• ACCEPTANCE TESTING PROCEDURE (ATP) COMPLIANCE TESTING OF IRIG-106 CHAPTER 10 RECORDERS

      Lamphear, Eric; Berard, Alfredo J.; Klein, Lorin D.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Range Commanders Council (RCC) Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Chapter 10 (CH 10) Solid State recording standard has made the possibility of large scale interoperability between ranges, test and operational communities, and maintenance a reality. The standard allows for software and hardware playback/analysis tools to be created that will work seamlessly with any IRIG-106 CH 10 compliant recorder. Incorporation of a standard also allows the same recorder to record Video, Audio as well as data from MIL-STD-1553 busses and instrumentation data (PCM, UART, etc.). The IRIG-106 CH 10 standard provides enormous benefits for its users, but without a fully compliant IRIG-106 CH 10 recorder, these benefits cannot be realized.
    • SERIALLY CONCATENATED ARTM TIER I WAVEFORMS WITH ITERATIVE DETECTION

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      We investigate the performance of Feher-patented quadrature phase-shift keying (FQPSK) and shaped-offset QPSK (SOQPSK) when serially concatenated with an outer code. We show that the receiver complexity for FQPSK and SOQPSK can be greatly reduced by viewing them as continuous phase modulation (CPM) waveforms. We use the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) representation of CPM, which allows near-optimum detection of both modulations using a simple 4-state trellis. We compare the performance of the PAM-based approximation with another common approximation known as frequency/phase pulse truncation (PT).We use both of these reduced-complexity designs in serially concatenated coding schemes with iterative detection. In the end, we show that the PAM approximation has a slight performance advantage over PT, but both approximations achieve large coding gains in the proposed serially concatenated systems.
    • REDUCTION AND ANALYSIS PROGRAM FOR TELEMETRY RECORDINGS (RAPTR): ANALYSIS AND DECOMMUTATION SOFTWARE FOR IRIG 106 CHAPTER 10 DATA

      Kim, Jeong Min; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Solid State On-Board Recording is becoming a revolutionary way of recording airborne telemetry data and IRIG 106 Chapter 10 “Solid State On-Board Recorder Standard” provides interface documentation for solid state digital data acquisition. The Reduction and Analysis Program for Telemetry Recordings (RAPTR) is a standardized and extensible software application developed by the 96th Communications Group, Test and Analysis Division, at Eglin AFB, and provides a data reduction capability for disk files in Chapter 10 format. This paper provides the system description and software architecture of RAPTR and presents the 96th Communication Group’s total solution for Chapter 10 telemetry data reduction.
    • DATA COMMUNICATIONS OVER AIRCRAFT POWER LINES

      Tian, Hai; Trojak, Tom; Jones, Charles; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper introduces a study of the feasibility and initial hardware design for transmitting data over aircraft power lines. The intent of this design is to significantly reduce the wiring in the aircraft instrumentation system. The potential usages of this technology include Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) or clock distribution. Aircraft power lines channel characteristics are presented and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is introduced as an attractive modulation scheme for high-speed power line transmission. A design of a full-duplex transceiver with accurate frequency planning is then discussed. A general discussion of what communications protocols are appropriate for this technology is also provided.
    • Implementation of IRIG-106-05 Chapter 10

      Lamphear, Eric; Berard, Alfredo J.; Campa, Raul; Wyzgowski, Tom; 46th Test Wing/ Flight Test Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      For the last 30 years Magnetic Tape Systems have been the primary means of recording data from airborne instrumentation systems. Increasing data rates and harsh environmental requirements have often exceeded the ability of tape-based systems to keep pace with technology. This paper examines operational and data reduction benefits when employing the IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Solid State Recorder Standard introduced by the Range Commanders Council (RCC) Telemetry Group (TG). This paper provides method of installation and retrofit of legacy recorders in F16, F15, A-10, and B-52 aircraft.
    • COMMON DETECTORS FOR TIER 1 MODULATIONS

      Nelson, Tom; Perrins, Erik; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The ARTM Tier 1 waveforms include two versions of Feher patented QPSK (FQPSK-B and FQPSK-JR) and a version of shaped offset QPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In this paper we examine three common detector architectures for the ARTM Tier 1 modulations: a symbol-by-symbol detector, a cross correlated trellis coded modulation (XTCQM) detector, and a continuous phase modulation (CPM) detector. We show that when used to detect Tier 1 modulations, these detectors perform well even without knowledge of the modulation used by the transmitter. The common symbol-by-symbol detector suffers a loss of 1.5 dB for SOQPSK-TG and 1.6 dB for FQPSK-JR in bit error rate performance relative to the theoretical optimum for these modulations. The common XTCQM detector provides a bit error rate performance that is 0.1 dB worse than optimum for SOQPSK-TG and that matches optimum performance for FQPSK-JR. The common CPM detector achieves a bit error rate performance that is 0.25 dB worse than optimum for SOQPSK-TG and that approximately matches optimum for FQPSK-JR. The common XTCQM detector provides the best bit error rate performance, but this detector also has the highest complexity.
    • A ROBUST DIGITAL WIRELESS LINK FOR TACTICAL UAV’S

