Nelson, Tom; Rice, Michael; Jensen, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      When using two antennas to transmit telemetry from an airborne platform, self interference results when both transmit antennae are visible to the receive antenna. This self interference can lead to link outages and severe distortion, especially as data rates increase above 5 Mbits/sec. Space-time coding can be used to provide transmit diversity to overcome this self interference problem. This paper describes the results of experiments (conducted at Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA) using FQPSK-JR waveforms coded with ARTM Tier-1 Space-Time Block Code.

      Rice, Michael; Lei, Qiang; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents the results of land-based SHF channel modeling experiments. Channel modeling data were collected at Edwards AFB, California at S-Band, X-Band and Ku-band. Frequency domain analysis techniques were used to evaluate candidate channel models. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed to search for the optimum channel parameters. The model parameters corresponding to different frequencies were compared for multipath events captured at approximately the same locations. A general trend was observed where the magnitude of the first multipath reflection decreased as frequency increased and the delay remained relatively unchanged.

      Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) communication systems can have dramatically higher throughput than single-input, single-output systems. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to find the space-time codes these systems need to achieve their potential. Previously published results located good codes by minimizing the maximum correlation between transmitted signals. This paper shows how this min-max method may produce sub-optimal codes. A new method which sorts codes based on the union bound of pairwise error probabilities is presented. This new technique can identify superior MIMO codes, providing higher system throughput without increasing the transmitted power or bandwidth requirements.

      Ali, Tariq M.; Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; University of Texas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper describes and interference cancellation technique appropriate for ARTM Tier-1 waveforms. The technique requires the estimators for the bit sequences for the adjacent channels as well as the power levels of the adjacent channels. Simulation results show that the interference canceller allows a more dense “channel packing” thereby creating a channel utilization 67% ~ 100% greater than the current IRIG 106 recommendations.

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Hardware implementing forward error correction (FEC) is currently available for utilization by the airborne telemetry system designer. This paper will discuss the potential benefits along with drawbacks when using this technology. Laboratory testing is supplemented with real-world flight testing. Performance results comparing FEC and non-FEC systems are presented for both IRIG-106 Pulse Code Modulation/Frequency Modulation, PCM/FM, (or Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying, CPFSK, with filtering, or ARTM Tier 0) and Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, Telemetry Group version (SOQPSK-TG or ARTM Tier I) waveforms.

      Mayer, Gerhard; Hinterseer, Martin; Wegscheider, Christoph; University of Salzburg (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Research on earthquakes and volcanos is of particular importance in seismic instable regions. To improve opportunities of research and civil defence, continuous coverage of seismic activities of a large area at a certain time is necessary. This paper deals with the issues concerning the collecting of environmental data by a number of autonomous field stations and their transmission to central station through a cost effective low bandwidth packer radio data network. This paper deals with the acquisition, preprocessing and transmission of seismic data. Therefore, a prototype system is discussed, which will be developed at the University of Salzburg, Austria.
    • Using GPS for TSPI and Flight Termination Capabilities of a Missile Telemetry Section

      Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Fielder, Russell G.; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) Program involves the integration of Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking technology into the Test Ranges. GPS Technology will be used for Time, Space, and Position Information (TSPI) as well as Flight Termination purposes. JAMI is currently developing the JAMI TSPI Unit (JTU) and the Flight Termination Safe & Arm (FTS&A) devices. This paper will discuss the current efforts to integrate these JAMI components, off the shelf items (Flight Termination Receivers (FTR), Telemetry Transmitters, Encryptor and Thermal Batteries) and in-house developed devices (PCM Encoder, Tri-band Antenna with integrated Limiter, Filter, and Amplifier) into a five-inch diameter Missile Telemetry (TM) Section. The discussion of the transmission of the data and how the Test Ranges process it is beyond the scope of this paper and is covered in [1].

      Flyash, Boris; Platovskiy, Steve; Cantatore, Dominick; Picatinny Arsenal (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      For years, ballisticians have been studying the phenomena associated with cannon launched projectiles. In particular, is the study of the pressure internal to the cannon and about the base of the projectile during cannon launch through muzzle exit. Pressure on the base is thought to be uniform and therefore hydrostatic, even though there are undulations in the magnitude of the pressure from the burning propellant. This paper studies various phenomena of the launching of 155-mm artillery projectiles with slip band obturators. Specifically, pressure gradients in and around the base and pressure along the body caused by obturator “blow-by” during the interior ballistic flight and muzzle exit. This study is accomplished by use of two different types of Instrumented Ballistic Test Projectiles (IBTP). The objective of tests performed was to successfully capture pressure and acceleration live data which will be used to characterize the localized base and body pressurization on a 155-mm artillery cannon launched projectile. The telemetry system used for these tests was the ARRT-124 telemetry system provided by the Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, specifically the Precision Munitions Instrumentation Division. The telemetry system used for the IBTP employs a traditional FM/FM technique for monitoring and transmitting a number of analog channels. Preliminary captured data indicated localized fluctuations in pressure that are not uniform over the base and the projectile body. Further studying of the data may provide insight into other projectile dynamics such as fin deployment, set forward accelerations at muzzle exit, and obturator performance.

