Henderson, Landon; Perez, Miguel (Mike); Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      During the era 2000-2002, the U.S. Air Force C-17 Follow-on Flight Test Program (FOFTP) transitioned to total bulk data collection employing the Veridian OMEGA™ Intelligent Multiplexer (IMUX) and associated Series 3000 Telemetry Processor. Advanced planning for the data management was deficient; engineers and analysts were overwhelmed by the actual quantity of instrumentation data collected, at a rate of 2- to 3-gigabytes per flight test hour. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the Test Director initiated comprehensive planning for management of the C-17 data elements. Including the bulk instrumentation data collected, this plan also addressed the management of programmatic information and correlation from the test definition program phase through the archiving of test reporting Information. The envisioned end-state of the C-17 test data archive effort, also referred to as the C-17 Enterprise Test Data Management System (ETDMS), seeks to provide the C-17 Test Team with cradle-to-grave data management at a level unprecedented in the flight test community and is described herein. Once funding was received, the C-17 Integrated Product Team (IPT) has aggressively moved into deploying the C-17 ETDMS at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Five modest objectives were set for the effort at initiation; these were: 􀂉 Objective 1: Establish C-17 Technical Library; Complete Deployment of LiveLink Distribution System 􀂉 Objective 2: Improve Data Analysis (Telemetry) Toolset and Products; Train Users 􀂉 Objective 3: Modernize Legacy Databases/Applications (Measurands, Calibrations, Generation of the Test Parameter Requirements [TPR] Document) 􀂉 Objective 4: Fix the Test Planning and Test Point Tracking User Interface 􀂉 Objective 5: Implement the Approved ETDMS Framework The C-17 ETDMS will link the many geographically separated users of C-17 test results in near real-time. Thus, providing the program decision-makers with the information required to support the current worldwide combat operations tempo by joint force elements as exhibited during the recent deployments and sustainment of operations in the Southwest Asian AOR. Collaterally, the C-17 ETDMS will support the efforts of our co-located NASA-Dryden colleagues seeking to improve the abilities of our National Airspace System (NAS) to support industry initiatives such as aircraft health monitoring and “call-ahead” maintenance planning. Currently ahead of schedule and within projected costs boundaries, the C-17 ETDMS will provide government off-the-shelf (GOTS)/commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions to the C- 17 test community during FY 2005.

      Penna, Sérgio D.; Espeschit, Antônio Magno L.; EMBRAER Flight Test Engineering Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The number of aircraft parameters used in flight-testing has constantly increased over the years and there is no sign that situation will change in the near future. On the contrary, in modern, software-driven, digital avionic systems, all sorts of parameters circulate through digital buses and can be transferred to on-board data acquisition systems more easily than those converted from traditional analog transducers, facilitating the request for more and more parameters to be acquired, processed, visualized, stored and retrieved at any given time. The constant unbalance between what parameter quantity engineers believe to be “sufficient” for developing and troubleshooting systems in a new aircraft, which tends to grow with aircraft complexity, and the associated cost of instrumenting a test prototype accordingly, which tends to grow beyond budget limits, pushes for new creative ways of handling both tendencies without compromising the ease of performing an engineering analysis directly from flight test data. This paper presents an alternative for handling large collections of flight test parameters through a relational approach, particularly in two important scenarios: the very basic creation and administration of the traditional “Flight Test Parameter List” and the transmission of selected data over a telemetry link for visualization in a Ground Station.

      Fitzgerald, Alan; Adtron Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Solid state disk characteristics make them ideal for data collection in both harsh environments and secure telemetry application. In comparison to their magnetic counterparts, solid state disks are faster, more reliable, extremely durable and, with changing economies and geometries, more affordable and available in higher capacities than ever before. This paper will discuss solid state disk storage, access controls, and data elimination in relation to various telemetry scenarios. The reader will be introduced to the operational considerations of solid state disk data security and the underlying technical concepts of how these are implemented.

      Self, Lance; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Properly managing the volumes of data that are sent from satellites to the ground is becoming more important for a number of reasons. As more satellites are launched more data becomes available and there is a wealth of information contained within the data sets; information regarding the performance of the satellite subsystems, sensors, efficiency of autonomous software, and the accuracy of models and simulations to name a few. Proper storage and archival methods help ensure these data sets are available to scientists and engineers to discover previously unknown and “never before thought of” relationships between systems or subsystems. The most obvious “first step” in this process is to preserve the data for work that may lead towards new discovery and future advances. AFRL is committed to preserving these data sets for these and other stated reasons. This paper describes one ongoing effort related to the Joint Warfighting Space Demonstration 1 (JWSD-1) (aka RoadRunner) satellite program that archives all the data sent to the ground and makes that data available via the Internet to concerned groups of users.

