• Software Decommutation and Integration

      Guadiana, Juan; Benitez, Jesus; Pasillas, Roger; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Telemetry Data Center (TDC) at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico recently targeted analog best source selectors for replacement along with their associated signal handling equipments. The commercial selectors available offered no better performance, so TDC engineers circulated a "White Paper" on real time correlation based compositing. Within two years a Correlating Source Selector (CSS) was fielded successfully. The CSS’s bridging feature unexpectedly opened the door to a ubiqituous software decommutator (decom) that has catalyzed a complete “make-over” of the entire TDC architecture. Hardware and software interaction in a decom is different with the CSS. While performing its correlation tasks the CSS is able to provide raw data over TCP/IP directly to the end application. The CSS places the data in computer friendly frame aligned form and the decommutation may be performed in software. The converse is similarly simple, a data file maybe transferred to the CSS for commutation into PCM. This white paper describes the morphing of software decommutation into a commodity, integrated into each end device, be it graphics display, Disk or Chart recorder. The result is an interesting consolidation that spawns a new functionally integrated Telemetry Data Center ( iTDC). This integrated Display Decom (iDD) concept has been demonstrated on Apple G5 RISC computers.

      Portnoy, Michael; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Creating a generic, multi-vendor data exchange system for transmitting telemetry configurations between various systems is a daunting task. To date many different systems have been proposed including relational databases (RDBMS), TMATS, and several different XML schemas. Although many of these systems have been implemented, a complete, flexible solution has not been developed. This paper describes an implementation that is currently in use for exporting and importing a complete telemetry system via XML. Using this system, an engineer can import an entire telemetry configuration, a partial telemetry configuration, or even just a single measurement (parameter). As a result, the gap between user database systems and the airborne instrumentation vendor’s configuration software (IVCS) is seamlessly bridged. This provides many benefits including: the ability to rapidly change configurations, data entry error avoidance, version control, the protection of sensitive information, and configuration reusability. This system allows for the configuration of all aspects of the telemetry setup including data acquisition hardware, transmitters, ground stations, and recorders. In addition, the recorder settings and the definition of the data that are to be recorded are coupled and linked to the rest of the telemetry configuration, which facilitates future data recovery.

      Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Instrumentation recorders have evolved continuously over the years. Their growth has primarily been driven by technology advancements. The latest recording equipment generally utilizes hard disk, disk array, or solid-state storage technology, which results in greater capacity and performance. Most recorders integrate storage media with multiplexer electronics resulting in a highly efficient yet inflexible and physically large recording system. This paper describes an instrumentation multiplexer/recorder system using an open architecture between the multiplexer and the storage media that allows insertion of conventional recording technologies. This approach provides a generalized solution with enough flexibility and scalability to address the majority of instrumentation recording needs. This system is based on the latest IRIG-106 chapter 10 standard, thus supporting interoperability throughout the flight test community.

      Blott, Michaela; ACRA CONTROL LTD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The adoption of commercial off the shelf networks, such as Ethernet, FireWire and FibreChannel, within the avionics community has dramatically changed the architecture of avionics busses and instrumentation networks. Higher bandwidth links and unified interconnects simplify existing infrastructure and wiring. But due to their point-to-point nature, networking topologies are fundamentally different from systems built on legacy bus technologies such as CAIS and MIL-STD-1553. Switched networks and ring topologies pose various challenges for the implementation of network monitoring hardware, and affect the design of bus monitors and distributed data acquisition systems. This paper discusses some of these issues. In particular we address deployment issues, architectural choices such as pass-through versus tap approach, as well as handling of bandwidth requirements and complex communication protocols. We illustrate on the basis of a FireWire monitoring system how these obstacles have been overcome for one given application.

      Zhengxuan, Zhang; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The GPS receiver based on software radio technology is a kind of general purpose GPS signal processing platform which makes use of advanced design ideas and advanced design tools nowadays. We used FPGA device and lots of necessary peripherals such as DSP and PCI controller in our design to promote flexibility and practicability effectively. Various fast acquisition means and accurate tracking algorithms could be realized, improved and validated on this platform, besides basic GPS receiver function.

      Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) communication systems can have dramatically higher throughput than single-input, single-output systems. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to find the space-time codes these systems need to achieve their potential. Previously published results located good codes by minimizing the maximum correlation between transmitted signals. This paper shows how this min-max method may produce sub-optimal codes. A new method which sorts codes based on the union bound of pairwise error probabilities is presented. This new technique can identify superior MIMO codes, providing higher system throughput without increasing the transmitted power or bandwidth requirements.

      Wu, Hao; Zhong, Zhangdui; Bejing Jiaotong University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      In NGN, the open interfaces and the IP protocol make the hazard of security aspect increased accordingly. Thereby, it is a very important premise for NGN network operation to afford a good secure media stream communication. In this paper, we will present a secure media stream communication for NGN. Then we will discuss the three parts of the media stream secure communication——media stream source authentication, secret key negotiation and distribution; media stream encryption/decryption in detail. It can effectively realize media stream end-to-end secure communication. Meanwhile, it also makes use of the expanding of former protocol during the secret key negotiation process.