      Oder, Stephen; Dearstine, Christina; Muir, John; Semuskie, Stephen; Fratta, Ralph; DiCristina, Stephen; M/A-COM, Inc.; Raytheon Missile Systems; U.S. Army Research Development Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      A miniature 1 Watt Tactical Telemetry Module (TTM) has been developed for the Excalibur projectile program. The TTM incorporates a multi-channel PCM encoder, lower S-band transmitter, and power regulation onto a single printed wiring board (PWB). The PCM encoder is designed for eight (8) analog inputs, four (4) discrete inputs, and one (1) synchronous RS-422 serial interface, with a total data rate of 1 Mbps. The module incorporates a digitally programmable, phase-locked FM S-band transmitter. The transmitter utilizes M/A-COM’s new dual port VCO and a high efficiency 2 W power amplifier MMIC. Additionally, switching power regulation circuits were implemented within the module to provide maximum operating efficiency. This paper reviews the environmental requirements of Excalibur, the design of the Excalibur TTM, and presents electrical and air-gun test data.

      Carpenter, Robert E.; Schneider, Dennis; ATSS, Inc.; U.S. Army Program Executive Office for Simulation Training, & Instumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Embedded Instrumentation (EI) and Non-Intrusive Instrumentation (NII) integrates data collection and processing capabilities into the design of a system for diagnostics, prognostics, testing, and training. EI and NII will provide decision makers with the data needed to adequately describe performance and mitigate risks throughout a programs lifecycle. DoD weapon systems have become very complex, with intricate electronics and guidance requirements to meet the mission. Many platforms, such as Army munitions, no longer have the internal space to append instrumentation after they are sent for testing, yet the data needs from a complex weapon system have increased, with the need to understand the operational health and characteristics of many sophisticated electronics systems within the weapon system. Furthermore, the developer must ensure the platform used for test or for training is representative of the full up tactical system to retain integrity. Recent implementation of policy changes will allow responsible activities to have test, training and logistical resources shared at the program concept and maintain the integrity of lifecycle requirements. To assure success, EI/NII must be planned for at the beginning of the acquisition phase, with capabilities needed and costs / benefits considered. There have been significant advances in miniaturized telemetry and instrumentation technology, such as ASIC based transmitters and encoders, however there are still needed improvements to reduce the size and cost of embedded instrumentation components. Failing to continue to foster the on-going development of EI/NII technologies, and failing to foster the incorporation of such systems into new weapons could ultimately hinder the success of initiatives such as Army transformation and could certainly raise the costs associated with development, fielding, and operation of complex weapons.
    • The Integration of Ground-based Real-time Telemetry Processing, On-board Chapter 10 Aircraft Data Recorders, and 802.11G Links

      Dawson, Daniel M.; Wyle Laboratories, Telemetry and Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As part of the iNET Team’s plan to demonstrate to the validity and benefits of adding a network connection to a test vehicle, Wyle Laboratories Telemetry and Data Systems is developing a network-based command structure that allows ground-based users to request data previously archived on-board a test article in response to real-time data monitoring. This synthesis of real-time telemetry monitoring with traditional ground-based post-test data analysis provides flight test engineers with near real-time, error free data while the aircraft is on station. Additionally, this approach maximizes the use of available telemetry bandwidth by allowing users to dynamically request different data sets for downloading. This paper addresses the command structure of the interface; the utilization of IRIG 106 Chapter 10 data structures in a network environment, and provides performance metrics of the test case.

      Wu, Zhenyu; Bilgin, Ali; Marcellin, Michael W.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      A practical joint source/channel coding algorithm is proposed for the transmission of multiple images and videos to reduce the overall reconstructed source distortion at the receiver within a given total bit rate. It is demonstrated that by joint coding of multiple sources with such an objective, both improved distortion performance as well as reduced quality variation can be achieved at the same time. Experimental results based on multiple images and video sequences justify our conclusion.
    • Integration of Smart Sensor Buses into Distributed Data Acquisition Systems

