• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 41 (2005)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10
    • A 256 CHANNEL HIGH SPEED MODULAR FLIGHT COMPUTER FOR HYPERSONIC LAUNCH VEHICLES

      Finlayson, Simon; Paull, Allan; Acqware Pty Ltd; University of Queensland (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Hypersonic test vehicles require extensive data acquisition in order to accurately determine and refine engine performance. The increasing speed of scramjet engines places new constraints on data manipulation and system control. A compact modular flight computer has been developed that has high speed analog data acquisition, a programmable high data rate PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) encoder, compact data storage, and high speed I/O (Input/Output) capabilities. Principle to the design is the thermal management required for space environments. A functional overview is presented together with a summary of the analog performance. The integration of future capability requirements is also discussed.
    • VEHICLE NETWORK CONCEPT DEMONSTRATION

      Grace, Thomas; Roach, John; Naval Air Systems Command; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      CTEIP has launched the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project to foster advances in networking and telemetry technology to meet emerging needs of major test programs as well as within the Major Range and Test Facility Base’s. This paper describes the objective of the vNET concept demonstration to provide a test vehicle instrumentation network architecture that can support additional capabilities for data access to the test vehicle. Three specific iNET system needs have been identified as being desirable as the basis for evaluating a Concept of Operation through this demonstration project. These three key areas are Data Mining, Gapless Telemetry, and Error Free Data delivery.
    • WHY CHANGE FROM PCM? CASE STUDY OF THE AIRBUS A380 ETHERNET BASED DATA ACQUISITION NETWORK

      Sweeney, Paul; ACRA CONTROL Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The adaptation of ubiquitous Ethernet technology to airborne FTI systems is a relatively recent development, offering multiple advantages to FTI applications, including a high data throughput and ability to integrate COTS equipment with ease. For large-scale FTI applications – such as on the Airbus A380 - the use of traditional PCM based data acquisition systems results in enormously complex system architectures, with difficulties in system design, implementation, commissioning, test and maintenance. However, on the A380, the use of the Ethernet-based, IENA protocol alleviated these problems, in addition to offering several additional advantages. This paper explores the theoretical and practical implications of using Ethernet-based data acquisition in an FTI application, with direct comparison to an equivalent PCM based system.
    • Common Electrical Block CMOS-Based MEMS Sensors for Embedded Instrumentation

      D’Amico, William; Rebello, Keith J.; Park, Rudolph V.; Fedder, Gary K.; The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory; Carnegie Mellon University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As the need for embedded instrumentation (EI) grows in the military community, unique telemetry and sensor suites will be required. The typical path for combining sensors and telemetry is to select the packaged sensors for the required measurements and then to configure a separately packaged telemetry device. Today since die level telemetry systems are emerging, it should be considered that sensor suites are integrated at the die level with the telemetry components into a miniature and low power EI system.
    • PERFORMANCE ISSUES IN MIXING CELLULAR AND MANET FOR iNET

      Dean, Richard; Babalola, Olusola; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      In the iNET community, communications between Test Articles (TA) and Ground Station (GS) can be over a long distance course that places a TA at ranges where they are sometimes beyond line-of-sight (LoS) or over-the-horizon communications with the GS. In other cases, the TA moves out of the LoS communications range of GS. There is a need to provide communications to these TA at these over-the-horizon locations. The Cellular and Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) have attracted a lot of attention recently and the field continues to grow daily. The cellular network offers high capacity but limited in coverage due to its fixed base infrastructure. MANET on the other hand has a wide range of coverage and also high data rates, but its throughput performance is reduced at high capacity. The MANET cellular mixture network (MCMN) has been proposed to provide an extensive communications between the TA and GS in the iNET environment. This work presents a performance evaluation and analysis of the two different networks with respect to the performance needs of iNET environment which include coverage and throughput.
    • AFRL/JWSD-1 DATA ARCHIVAL SYSTEM

