Henderson, Landon; Perez, Miguel (Mike); Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      During the era 2000-2002, the U.S. Air Force C-17 Follow-on Flight Test Program (FOFTP) transitioned to total bulk data collection employing the Veridian OMEGA™ Intelligent Multiplexer (IMUX) and associated Series 3000 Telemetry Processor. Advanced planning for the data management was deficient; engineers and analysts were overwhelmed by the actual quantity of instrumentation data collected, at a rate of 2- to 3-gigabytes per flight test hour. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the Test Director initiated comprehensive planning for management of the C-17 data elements. Including the bulk instrumentation data collected, this plan also addressed the management of programmatic information and correlation from the test definition program phase through the archiving of test reporting Information. The envisioned end-state of the C-17 test data archive effort, also referred to as the C-17 Enterprise Test Data Management System (ETDMS), seeks to provide the C-17 Test Team with cradle-to-grave data management at a level unprecedented in the flight test community and is described herein. Once funding was received, the C-17 Integrated Product Team (IPT) has aggressively moved into deploying the C-17 ETDMS at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Five modest objectives were set for the effort at initiation; these were: 􀂉 Objective 1: Establish C-17 Technical Library; Complete Deployment of LiveLink Distribution System 􀂉 Objective 2: Improve Data Analysis (Telemetry) Toolset and Products; Train Users 􀂉 Objective 3: Modernize Legacy Databases/Applications (Measurands, Calibrations, Generation of the Test Parameter Requirements [TPR] Document) 􀂉 Objective 4: Fix the Test Planning and Test Point Tracking User Interface 􀂉 Objective 5: Implement the Approved ETDMS Framework The C-17 ETDMS will link the many geographically separated users of C-17 test results in near real-time. Thus, providing the program decision-makers with the information required to support the current worldwide combat operations tempo by joint force elements as exhibited during the recent deployments and sustainment of operations in the Southwest Asian AOR. Collaterally, the C-17 ETDMS will support the efforts of our co-located NASA-Dryden colleagues seeking to improve the abilities of our National Airspace System (NAS) to support industry initiatives such as aircraft health monitoring and “call-ahead” maintenance planning. Currently ahead of schedule and within projected costs boundaries, the C-17 ETDMS will provide government off-the-shelf (GOTS)/commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions to the C- 17 test community during FY 2005.

      Wegener, John A.; Roche, Michael C.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper describes a telemetry system developed for the EA-18G Flight Test program. The program requires transmission of a number of data streams, in IRIG-106 Chapter 4 PCM, Chapter 8 Mux-All 1553, Ethernet, and Fibre Channel formats. The initial requested data rate was in excess of 30 Mbits/sec. The telemetry system must operate at a range up to about 120 miles, at several test ranges, and with several different aircraft maneuvering configurations. To achieve these requirements, the Flight Test Instrumentation group at Boeing Integrated Defense Systems in Saint Louis, developed a telemetry system in conjunction with industry partners and test range customers. The system transmits two telemetry streams with a total aggregate rate on the order of 20 Mbits/sec. Each telemetry stream consists of up to four PCM streams, combined in a Teletronics Technology Corporation (TTC) Miniature Adaptable Real-Time Multiplexer Unit (MARM) data combiner. It uses Nova Engineering multi-mode transmitters capable of transmitting PCM-FM or Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SOQPSK). The transmitter also provides Turbo-Product Code (TPC) Forward Error Correction (FEC) to enhance range and improve link performance. Data collection units purchased from outside vendors or developed by Saint Louis Flight Test Instrumentation, translate Ethernet and Fibre Channel information into traditional PCM streams. A Boeing Flight Test Instrumentation developed control system provides flexible selection of streams to be combined into each telemetry stream, and functional control of antenna selection and transmitter operation.

      Sweeney, Paul; ACRA CONTROL Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The adaptation of ubiquitous Ethernet technology to airborne FTI systems is a relatively recent development, offering multiple advantages to FTI applications, including a high data throughput and ability to integrate COTS equipment with ease. For large-scale FTI applications – such as on the Airbus A380 - the use of traditional PCM based data acquisition systems results in enormously complex system architectures, with difficulties in system design, implementation, commissioning, test and maintenance. However, on the A380, the use of the Ethernet-based, IENA protocol alleviated these problems, in addition to offering several additional advantages. This paper explores the theoretical and practical implications of using Ethernet-based data acquisition in an FTI application, with direct comparison to an equivalent PCM based system.

      Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) communication systems can have dramatically higher throughput than single-input, single-output systems. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to find the space-time codes these systems need to achieve their potential. Previously published results located good codes by minimizing the maximum correlation between transmitted signals. This paper shows how this min-max method may produce sub-optimal codes. A new method which sorts codes based on the union bound of pairwise error probabilities is presented. This new technique can identify superior MIMO codes, providing higher system throughput without increasing the transmitted power or bandwidth requirements.
    • Data, Information, and Knowledge Management

      Harley, Samuel; Reil, Michael; Blunt-Henderson, Thea; Bartlett, George; Aberdeen Test Center; SFA Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Aberdeen Test Center Versatile Information System – Integrated, ONline (VISION) project has developed and deployed a telemetry capability based upon modular instrumentation, seamless communications, and the VISION Digital Library. Each of the three key elements of VISION contributes to a holistic solution to the data collection, distribution, and management requirements of Test and Evaluation. This paper provides an overview of VISION instrumentation, communications, and overall data management technologies, with a focus on engineering performance data.

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Hardware implementing forward error correction (FEC) is currently available for utilization by the airborne telemetry system designer. This paper will discuss the potential benefits along with drawbacks when using this technology. Laboratory testing is supplemented with real-world flight testing. Performance results comparing FEC and non-FEC systems are presented for both IRIG-106 Pulse Code Modulation/Frequency Modulation, PCM/FM, (or Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying, CPFSK, with filtering, or ARTM Tier 0) and Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, Telemetry Group version (SOQPSK-TG or ARTM Tier I) waveforms.

      Wu, Hao; Zhong, Zhangdui; Bejing Jiaotong University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      In NGN, the open interfaces and the IP protocol make the hazard of security aspect increased accordingly. Thereby, it is a very important premise for NGN network operation to afford a good secure media stream communication. In this paper, we will present a secure media stream communication for NGN. Then we will discuss the three parts of the media stream secure communication——media stream source authentication, secret key negotiation and distribution; media stream encryption/decryption in detail. It can effectively realize media stream end-to-end secure communication. Meanwhile, it also makes use of the expanding of former protocol during the secret key negotiation process.
    • Detection and Isolation of Instrumentation Failures Applied to GPS and Inertial Navigation

      Williamson, Walton R.; Speyer, Jason L.; Jones, Charles H.; SySense Incorporated; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      During flight tests and during post-processing of flight data, a need exists to validate that all sensors are working properly and that data is valid after experimentation. Analytic redundancy methods enable data validation using multiple, dissimilar instruments processed through the vehicle dynamic system model. A design methodology is presented through which the designer chooses the instrumentation for flight test using output separability of the failure modes as the design metric for measuring system integrity. An example is presented using an aircraft navigation system.

      Reiter, Mac; Jones, Charles H.; Nomadics, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents methods of using standard PDAs, smart sensors, XML-based network and user interface descriptions, and graphical sensor network management to provide an installationto- use workflow. Techniques discussed will include: methods of providing additional capabilities to PDAs, methods of automatically constructing user interfaces based on constraints and requirements from both the sensor descriptions and the PDA capabilities description, and methods of providing more natural selection of sensors for test setup.
    • Software Decommutation and Integration

      Guadiana, Juan; Benitez, Jesus; Pasillas, Roger; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Telemetry Data Center (TDC) at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico recently targeted analog best source selectors for replacement along with their associated signal handling equipments. The commercial selectors available offered no better performance, so TDC engineers circulated a "White Paper" on real time correlation based compositing. Within two years a Correlating Source Selector (CSS) was fielded successfully. The CSS’s bridging feature unexpectedly opened the door to a ubiqituous software decommutator (decom) that has catalyzed a complete “make-over” of the entire TDC architecture. Hardware and software interaction in a decom is different with the CSS. While performing its correlation tasks the CSS is able to provide raw data over TCP/IP directly to the end application. The CSS places the data in computer friendly frame aligned form and the decommutation may be performed in software. The converse is similarly simple, a data file maybe transferred to the CSS for commutation into PCM. This white paper describes the morphing of software decommutation into a commodity, integrated into each end device, be it graphics display, Disk or Chart recorder. The result is an interesting consolidation that spawns a new functionally integrated Telemetry Data Center ( iTDC). This integrated Display Decom (iDD) concept has been demonstrated on Apple G5 RISC computers.