      Dehmelt, Chris; L3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As requirements for the amount of test data continues to increase, instrumentation engineers are under pressure to deploy data acquisition systems that reduce the amount of associated wiring and overall system complexity. Smart sensor buses have been long considered as one approach to address this issue by placing the appropriate signal conditioners close to their respective sensors and providing data back over a common bus. However, the inability to adequately synchronize the operation of the sensor bus to the system master, which is required to correlate analog data measurements, has precluded their use. The ongoing development and deployment of smart sensor buses has reached the phase in which integration into a larger data acquisition system environment must be considered. Smart sensor buses, such as IntelliBus™, have their own unique mode of operation based on a pre-determined sampling schedule, which however, is typically asynchronous to the operation of the (master or controller) data acquisition system and must be accounted for when attempting to synchronize the two systems. IRIG Chapter 4 type methods for inserting data into a format, as exemplified by the handling of MIL-STD-1553 data, could be employed, with the disadvantage of eliminating any knowledge as to when a particular measurement was sampled, unless it is time stamped (similar to the time stamping function that is provided to mark receipt of 1553 command words). This can result in excessive time data as each sensor bus can manage a large number of analog sensor inputs and multiple sensor buses must be accommodated by the data acquisition system. The paper provides an example, using the Boeing developed IntelliBus system and the L3 Communications - Telemetry East NetDAS system, of how correlated data can be acquired from a smart sensor bus as a major subsystem component of a larger integrated data acquisition system. The focus will be specifically on how the IntelliBus schedule can be synchronized to that of the NetDAS formatter. Sample formats will be provided along with a description of how a standalone NetDAS stack and an integrated NetDAS-IntelliBus system would be programmed to create the required output, taking into account the unique sampling characteristics of the sensor bus.

      Varaprasad, K. S.; Murthy, K. S. R.; Defense Research & Development Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The terminal phase telemetry data acquisition has always been a challenging task especially for long and medium range test launches. The task becomes more complicated if the article under test describes a very low altitude cruise terminal phase trajectory. Generally, for long and medium range missions test fired into sea the terminal phase data is acquired by deploying instrumented ships in the vicinity of impact point but beyond the safety corridor. But for long range missions with low altitude cruise terminal phase trajectory and wide safety corridor this conventional approach will not work out because of limitation of LOS from the ship platforms. Hence, for such applications an air borne telemetry receiving system is also to be added to the down range instrumentation network. This paper describes a typical and cost effective air borne system realized utilizing the Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) products and technology. This paper also addresses as to how the signal scattering problems are tackled in the design implementation.

      Potter, Christopher G.; Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; Weeks, William; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      To correctly demodulate a signal sent through a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel, a receiver may use training to learn the channel parameters. The choice of training parameters can significantly impact system performance. Training too often yields low throughput while training infrequently produces poor channel estimates and increased transmission errors. Previous work on optimal training parameters has focused on the block fading Rayleigh model. This work examines a more general case; finding the training parameters that maximize throughput for a continuously varying channel. Training parameters that maximize a lower bound on channel capacity are determined via simulation, and general guidelines are presented for selecting optimal training parameters.

      Rice, Michael; Wardle, Mason; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The PAM representation was used to formulate a reduced-complexity detector for the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) whose performance is 5.6 dB better than limiter-discriminator detection when no phase noise is present and 3.4 dB better in the presence of expected phase noise in EFTS.

      Reiter, Mac; Jones, Charles H.; Nomadics, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents methods of using standard PDAs, smart sensors, XML-based network and user interface descriptions, and graphical sensor network management to provide an installationto- use workflow. Techniques discussed will include: methods of providing additional capabilities to PDAs, methods of automatically constructing user interfaces based on constraints and requirements from both the sensor descriptions and the PDA capabilities description, and methods of providing more natural selection of sensors for test setup.
    • Common Electrical Block CMOS-Based MEMS Sensors for Embedded Instrumentation

      D’Amico, William; Rebello, Keith J.; Park, Rudolph V.; Fedder, Gary K.; The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory; Carnegie Mellon University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As the need for embedded instrumentation (EI) grows in the military community, unique telemetry and sensor suites will be required. The typical path for combining sensors and telemetry is to select the packaged sensors for the required measurements and then to configure a separately packaged telemetry device. Today since die level telemetry systems are emerging, it should be considered that sensor suites are integrated at the die level with the telemetry components into a miniature and low power EI system.

      Nam, Ju-Hun; Choi, Byeong-Doo; Ko, Sung-Jea; Kim, Bok-Ki; Lee, Woon-Moon; Lee, Nam-Sik; Yu, Jea-Taeg; Korea University; Danam Systems Corporation; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      In this paper, we present an efficient real-time implementation technique for Motion-JPEG2000 video compression and its reconstruction used for a real-time Airborne Video Telemetry System. we utilize Motion JPEG2000 and 256-channel PCM Encoder was used for source coding in the developed system. Especially, in multiplexing and demultiplexing PCM encoded data, we use the continuous bit-stream format of the PCM encoded data so that any de-commutator can use it directly, after demultiplexing. Experimental results show that our proposed technique is a practical and an efficient DSP solution.

      Jones, Charles H.; Jensen, Michael; Edwards Air Force Base; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As part of the ongoing effort to increase the efficiency of telemetry, a research grant through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) was initiated to look at the development of multi-band transmitters. During this research, ideas about improvements from dual antennae transmission were also pursued. The multi-band related work subsequently transitioned to a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) effort and a commercial product. The dual antennae research led to a Science and Technology/Test and Evaluation (S&T T&E) project and is currently being developed under the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP). This paper overviews the technologies involved and the process of working a pure research effort through various cycles of development and funding.