      Self, Lance; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Properly managing the volumes of data that are sent from satellites to the ground is becoming more important for a number of reasons. As more satellites are launched more data becomes available and there is a wealth of information contained within the data sets; information regarding the performance of the satellite subsystems, sensors, efficiency of autonomous software, and the accuracy of models and simulations to name a few. Proper storage and archival methods help ensure these data sets are available to scientists and engineers to discover previously unknown and “never before thought of” relationships between systems or subsystems. The most obvious “first step” in this process is to preserve the data for work that may lead towards new discovery and future advances. AFRL is committed to preserving these data sets for these and other stated reasons. This paper describes one ongoing effort related to the Joint Warfighting Space Demonstration 1 (JWSD-1) (aka RoadRunner) satellite program that archives all the data sent to the ground and makes that data available via the Internet to concerned groups of users.
    • DATA VALIDATION: A PREREQUISITE TO PERFORMING DATA UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS

      Walter, Patrick L.; PCB Piezotronics; Texas Christian University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      There are increasing demands, particularly from government agencies, to perform uncertainty analysis in order to assign accuracy bounds to telemetered data from environmental measuring transducers (pressure, acceleration, force, strain, temperature, etc.). Several requirements must be fulfilled before measurement uncertainty analysis is justified. These requirements include good measurement system design practices such as adequate low- and high-frequency response and data-sampling rates, appropriate anti-aliasing filter selection^(1), proper grounding and shielding, and many more. In addition, there are applications (e.g., flight test) in which the environment of the transducer varies with time and/or location. In these applications, it is a requisite that data-validation be performed to establish that an individual transducer responds only to the environmental stimulus that it is intended to measure. Without this validation component designed into the telemetry system, assigned accuracy bounds can be totally meaningless. This paper presents examples and describes techniques for data validation of signals from environmental measuring transducers.
    • Detection and Isolation of Instrumentation Failures Applied to GPS and Inertial Navigation

      Williamson, Walton R.; Speyer, Jason L.; Jones, Charles H.; SySense Incorporated; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      During flight tests and during post-processing of flight data, a need exists to validate that all sensors are working properly and that data is valid after experimentation. Analytic redundancy methods enable data validation using multiple, dissimilar instruments processed through the vehicle dynamic system model. A design methodology is presented through which the designer chooses the instrumentation for flight test using output separability of the failure modes as the design metric for measuring system integrity. An example is presented using an aircraft navigation system.
    • REAL-TIME TELEMETRY ON A PC

      Smith, Dan; Steele, Doug; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Near real-time telemetry acquisition, processing and analysis on a desktop PC have always been difficult. Many factors complicate working with real-time data, including operating system latencies, design inefficiencies and hardware limitations. These problems are further compounded when data from multiple sources had to be integrated, increasing design complexity. Current design solutions for analyzing data in near real-time now utilize the latest hardware implementations and software designs, taking advantage of new hardware and language features. This paper will discuss several issues found with PC-based telemetry systems and how new designs are addressing these issues.
    • A MULTIPLEXER/RECORDER ARCHITECTURE FOR USE WITH CONVENTIONAL MEDIA TECHNOLOGY

      Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Instrumentation recorders have evolved continuously over the years. Their growth has primarily been driven by technology advancements. The latest recording equipment generally utilizes hard disk, disk array, or solid-state storage technology, which results in greater capacity and performance. Most recorders integrate storage media with multiplexer electronics resulting in a highly efficient yet inflexible and physically large recording system. This paper describes an instrumentation multiplexer/recorder system using an open architecture between the multiplexer and the storage media that allows insertion of conventional recording technologies. This approach provides a generalized solution with enough flexibility and scalability to address the majority of instrumentation recording needs. This system is based on the latest IRIG-106 chapter 10 standard, thus supporting interoperability throughout the flight test community.
    • Acoustic Telemetry for UUVs using Walsh/m-sequence Waveforms

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Underwater acoustic (UWA) telemetry requires wideband waveforms for anti-multipath which are simultaneously easy to equalize and demodulate. The Walsh/m-sequence waveforms proposed here are robust to multipath and with appropriate time-guard bands do not require equalization. For example, in the UCSB prototype acoustic modem, a data rate of 133 bps is achieved using 8-ary Walsh signaling with an 11.2 msec. symbol duration. Demodulation is performed using noncoherent detection, and hence accurate phase tracking, which is difficult to achieve in the UWA channel, is not required. However, telemetry from unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is more problematic due to large Doppler shifts resulting from platform motion. A new receiver algorithm based on Matching Pursuits is proposed which combines channel and Doppler shift estimation. Symbol-error rate (SER) simulation results are presented for the UWA modem under realistic Doppler/multipath conditions.
    • A HIGHLY INTEGRATED TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR THE EXCALIBUR PROJECTILE