      Law, Eugene; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper will present techniques for accurately measuring the power flux density (PFD) of interfering signals at telemetry receiving stations. The solar power flux density is measured daily by radio astronomers and will be used as a calibration signal. The electromagnetic spectrum is being used more intensely as time marches on so being familiar with interference measurement techniques is becoming more important because more interfering signals are present.

      O’Connell, Tim; Nova Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The telemetry industry anticipates the tremendous potential value of adding full networking capability to telemetry systems. However, much of this potential can be realized while working with legacy equipment. By adding modules that interface transparently to existing equipment, continuous telemetry data can be encapsulated in discrete packets for over the air transmission. Packet fields can include header, sequence number and bytes for error detection and correction. The RF packet is transmitted without gaps through a standard serial interface and rate adjusted for the packet overhead – effectively making packetization transparent to a legacy system. The receiver unit performs packet synchronization, error correction, extraction of stream quality metrics and re-encapsulation of the payload data into an internet protocol (IP) packet. These standard packets can then be sent over the existing network transport system to the range control center. At the range control center, the extracted stream quality metrics are used to select the best telemetry source in real-time. This paper provides a general discussion of the path to a fully realized, packet-based telemetry network and a brief but comprehensive overview of the Hypernet system architecture as a case study.

      Ali, Tariq M.; Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; University of Texas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper describes and interference cancellation technique appropriate for ARTM Tier-1 waveforms. The technique requires the estimators for the bit sequences for the adjacent channels as well as the power levels of the adjacent channels. Simulation results show that the interference canceller allows a more dense “channel packing” thereby creating a channel utilization 67% ~ 100% greater than the current IRIG 106 recommendations.

      Rodrigues, Tiago Giglio; Góes, Luis Carlos Sandoval; Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Marins, Carlos Nazareth Motta; Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica; Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço; Instituto Nacional de Telecomunicações (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The terrestrial microwave telemetry links show limitation due their inherent features concerning bandwidth availability, frequency allocation and range. Also it supports only one aircraft per test and the data acquisition capacity can be enhanced. Following the flight tests trends, it proposes a telemetry link based on satellite communications deployed by off the shelf equipments allowing advantages as bandwidth availability, multiple aircrafts telemetry and almost global range into the reliability standards. By simple equations and typical flight tests data it demonstrates the feasibility of the telemetry system proposed for time and costs reduction to optimize flight tests programs.

      Fitzgerald, Alan; Adtron Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Solid state disk characteristics make them ideal for data collection in both harsh environments and secure telemetry application. In comparison to their magnetic counterparts, solid state disks are faster, more reliable, extremely durable and, with changing economies and geometries, more affordable and available in higher capacities than ever before. This paper will discuss solid state disk storage, access controls, and data elimination in relation to various telemetry scenarios. The reader will be introduced to the operational considerations of solid state disk data security and the underlying technical concepts of how these are implemented.

      Jordan, Jorge, J.; Patuxent River Naval Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The ability to accurately measure the temperature of different materials has always been a challenge for the Instrumentation Engineer. The use the classic contact type temperature detector such as thermocouples or RTD’s (Resistance Temperature Detectors) has not always shown to be the best approach to obtain the expected measurement. When not used carefully in closed environments, thermocouples and RTD’s could report the environmental temperature rather than the temperature from the product under examination. They are also temperature limited and when needed for applications above those limits, very expensive and low reliable materials are necessary to do the job. The use of non-contact thermometers has become the preferred choice for such applications. They have also come as a solution for the difficulties involved in the temperature measurements of moving targets. The industry has used portable and spot type infrared thermometers for some time, but the demand for better and more precise measurements has brought an incredible number of new products to the market. By means of advanced electronics and new software developments these products are used to cope with the difficulties of acquiring challenging measurements. Some of the same demands have made necessary the use of non-contact temperature measurement devices on aircraft instrumentation applications. The use of these capabilities has allowed the data acquisition community to get valuable data that was very difficult if not impossible to obtain before. In spite of all these facts, this promising emerging technology demands very careful attention before it is put to good use. The many products and solutions available do not accurately address every problem and the selection of the wrong technology for a specific task can prove to be fatal. The use of non-contact temperature devices is not an easy “off the shelf” pick but rather an option that demands knowledge of the infrared measurement theory as well as a complete understanding of the material under observation. The intention of this paper is to provide a practical understanding on the non-contact temperature measurement methods to the Aircraft Instrumentation Engineer who has not benefited from the use of this exiting technology.