      Takacs, Edward; Durso, Christopher M.; Dirdo, David; Array Wireless; Pacific Microwave Research, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      A conventionally designed radio frequency amplifier operated in its linear region exhibits low DC to RF conversion efficiency. Typically, for a power amplifier designed for digital modulation applications, the amplifier is operated “backed-off” from its P1dB point by a factor of 10 or -10 dB. The typical linear amplifier is biased for either Class A or Class A/B operation depending on the acceptable design trade-offs between efficiency and linearity between these two methods. A novel design approach to increasing the efficiency of a linear RF power amplifier using a modified Odd-Way Doherty technique is presented in this paper. The design was simulated, built and then tested. The design yields improvements in efficiency and linearity.
    • TELEMETRY GROUND STATION CONFIGURATION FOR THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION (JAMI) TIME SPACE POSITION INFORMATION (TSPI) UNIT (JTU)

      Meyer, Steven J.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Joint Advance Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) program has developed a Time Space Position Information (TSPI) unit (JTU). The JTU employs a novel use of GPS technology and inertial measurement units (IMU) to provide a real time trajectory for high dynamic missile systems. The GPS system can function during high g maneuvers that an air-to-air missile might encounter. The IMU is decoupled from the GPS sensor. The IMU data is a secondary navigation source for the JTU and will provide platform attitude. The GPS data and IMU data are sent to the ground in a telemetry packet called TUMS (TSPI Unit Message Structure). The TUMS packet is sent to a computer that hosts the JAMI Data Processing (JDP) software, which performs a Kalmam filter on the GPS and IMU data to provide a real-time TSPI solution to the range displays. This paper focuses on the equipment and software needed at a telemetry ground station to display the real time TPSI solution on the range displays. It includes an overview of the system data flow. This overview should help a potential user of the system understand what is involved in running the JAMI system. The post mission tools to provide an accurate trajectory and end-game scoring will not be discussed in this paper.
    • ADVANCED DISTRIBUTED WIDEBAND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Wideband data acquisition units have been used as part of an instrumentation system for several decades. Historically, these units operated asynchronously from each other, and from the rest of the instrumentation system when installed on the same test vehicle. When many wideband units are required to slave their formats or sampling rate to the test vehicle’s event of interest such as external computer event clock, radar, or laser pulse train; few solutions were available. Additionally, a single test vehicle may use ten to thirty wideband units operating at up to 20 Mbps each. Such systems present a challenge to the instrumentation engineers to synchronize, transmit safety of flight information, and record. This paper will examine a distributed wideband data acquisition system in which each acquisition unit operates under its own data rate and format, yet remains fully synchronized to an external fixed or variable simultaneous sampling rate to provide total system coherency. The system aggregate rate can be as low as a few Mbps to as high as 1 Gbps. Data acquired from the acquisition units is further multiplexed per IRIG-106 chapter 10 using distributed data multiplexers for recording.
    • MERGING TELEMETRY DATA FROM MULTIPLE RECEIVERS

      Wilson, Michael J.; US Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Multiple receiver telemetry systems are common in the aeroballistics test and evaluation community. These systems typically record telemetry data independently, requiring post-flight data processing to produce the most accurate combination of the available data. This paper addresses the issues of time synchronization between multiple data sources and determination of the best choice for each data word. Additional filtering is also developed for the case when all available data are corrupted. The performance of the proposed algorithms is presented.
    • OPTIMAL TRAINING PARAMETERS FOR CONTINUOUSLY VARYING MIMO CHANNELS

      Potter, Christopher G.; Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; Weeks, William; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      To correctly demodulate a signal sent through a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel, a receiver may use training to learn the channel parameters. The choice of training parameters can significantly impact system performance. Training too often yields low throughput while training infrequently produces poor channel estimates and increased transmission errors. Previous work on optimal training parameters has focused on the block fading Rayleigh model. This work examines a more general case; finding the training parameters that maximize throughput for a continuously varying channel. Training parameters that maximize a lower bound on channel capacity are determined via simulation, and general guidelines are presented for selecting optimal training parameters.
    • EFTS RECEIVER WITH IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

      Rice, Michael; Wardle, Mason; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The PAM representation was used to formulate a reduced-complexity detector for the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) whose performance is 5.6 dB better than limiter-discriminator detection when no phase noise is present and 3.4 dB better in the presence of expected phase noise in EFTS.
    • TELEMETRY IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: A SUCCESS STORY

      Jones, Charles H.; Jensen, Michael; Edwards Air Force Base; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As part of the ongoing effort to increase the efficiency of telemetry, a research grant through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) was initiated to look at the development of multi-band transmitters. During this research, ideas about improvements from dual antennae transmission were also pursued. The multi-band related work subsequently transitioned to a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) effort and a commercial product. The dual antennae research led to a Science and Technology/Test and Evaluation (S&T T&E) project and is currently being developed under the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP). This paper overviews the technologies involved and the process of working a pure research effort through various cycles of development and funding.
    • Acoustic Telemetry for UUVs using Walsh/m-sequence Waveforms

