execution of a range event. The TENA Object Model enables semantic interoperability among range resource applications by encoding the information to be communicated among those range applications. It may be seen as a range community-wide set of interface and protocol definitions encapsulated in an object-oriented design. The TENA tools, utilities, and gateways assist the user in creating and managing an integration of range resources, as well as in optimizing the TENA Common Infrastructure. TENA has proven to be a critical enabler of distributed live exercises to include the U.S. Joint Forces Command’s Millennium Challenge 2002, two major Joint National Training Capability exercises in 2004, Cope Thunder 04-02, and Joint Roving Sands/Red Flag 2005. TENA, as integral part of range data systems, has become an important component in the realization of range interoperability.
    • A RELATIONAL APPROACH FOR MANAGING LARGE FLIGHT TEST PARAMETER LISTS

      Penna, Sérgio D.; Espeschit, Antônio Magno L.; EMBRAER Flight Test Engineering Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The number of aircraft parameters used in flight-testing has constantly increased over the years and there is no sign that situation will change in the near future. On the contrary, in modern, software-driven, digital avionic systems, all sorts of parameters circulate through digital buses and can be transferred to on-board data acquisition systems more easily than those converted from traditional analog transducers, facilitating the request for more and more parameters to be acquired, processed, visualized, stored and retrieved at any given time. The constant unbalance between what parameter quantity engineers believe to be “sufficient” for developing and troubleshooting systems in a new aircraft, which tends to grow with aircraft complexity, and the associated cost of instrumenting a test prototype accordingly, which tends to grow beyond budget limits, pushes for new creative ways of handling both tendencies without compromising the ease of performing an engineering analysis directly from flight test data. This paper presents an alternative for handling large collections of flight test parameters through a relational approach, particularly in two important scenarios: the very basic creation and administration of the traditional “Flight Test Parameter List” and the transmission of selected data over a telemetry link for visualization in a Ground Station.
    • THE DESIGN OF A 21st CENTURY TELEMTRY SYSTEM WITH SOQPSK MODULATION AND INTEGRATED CONTROL

      Wegener, John A.; Roche, Michael C.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper describes a telemetry system developed for the EA-18G Flight Test program. The program requires transmission of a number of data streams, in IRIG-106 Chapter 4 PCM, Chapter 8 Mux-All 1553, Ethernet, and Fibre Channel formats. The initial requested data rate was in excess of 30 Mbits/sec. The telemetry system must operate at a range up to about 120 miles, at several test ranges, and with several different aircraft maneuvering configurations. To achieve these requirements, the Flight Test Instrumentation group at Boeing Integrated Defense Systems in Saint Louis, developed a telemetry system in conjunction with industry partners and test range customers. The system transmits two telemetry streams with a total aggregate rate on the order of 20 Mbits/sec. Each telemetry stream consists of up to four PCM streams, combined in a Teletronics Technology Corporation (TTC) Miniature Adaptable Real-Time Multiplexer Unit (MARM) data combiner. It uses Nova Engineering multi-mode transmitters capable of transmitting PCM-FM or Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SOQPSK). The transmitter also provides Turbo-Product Code (TPC) Forward Error Correction (FEC) to enhance range and improve link performance. Data collection units purchased from outside vendors or developed by Saint Louis Flight Test Instrumentation, translate Ethernet and Fibre Channel information into traditional PCM streams. A Boeing Flight Test Instrumentation developed control system provides flexible selection of streams to be combined into each telemetry stream, and functional control of antenna selection and transmitter operation.