      Oder, Stephen; Dearstine, Christina; Muir, John; Semuskie, Stephen; Fratta, Ralph; DiCristina, Stephen; M/A-COM, Inc.; Raytheon Missile Systems; U.S. Army Research Development Engineering Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      A miniature 1 Watt Tactical Telemetry Module (TTM) has been developed for the Excalibur projectile program. The TTM incorporates a multi-channel PCM encoder, lower S-band transmitter, and power regulation onto a single printed wiring board (PWB). The PCM encoder is designed for eight (8) analog inputs, four (4) discrete inputs, and one (1) synchronous RS-422 serial interface, with a total data rate of 1 Mbps. The module incorporates a digitally programmable, phase-locked FM S-band transmitter. The transmitter utilizes M/A-COM’s new dual port VCO and a high efficiency 2 W power amplifier MMIC. Additionally, switching power regulation circuits were implemented within the module to provide maximum operating efficiency. This paper reviews the environmental requirements of Excalibur, the design of the Excalibur TTM, and presents electrical and air-gun test data.
    • OPTIMAL ENERGY-DELAY ROUTING PROTOCOL WITH TRUST LEVELS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

      Jagannathan, S.; Miller, Ann; Taqieddin, Eyad; University of Missouri-Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      An ad hoc network is a group of wireless nodes which do not rely on any fixed infrastructure. Hosts cooperate by forwarding packets for each other to communicate with nodes that are out of the radio transmission range. We propose a new routing algorithm that is based on the concept of multipoint relay nodes (MPR). The main focus of the Trust Level Routing protocol is the reliability and survivability of the network by applying costs to each MPR candidate. The cost calculation is based on the delay incurred, energy available at the MPR node, energy spent during transmission and number of packets sent on each link. We highlight the vulnerabilities in current link state routing algorithms and propose the use of light weight encryption algorithms to achieve a dependable routing algorithm. Network simulator (ns-2) is used to compare the protocol performance to other existing link state routing protocols.
    • DESIGN AND REALIZATION OF DELAY MAPPING RECEIVER BASED ON GPS FOR SEA SURFACE WIND MEASUREMENT

      Ronglei, Hu; Dongkai, Yang; Qishan, Zhang; Yiqiang, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Delay Mapping Receiver (DMR) is used for receiving and processing the reflected GPS signal to get the information of sea surface wind by recording and matching the data with the theoretical model. The hardware architecture and software design are described in detail in this paper. The test results at near sea of Tianjin of China are provided, which prove that the design of DMR is successful and the collected data are useful for the sea surface wind measurement.
    • SEA SURFACE SCATTERED GPS SIGNAL DETECTION AND APPLICATION

      Yi-qiang, Zhang; Qi-shan, Zhang; Dong-kai, Yang; Bo-chuan, Zhang; Rong-lei, Hu; Zi-wei, Li; BeiHang University; Beijing Spatial Port Geosystems Co. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Background and advantages of GPS based Remote Sensing are introduced, characteristics of forward scattered GPS signal such as polarization change, cross-correlation power variation, code delay due to the wave travel distance difference between direct and scattered signal, and cross-correlation power expansion due to sea surface roughness are discussed in detail. Working principle of the self-developed delay-mapping receiver is also presented. First data collection campaign is done at Inshore of BOHAI ocean with the delay-mapping receiver mounted on an airplane. Results show that the reflected signals has much variation than the direct signals, the code delay of the reflected signals varies as the receiver height and satellite elevation angle changes and expansion of the cross-correlation due to the wind driven surface was also demonstrated.
    • INSTRUMENTED BALLISTIC TEST PROJECTILE