      Wei, Huang; Weiling, Wu; Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper tries to discuss the mobility management when Internet technology is applied along the whole path from spacecraft to ultimate customers in ground. In addition to Mobile IP protocol, micromobility solution is introduced during cross-support. Those competing micromobility solutions in mobile network research area are compared to select one that is most suitable to space network topology characteristics and operation traditions. Other issues are also taken into account, such as deployment and compatibility with Mobile IP when cross-support is not provided. Simulation comparison for hand-off performance with and without micro-mobility solution during cross-support is presented to justify our proposition.
    • Software Decommutation and Integration

      Guadiana, Juan; Benitez, Jesus; Pasillas, Roger; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Telemetry Data Center (TDC) at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico recently targeted analog best source selectors for replacement along with their associated signal handling equipments. The commercial selectors available offered no better performance, so TDC engineers circulated a "White Paper" on real time correlation based compositing. Within two years a Correlating Source Selector (CSS) was fielded successfully. The CSS’s bridging feature unexpectedly opened the door to a ubiqituous software decommutator (decom) that has catalyzed a complete “make-over” of the entire TDC architecture. Hardware and software interaction in a decom is different with the CSS. While performing its correlation tasks the CSS is able to provide raw data over TCP/IP directly to the end application. The CSS places the data in computer friendly frame aligned form and the decommutation may be performed in software. The converse is similarly simple, a data file maybe transferred to the CSS for commutation into PCM. This white paper describes the morphing of software decommutation into a commodity, integrated into each end device, be it graphics display, Disk or Chart recorder. The result is an interesting consolidation that spawns a new functionally integrated Telemetry Data Center ( iTDC). This integrated Display Decom (iDD) concept has been demonstrated on Apple G5 RISC computers.

      Yamada, Takahiro; Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents an approach to development of generic ground systems to be used for spacecraft testing and operations. This method makes use of a standard modeling method, which enables virtualization of spacecraft. By virtualizing spacecraft, development of generic systems that are applicable to different spacecraft becomes possible even if spacecraft themselves are not standardized. This is because systems can utilize (1) a standard database that can store information on any virtual spacecraft and (2) standard software tools that can be used for any virtual spacecraft. This paper explains the concept of virtualization of spacecraft, introduces the standard model used for virtualization of spacecraft, shows how to manipulate virtual spacecraft with software tools, and presents the core elements of generic ground systems.

      Lux-Baumann, Jessica; Burkes, Darryl A.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Hyper-X program flew X-43A research vehicles to hypersonic speeds over the Pacific Ocean in March and November 2004 from the Western Aeronautical Test Range, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The program required multiple telemetry ground stations to provide continuous coverage of the captive carry, launch, boost, experiment, and descent phases of these missions. An overview is provided of vehicle telemetry and distributed assets that supported telemetry acquisition, best-source selection, radar tracking, video tracking, flight termination systems, and voice communications. Real-time data display and processing are discussed, and postflight analysis and comparison of data acquired are presented.

      Sweeney, Paul; ACRA CONTROL Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The adaptation of ubiquitous Ethernet technology to airborne FTI systems is a relatively recent development, offering multiple advantages to FTI applications, including a high data throughput and ability to integrate COTS equipment with ease. For large-scale FTI applications – such as on the Airbus A380 - the use of traditional PCM based data acquisition systems results in enormously complex system architectures, with difficulties in system design, implementation, commissioning, test and maintenance. However, on the A380, the use of the Ethernet-based, IENA protocol alleviated these problems, in addition to offering several additional advantages. This paper explores the theoretical and practical implications of using Ethernet-based data acquisition in an FTI application, with direct comparison to an equivalent PCM based system.

      O’Connell, Tim; Nova Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The telemetry industry anticipates the tremendous potential value of adding full networking capability to telemetry systems. However, much of this potential can be realized while working with legacy equipment. By adding modules that interface transparently to existing equipment, continuous telemetry data can be encapsulated in discrete packets for over the air transmission. Packet fields can include header, sequence number and bytes for error detection and correction. The RF packet is transmitted without gaps through a standard serial interface and rate adjusted for the packet overhead – effectively making packetization transparent to a legacy system. The receiver unit performs packet synchronization, error correction, extraction of stream quality metrics and re-encapsulation of the payload data into an internet protocol (IP) packet. These standard packets can then be sent over the existing network transport system to the range control center. At the range control center, the extracted stream quality metrics are used to select the best telemetry source in real-time. This paper provides a general discussion of the path to a fully realized, packet-based telemetry network and a brief but comprehensive overview of the Hypernet system architecture as a case study.

      Kim, Sung-Wan; Hwang, Soo-Sul; Lee, Jae-Deuk; Korea Aerospace Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents the dynamic RF link estimation result for telemetry system of KSLV (Korea Space Launch Vehicle)-I. In particular, it utilizes the parameters of the instantaneous vehicle antenna gain pattern in three dimensions, the improvement by polarization diversity combiner at the ground receiver, and the free space propagation loss. The structural transformation and discontinuity of ground plane after the separation events of nose fairing, stage, and spacecraft, are also included in this analysis. As a consequence, the prediction of link variation has been performed in accordance with ARDP (Antenna Radiation Distribution Plot) and look angle trace of vehicle. In addition, the optimum position of onboard antennas has been investigated to provide better RF link margin in the nominal trajectory.
    • Data, Information, and Knowledge Management

      Harley, Samuel; Reil, Michael; Blunt-Henderson, Thea; Bartlett, George; Aberdeen Test Center; SFA Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Aberdeen Test Center Versatile Information System – Integrated, ONline (VISION) project has developed and deployed a telemetry capability based upon modular instrumentation, seamless communications, and the VISION Digital Library. Each of the three key elements of VISION contributes to a holistic solution to the data collection, distribution, and management requirements of Test and Evaluation. This paper provides an overview of VISION instrumentation, communications, and overall data management technologies, with a focus on engineering performance data.