      Carpenter, Robert E.; Schneider, Dennis; ATSS, Inc.; U.S. Army Program Executive Office for Simulation Training, & Instumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Embedded Instrumentation (EI) and Non-Intrusive Instrumentation (NII) integrates data collection and processing capabilities into the design of a system for diagnostics, prognostics, testing, and training. EI and NII will provide decision makers with the data needed to adequately describe performance and mitigate risks throughout a programs lifecycle. DoD weapon systems have become very complex, with intricate electronics and guidance requirements to meet the mission. Many platforms, such as Army munitions, no longer have the internal space to append instrumentation after they are sent for testing, yet the data needs from a complex weapon system have increased, with the need to understand the operational health and characteristics of many sophisticated electronics systems within the weapon system. Furthermore, the developer must ensure the platform used for test or for training is representative of the full up tactical system to retain integrity. Recent implementation of policy changes will allow responsible activities to have test, training and logistical resources shared at the program concept and maintain the integrity of lifecycle requirements. To assure success, EI/NII must be planned for at the beginning of the acquisition phase, with capabilities needed and costs / benefits considered. There have been significant advances in miniaturized telemetry and instrumentation technology, such as ASIC based transmitters and encoders, however there are still needed improvements to reduce the size and cost of embedded instrumentation components. Failing to continue to foster the on-going development of EI/NII technologies, and failing to foster the incorporation of such systems into new weapons could ultimately hinder the success of initiatives such as Army transformation and could certainly raise the costs associated with development, fielding, and operation of complex weapons.

      Jones, Charles H.; Jensen, Michael; Edwards Air Force Base; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As part of the ongoing effort to increase the efficiency of telemetry, a research grant through the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) was initiated to look at the development of multi-band transmitters. During this research, ideas about improvements from dual antennae transmission were also pursued. The multi-band related work subsequently transitioned to a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) effort and a commercial product. The dual antennae research led to a Science and Technology/Test and Evaluation (S&T T&E) project and is currently being developed under the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP). This paper overviews the technologies involved and the process of working a pure research effort through various cycles of development and funding.

      Jung, Chang won; Lee, Ming-jer; Liu, Sunan; Li, G. P.; De Flaviis, Franco; University of California, Irvine (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Reconfigurable patch antenna integrated with RF mircoelectromechanical system (MEMS) switches is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna radiates circularly polarized wave at selectable dual frequencies (4.7 GHz and 7.5GHz) of high frequency ratio (1.6:1). The switches are incorporated into the diagonally-fed square patch for controlling the operation frequency, and a rectangular stub attached to the edge of the patch acts as the perturbation to produce the circular polarization. Gain of proposed antenna is 5 - 6dBi, and axial ratio satisfies 3dB criterion at both operating frequencies. The switches are monolithically integrated on quartz substrate. The antenna can be used in applications requiring frequency diversity of remarkable high frequency ratio.

      Vines, Roger; Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Multiple discrete antennas distributed around the circumference of a large missile and driven by one transmitter are sometimes used to radiate telemetry omnidirectionally. But driving discrete antennas separated by several wavelengths around the missile body with a single transmitter can result in an antenna pattern with deep nulls in the roll plane. Varying the relative signal phase or amplitude among the signals driving the antennas as well as the polarization of the antennas can be used to change the nulls in an attempt to decrease the null depth. In this paper the effects of phase, amplitude, and polarization on the roll-plane pattern are examined and measurement data presented.