      Flyash, Boris; Platovskiy, Steve; Cantatore, Dominick; Picatinny Arsenal (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      For years, ballisticians have been studying the phenomena associated with cannon launched projectiles. In particular, is the study of the pressure internal to the cannon and about the base of the projectile during cannon launch through muzzle exit. Pressure on the base is thought to be uniform and therefore hydrostatic, even though there are undulations in the magnitude of the pressure from the burning propellant. This paper studies various phenomena of the launching of 155-mm artillery projectiles with slip band obturators. Specifically, pressure gradients in and around the base and pressure along the body caused by obturator “blow-by” during the interior ballistic flight and muzzle exit. This study is accomplished by use of two different types of Instrumented Ballistic Test Projectiles (IBTP). The objective of tests performed was to successfully capture pressure and acceleration live data which will be used to characterize the localized base and body pressurization on a 155-mm artillery cannon launched projectile. The telemetry system used for these tests was the ARRT-124 telemetry system provided by the Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, specifically the Precision Munitions Instrumentation Division. The telemetry system used for the IBTP employs a traditional FM/FM technique for monitoring and transmitting a number of analog channels. Preliminary captured data indicated localized fluctuations in pressure that are not uniform over the base and the projectile body. Further studying of the data may provide insight into other projectile dynamics such as fin deployment, set forward accelerations at muzzle exit, and obturator performance.
    • SERIALLY CONCATENATED ARTM TIER I WAVEFORMS WITH ITERATIVE DETECTION

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      We investigate the performance of Feher-patented quadrature phase-shift keying (FQPSK) and shaped-offset QPSK (SOQPSK) when serially concatenated with an outer code. We show that the receiver complexity for FQPSK and SOQPSK can be greatly reduced by viewing them as continuous phase modulation (CPM) waveforms. We use the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) representation of CPM, which allows near-optimum detection of both modulations using a simple 4-state trellis. We compare the performance of the PAM-based approximation with another common approximation known as frequency/phase pulse truncation (PT).We use both of these reduced-complexity designs in serially concatenated coding schemes with iterative detection. In the end, we show that the PAM approximation has a slight performance advantage over PT, but both approximations achieve large coding gains in the proposed serially concatenated systems.
    • COMMON DETECTORS FOR TIER 1 MODULATIONS

      Nelson, Tom; Perrins, Erik; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The ARTM Tier 1 waveforms include two versions of Feher patented QPSK (FQPSK-B and FQPSK-JR) and a version of shaped offset QPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In this paper we examine three common detector architectures for the ARTM Tier 1 modulations: a symbol-by-symbol detector, a cross correlated trellis coded modulation (XTCQM) detector, and a continuous phase modulation (CPM) detector. We show that when used to detect Tier 1 modulations, these detectors perform well even without knowledge of the modulation used by the transmitter. The common symbol-by-symbol detector suffers a loss of 1.5 dB for SOQPSK-TG and 1.6 dB for FQPSK-JR in bit error rate performance relative to the theoretical optimum for these modulations. The common XTCQM detector provides a bit error rate performance that is 0.1 dB worse than optimum for SOQPSK-TG and that matches optimum performance for FQPSK-JR. The common CPM detector achieves a bit error rate performance that is 0.25 dB worse than optimum for SOQPSK-TG and that approximately matches optimum for FQPSK-JR. The common XTCQM detector provides the best bit error rate performance, but this detector also has the highest complexity.
    • REDUCTION AND ANALYSIS PROGRAM FOR TELEMETRY RECORDINGS (RAPTR): ANALYSIS AND DECOMMUTATION SOFTWARE FOR IRIG 106 CHAPTER 10 DATA

      Kim, Jeong Min; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Solid State On-Board Recording is becoming a revolutionary way of recording airborne telemetry data and IRIG 106 Chapter 10 “Solid State On-Board Recorder Standard” provides interface documentation for solid state digital data acquisition. The Reduction and Analysis Program for Telemetry Recordings (RAPTR) is a standardized and extensible software application developed by the 96th Communications Group, Test and Analysis Division, at Eglin AFB, and provides a data reduction capability for disk files in Chapter 10 format. This paper provides the system description and software architecture of RAPTR and presents the 96th Communication Group’s total solution for Chapter 10 telemetry data reduction.