      Nelson, Tom; Rice, Michael; Jensen, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      When using two antennas to transmit telemetry from an airborne platform, self interference results when both transmit antennae are visible to the receive antenna. This self interference can lead to link outages and severe distortion, especially as data rates increase above 5 Mbits/sec. Space-time coding can be used to provide transmit diversity to overcome this self interference problem. This paper describes the results of experiments (conducted at Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA) using FQPSK-JR waveforms coded with ARTM Tier-1 Space-Time Block Code.

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Hardware implementing forward error correction (FEC) is currently available for utilization by the airborne telemetry system designer. This paper will discuss the potential benefits along with drawbacks when using this technology. Laboratory testing is supplemented with real-world flight testing. Performance results comparing FEC and non-FEC systems are presented for both IRIG-106 Pulse Code Modulation/Frequency Modulation, PCM/FM, (or Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying, CPFSK, with filtering, or ARTM Tier 0) and Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying, Telemetry Group version (SOQPSK-TG or ARTM Tier I) waveforms.

      Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) communication systems can have dramatically higher throughput than single-input, single-output systems. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to find the space-time codes these systems need to achieve their potential. Previously published results located good codes by minimizing the maximum correlation between transmitted signals. This paper shows how this min-max method may produce sub-optimal codes. A new method which sorts codes based on the union bound of pairwise error probabilities is presented. This new technique can identify superior MIMO codes, providing higher system throughput without increasing the transmitted power or bandwidth requirements.

      Rice, Michael; Lei, Qiang; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents the results of land-based SHF channel modeling experiments. Channel modeling data were collected at Edwards AFB, California at S-Band, X-Band and Ku-band. Frequency domain analysis techniques were used to evaluate candidate channel models. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed to search for the optimum channel parameters. The model parameters corresponding to different frequencies were compared for multipath events captured at approximately the same locations. A general trend was observed where the magnitude of the first multipath reflection decreased as frequency increased and the delay remained relatively unchanged.

      Ali, Tariq M.; Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; University of Texas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper describes and interference cancellation technique appropriate for ARTM Tier-1 waveforms. The technique requires the estimators for the bit sequences for the adjacent channels as well as the power levels of the adjacent channels. Simulation results show that the interference canceller allows a more dense “channel packing” thereby creating a channel utilization 67% ~ 100% greater than the current IRIG 106 recommendations.

      Portnoy, Michael; Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Designing and implementing an instrumentation cockpit display system presents many unique challenges. The system must be easy to use, yet highly customizable. Typically, these systems require an experienced programmer to create graphical display screens. Furthermore, most current display systems do not provide for bi-directional communication between the instrumentation system and the display system. This paper discusses an architecture that addresses these issues and other common problems with cockpit displays. This system captures data from the instrumentation system, displays parameters, and returns calculated parameters and status information regarding pilot actions to the instrumentation system. Unlike traditional systems, the configuration of the graphical presentation of the cockpit display can be done by a non-programmer. All communication between the instrumentation system and the cockpit display system is done transparently using XML. The usage of XML in this system facilitates real-time form previewing, cross-platform compatibility, and seamless transitions between project management, graphical configuration, and engineering unit conversions.

      Portnoy, Michael; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Creating a generic, multi-vendor data exchange system for transmitting telemetry configurations between various systems is a daunting task. To date many different systems have been proposed including relational databases (RDBMS), TMATS, and several different XML schemas. Although many of these systems have been implemented, a complete, flexible solution has not been developed. This paper describes an implementation that is currently in use for exporting and importing a complete telemetry system via XML. Using this system, an engineer can import an entire telemetry configuration, a partial telemetry configuration, or even just a single measurement (parameter). As a result, the gap between user database systems and the airborne instrumentation vendor’s configuration software (IVCS) is seamlessly bridged. This provides many benefits including: the ability to rapidly change configurations, data entry error avoidance, version control, the protection of sensitive information, and configuration reusability. This system allows for the configuration of all aspects of the telemetry setup including data acquisition hardware, transmitters, ground stations, and recorders. In addition, the recorder settings and the definition of the data that are to be recorded are coupled and linked to the rest of the telemetry configuration, which facilitates future data recovery.

      Smith, Dan; Steele, Doug; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Near real-time telemetry acquisition, processing and analysis on a desktop PC have always been difficult. Many factors complicate working with real-time data, including operating system latencies, design inefficiencies and hardware limitations. These problems are further compounded when data from multiple sources had to be integrated, increasing design complexity. Current design solutions for analyzing data in near real-time now utilize the latest hardware implementations and software designs, taking advantage of new hardware and language features. This paper will discuss several issues found with PC-based telemetry systems and how new designs are addressing these issues.