      Borgen, Gary; US Navy (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Encoders used in Telemetry Instrumentation systems have traditionally been implemented using sequencer or state-machine based micro-architectures with distributed control and signal acquisition components. This architecture requires the use of many discrete electronic components and custom micro-code programming or state machine development for the control of the systems. The advent of relatively high-speed microcontrollers with embedded signal acquisition subsystems has brought about the ability to implement highly integrated PCM Encoder systems using fewer components and standardized programming methods. This paper will discuss sequencer based PCM encoders for background and then introduce the concept of Microcontroller Based PCM Encoders for Telemetry Instrumentation. Specific design examples will be introduced. Advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques will be discussed.
    • An Ocean Stereo Telemetry System Based on PC104 Industrial Control Computer and Iridium Communication

      Jiehua, Liu; Dongkai, Yang; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      To monitor ocean resources and environment, we develop an ocean stereo telemetry system built on a PC104 industrial control computer, which is carried by a buoy on the ocean. All monitoring instruments communicate with the computer by six serial ports in virtue of time division multiple access and are synchronized by GPS time to collect data. All monitoring data is archived and compressed in format of RINEX (Receiver Independent Exchange). The uploading data and downloading control command to and from monitoring center is transferred by Iridium communication in automatic retransmission request and broken-point continuing mechanism.

      Tsur, Ofer; M-Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper discusses data storage requirements for data acquisition systems, and evaluates the ability of three of the most popular COTS data storage solutions - mechanical disk, ruggedized mechanical disk and solid-state flash disk - to meet these requirements today and in the future. It addresses issues of capacity, data reliability, endurance, form factor, cost and security. It concludes with a discussion of trends to implement high-speed serial interfaces in data acquisition systems, and the challenges that these trends pose for COTS storage solutions.

      Kim, Sung-Wan; Hwang, Soo-Sul; Lee, Jae-Deuk; Korea Aerospace Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents the dynamic RF link estimation result for telemetry system of KSLV (Korea Space Launch Vehicle)-I. In particular, it utilizes the parameters of the instantaneous vehicle antenna gain pattern in three dimensions, the improvement by polarization diversity combiner at the ground receiver, and the free space propagation loss. The structural transformation and discontinuity of ground plane after the separation events of nose fairing, stage, and spacecraft, are also included in this analysis. As a consequence, the prediction of link variation has been performed in accordance with ARDP (Antenna Radiation Distribution Plot) and look angle trace of vehicle. In addition, the optimum position of onboard antennas has been investigated to provide better RF link margin in the nominal trajectory.

      Nelson, Tom; Rice, Michael; Jensen, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      When using two antennas to transmit telemetry from an airborne platform, self interference results when both transmit antennae are visible to the receive antenna. This self interference can lead to link outages and severe distortion, especially as data rates increase above 5 Mbits/sec. Space-time coding can be used to provide transmit diversity to overcome this self interference problem. This paper describes the results of experiments (conducted at Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA) using FQPSK-JR waveforms coded with ARTM Tier-1 Space-Time Block Code.

      Thomas, Tim; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Telemetry Group (TG) of the Range Commanders Council (RCC) developed the Chapter 10 addition to the IRIG 106 standard to “establish a common interface standard for the implementation of solid-state digital data acquisition and on-board recording systems” ([1]). This standard is intended to allow the development of a common set of data playback/reduction software, minimizing the need for a large number of unique programs to handle proprietary data structures. This paper analyzes the Chapter 10 standard from a data processing perspective, providing insight into the benefits and challenges developers will face when writing Chapter 10 software.

      Lamphear, Eric; Berard, Alfredo J.; Klein, Lorin D.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Range Commanders Council (RCC) Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Chapter 10 (CH 10) Solid State recording standard has made the possibility of large scale interoperability between ranges, test and operational communities, and maintenance a reality. The standard allows for software and hardware playback/analysis tools to be created that will work seamlessly with any IRIG-106 CH 10 compliant recorder. Incorporation of a standard also allows the same recorder to record Video, Audio as well as data from MIL-STD-1553 busses and instrumentation data (PCM, UART, etc.). The IRIG-106 CH 10 standard provides enormous benefits for its users, but without a fully compliant IRIG-106 CH 10 recorder, these benefits cannot be realized.