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Underwater acoustic (UWA) telemetry requires wideband waveforms for anti-multipath which are simultaneously easy to equalize and demodulate. The Walsh/m-sequence waveforms proposed here are robust to multipath and with appropriate time-guard bands do not require equalization. For example, in the UCSB prototype acoustic modem, a data rate of 133 bps is achieved using 8-ary Walsh signaling with an 11.2 msec. symbol duration. Demodulation is performed using noncoherent detection, and hence accurate phase tracking, which is difficult to achieve in the UWA channel, is not required. However, telemetry from unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is more problematic due to large Doppler shifts resulting from platform motion. A new receiver algorithm based on Matching Pursuits is proposed which combines channel and Doppler shift estimation. Symbol-error rate (SER) simulation results are presented for the UWA modem under realistic Doppler/multipath conditions.
    • RECONFIGURABLE PATCH ANTENNA FOR FREQUENCY DIVERSITY WITH HIGH FREQUENCY RATIO (1.6:1)

      Jung, Chang won; Lee, Ming-jer; Liu, Sunan; Li, G. P.; De Flaviis, Franco; University of California, Irvine (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Reconfigurable patch antenna integrated with RF mircoelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna radiates circularly polarized wave at selectable dual frequencies (4.7 GHz and 7.5GHz) of high frequency ratio (1.6:1). The switches are incorporated into the diagonally-fed square patch for controlling the operation frequency, and a rectangular stub attached to the edge of the patch acts as the perturbation to produce the circular polarization. Gain of proposed antenna is 5 - 6dBi, and axial ratio satisfies 3dB criterion at both operating frequencies. The switches are monolithically integrated on quartz substrate. The antenna can be used in applications requiring frequency diversity of remarkable high frequency ratio.
    • MISSILE ANTENNA PATTERNS FOR WIDELY-SPACED MULTI-ELEMENT ARRAYS

      Vines, Roger; Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Multiple discrete antennas distributed around the circumference of a large missile and driven by one transmitter are sometimes used to radiate telemetry omnidirectionally. But driving discrete antennas separated by several wavelengths around the missile body with a single transmitter can result in an antenna pattern with deep nulls in the roll plane. Varying the relative signal phase or amplitude among the signals driving the antennas as well as the polarization of the antennas can be used to change the nulls in an attempt to decrease the null depth. In this paper the effects of phase, amplitude, and polarization on the roll-plane pattern are examined and measurement data presented.
    • A STATUS REPORT OF THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION PROJECT JAMI SYSTEM INTEGRATION

      Powell, Dave; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI), a Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) initiative, is developing advanced telemetry system components that can be used in an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI demonstrated significant improvement in the performance of low-cost Global Positioning System (GPS) based Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI) tracking hardware that can be used for world-wide test and training. Acquisition times of less than 3 seconds from a cold start and tracking dynamics to over 60Gs were demonstrated. The final production designs and flight testing results are discussed along with comparisons to the initial project requirements. A discussion of integration initiatives and implementation issues are included.
    • DESIGN OF A HIGH DYNAMIC GPS RECEIVER

      Bochuan, Zhang; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang; Qing, Chang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      High dynamic and multi-channel digital GPS receiver can handle the signals with high dynamic range, low S/N ratio and refresh data quickly. A hardware design of high dynamic GPS digital receiver is given. Based on analysis of the effect that high dynamic movement makes on the receiving signals, a scheme of fast-acquisition high dynamic GPS receiver is presented. Exact reckoning of the orbit parameters and the satellite clock parameters are integrated with appropriate algorithms. A DDLL is used to precisely estimate the C/A code delay, a CPAFC loop and a Costas loop to precisely estimate the carrier frequency and phase. The DDLL is assisted with carrier phase. The experimental results show that the receiver meets the design request.
    • A MODIFIED FOUR-QUADRANT FREQUENCY DISCRIMINATOR FOR CARRIER FREQUENCY ACQUISITION OF GPS RECEIVERS

      Tingyan, Yao; Weigang, Zhao; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The four-quadrant frequency discriminator (FQFD) plays an important role in GPS receivers for carrier synchronization. This paper presents a detailed study of the operating principle of the FQFD, and the acquisition performance degradation due to the gain fluctuation of the FQFD is discussed. A modified FQFD called the enveloped-four-quadrant frequency discriminator (Enveloped-FQFD) is proposed, which introduces an envelope calculator on the basis of the FQFD. Performance comparison of the FQFD and the Enveloped-FQFD is given through theoretical analysis and computer simulation. Simulation results show that by employing the Enveloped-FQFD, a quicker pull-in process and a wider threshold than the FQFD can be achieved, while the additional hardware costs are trivial.
    • DESIGN OF A SOFTWARE RADIO GPS RECEIVER

      Zhengxuan, Zhang; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The GPS receiver based on software radio technology is a kind of general purpose GPS signal processing platform which makes use of advanced design ideas and advanced design tools nowadays. We used FPGA device and lots of necessary peripherals such as DSP and PCI controller in our design to promote flexibility and practicability effectively. Various fast acquisition means and accurate tracking algorithms could be realized, improved and validated on this platform, besides basic GPS receiver function.