      Meyer, Steven J.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Joint Advance Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) program has developed a Time Space Position Information (TSPI) unit (JTU). The JTU employs a novel use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and inertial measurement units (IMU) to provide a real time trajectory for high dynamic missile systems. The GPS system can function during high g maneuvers that an air-to-air missile might encounter. The IMU is decoupled from the GPS sensor. The IMU data is a secondary navigation source for the JTU and will provide platform attitude. The GPS data and IMU data are sent to the ground in telemetry packet called TSPI Unit Message Structure (TUMS). The TUMS packet is sent to a computer that hosts the JAMI Data Processing (JDP) software, which performs a Kalmam filter on the GPS and IMU data to provide a real time TSPI solution to the range displays. The packetized TUMS data is available in three different output formats: RS-232 serial data, 16-bit parallel and PCM. This paper focuses on how to integrate the JTU into a telemetry system, use it as a standalone system, and provides examples of possible uses.
    • Common Electrical Block CMOS-Based MEMS Sensors for Embedded Instrumentation

      D’Amico, William; Rebello, Keith J.; Park, Rudolph V.; Fedder, Gary K.; The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory; Carnegie Mellon University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As the need for embedded instrumentation (EI) grows in the military community, unique telemetry and sensor suites will be required. The typical path for combining sensors and telemetry is to select the packaged sensors for the required measurements and then to configure a separately packaged telemetry device. Today since die level telemetry systems are emerging, it should be considered that sensor suites are integrated at the die level with the telemetry components into a miniature and low power EI system.

      Ali, Tariq M.; Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; University of Texas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper describes and interference cancellation technique appropriate for ARTM Tier-1 waveforms. The technique requires the estimators for the bit sequences for the adjacent channels as well as the power levels of the adjacent channels. Simulation results show that the interference canceller allows a more dense “channel packing” thereby creating a channel utilization 67% ~ 100% greater than the current IRIG 106 recommendations.
    • Data, Information, and Knowledge Management

      Harley, Samuel; Reil, Michael; Blunt-Henderson, Thea; Bartlett, George; Aberdeen Test Center; SFA Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Aberdeen Test Center Versatile Information System – Integrated, ONline (VISION) project has developed and deployed a telemetry capability based upon modular instrumentation, seamless communications, and the VISION Digital Library. Each of the three key elements of VISION contributes to a holistic solution to the data collection, distribution, and management requirements of Test and Evaluation. This paper provides an overview of VISION instrumentation, communications, and overall data management technologies, with a focus on engineering performance data.

      Henderson, Landon; Perez, Miguel (Mike); Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      During the era 2000-2002, the U.S. Air Force C-17 Follow-on Flight Test Program (FOFTP) transitioned to total bulk data collection employing the Veridian OMEGA™ Intelligent Multiplexer (IMUX) and associated Series 3000 Telemetry Processor. Advanced planning for the data management was deficient; engineers and analysts were overwhelmed by the actual quantity of instrumentation data collected, at a rate of 2- to 3-gigabytes per flight test hour. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the Test Director initiated comprehensive planning for management of the C-17 data elements. Including the bulk instrumentation data collected, this plan also addressed the management of programmatic information and correlation from the test definition program phase through the archiving of test reporting Information. The envisioned end-state of the C-17 test data archive effort, also referred to as the C-17 Enterprise Test Data Management System (ETDMS), seeks to provide the C-17 Test Team with cradle-to-grave data management at a level unprecedented in the flight test community and is described herein. Once funding was received, the C-17 Integrated Product Team (IPT) has aggressively moved into deploying the C-17 ETDMS at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Five modest objectives were set for the effort at initiation; these were: 􀂉 Objective 1: Establish C-17 Technical Library; Complete Deployment of LiveLink Distribution System 􀂉 Objective 2: Improve Data Analysis (Telemetry) Toolset and Products; Train Users 􀂉 Objective 3: Modernize Legacy Databases/Applications (Measurands, Calibrations, Generation of the Test Parameter Requirements [TPR] Document) 􀂉 Objective 4: Fix the Test Planning and Test Point Tracking User Interface 􀂉 Objective 5: Implement the Approved ETDMS Framework The C-17 ETDMS will link the many geographically separated users of C-17 test results in near real-time. Thus, providing the program decision-makers with the information required to support the current worldwide combat operations tempo by joint force elements as exhibited during the recent deployments and sustainment of operations in the Southwest Asian AOR. Collaterally, the C-17 ETDMS will support the efforts of our co-located NASA-Dryden colleagues seeking to improve the abilities of our National Airspace System (NAS) to support industry initiatives such as aircraft health monitoring and “call-ahead” maintenance planning. Currently ahead of schedule and within projected costs boundaries, the C-17 ETDMS will provide government off-the-shelf (GOTS)/commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions to the C- 17 test community during FY 2005.

      Dean, Richard; Babalola, Olusola; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      In the iNET community, communications between Test Articles (TA) and Ground Station (GS) can be over a long distance course that places a TA at ranges where they are sometimes beyond line-of-sight (LoS) or over-the-horizon communications with the GS. In other cases, the TA moves out of the LoS communications range of GS. There is a need to provide communications to these TA at these over-the-horizon locations. The Cellular and Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) have attracted a lot of attention recently and the field continues to grow daily. The cellular network offers high capacity but limited in coverage due to its fixed base infrastructure. MANET on the other hand has a wide range of coverage and also high data rates, but its throughput performance is reduced at high capacity. The MANET cellular mixture network (MCMN) has been proposed to provide an extensive communications between the TA and GS in the iNET environment. This work presents a performance evaluation and analysis of the two different networks with respect to the performance needs of iNET environment which include coverage and throughput.