Finlayson, Simon; Paull, Allan; Acqware Pty Ltd; University of Queensland (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Hypersonic test vehicles require extensive data acquisition in order to accurately determine and refine engine performance. The increasing speed of scramjet engines places new constraints on data manipulation and system control. A compact modular flight computer has been developed that has high speed analog data acquisition, a programmable high data rate PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) encoder, compact data storage, and high speed I/O (Input/Output) capabilities. Principle to the design is the thermal management required for space environments. A functional overview is presented together with a summary of the analog performance. The integration of future capability requirements is also discussed.

      Lamphear, Eric; Berard, Alfredo J.; Klein, Lorin D.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Range Commanders Council (RCC) Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Chapter 10 (CH 10) Solid State recording standard has made the possibility of large scale interoperability between ranges, test and operational communities, and maintenance a reality. The standard allows for software and hardware playback/analysis tools to be created that will work seamlessly with any IRIG-106 CH 10 compliant recorder. Incorporation of a standard also allows the same recorder to record Video, Audio as well as data from MIL-STD-1553 busses and instrumentation data (PCM, UART, etc.). The IRIG-106 CH 10 standard provides enormous benefits for its users, but without a fully compliant IRIG-106 CH 10 recorder, these benefits cannot be realized.
    • Acoustic Telemetry for UUVs using Walsh/m-sequence Waveforms

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Underwater acoustic (UWA) telemetry requires wideband waveforms for anti-multipath which are simultaneously easy to equalize and demodulate. The Walsh/m-sequence waveforms proposed here are robust to multipath and with appropriate time-guard bands do not require equalization. For example, in the UCSB prototype acoustic modem, a data rate of 133 bps is achieved using 8-ary Walsh signaling with an 11.2 msec. symbol duration. Demodulation is performed using noncoherent detection, and hence accurate phase tracking, which is difficult to achieve in the UWA channel, is not required. However, telemetry from unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is more problematic due to large Doppler shifts resulting from platform motion. A new receiver algorithm based on Matching Pursuits is proposed which combines channel and Doppler shift estimation. Symbol-error rate (SER) simulation results are presented for the UWA modem under realistic Doppler/multipath conditions.

      Mayer, Gerhard; Hinterseer, Martin; Wegscheider, Christoph; University of Salzburg (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Research on earthquakes and volcanos is of particular importance in seismic instable regions. To improve opportunities of research and civil defence, continuous coverage of seismic activities of a large area at a certain time is necessary. This paper deals with the issues concerning the collecting of environmental data by a number of autonomous field stations and their transmission to central station through a cost effective low bandwidth packer radio data network. This paper deals with the acquisition, preprocessing and transmission of seismic data. Therefore, a prototype system is discussed, which will be developed at the University of Salzburg, Austria.

      Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Wideband data acquisition units have been used as part of an instrumentation system for several decades. Historically, these units operated asynchronously from each other, and from the rest of the instrumentation system when installed on the same test vehicle. When many wideband units are required to slave their formats or sampling rate to the test vehicle’s event of interest such as external computer event clock, radar, or laser pulse train; few solutions were available. Additionally, a single test vehicle may use ten to thirty wideband units operating at up to 20 Mbps each. Such systems present a challenge to the instrumentation engineers to synchronize, transmit safety of flight information, and record. This paper will examine a distributed wideband data acquisition system in which each acquisition unit operates under its own data rate and format, yet remains fully synchronized to an external fixed or variable simultaneous sampling rate to provide total system coherency. The system aggregate rate can be as low as a few Mbps to as high as 1 Gbps. Data acquired from the acquisition units is further multiplexed per IRIG-106 chapter 10 using distributed data multiplexers for recording.

      Self, Lance; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Properly managing the volumes of data that are sent from satellites to the ground is becoming more important for a number of reasons. As more satellites are launched more data becomes available and there is a wealth of information contained within the data sets; information regarding the performance of the satellite subsystems, sensors, efficiency of autonomous software, and the accuracy of models and simulations to name a few. Proper storage and archival methods help ensure these data sets are available to scientists and engineers to discover previously unknown and “never before thought of” relationships between systems or subsystems. The most obvious “first step” in this process is to preserve the data for work that may lead towards new discovery and future advances. AFRL is committed to preserving these data sets for these and other stated reasons. This paper describes one ongoing effort related to the Joint Warfighting Space Demonstration 1 (JWSD-1) (aka RoadRunner) satellite program that archives all the data sent to the ground and makes that data available via the Internet to concerned groups of users.

      Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Koola, Paul; Garner, Mark; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper describes a methodology for aircraft T&E processes that exploits the advantages of the IEEE 1451 family of standards, including the design, implementation, test, and maintenance of instrumentation systems. The methodology includes the use of handheld and desktop applications that support the design of sensor networks, commissioning of sensors, sensor health monitoring, sensor plug-and-play capability, alarm management, and reports. The methodology incorporates the use of existing instrumentation support systems that have traditionally been used for aircraft T&E processes.
    • Assuring Post Processed Telemetry Data Integrity With a Secure Data Auditing Appliance

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Wierenga, Steven; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Recent federal legislation (e.g. Sarbanes Oxley, Graham Leach Bliley) has introduced requirements for compliance including records retention and records integrity. Many industry sectors (e.g. Energy, under the North American Energy Reliability Council) are also introducing their own voluntary compliance mandates to avert possible additional federal regulation. A trusted computer appliance device dedicated to data auditing may soon be required in all corporate IT infrastructures to accommodate various compliance directives. Such an auditing device also may have application in telemetry post processing environments, as it maybe used to guarantee the integrity of post-processed telemetry data.

      Gatton, Tim; Wyle Laboratories Telemetry and Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      After years of tracing the evolution and solutions to finding the best data, I learned that it isn’t best source selection that we all want. What we need is best data selection.

      Henderson, Landon; Perez, Miguel (Mike); Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      During the era 2000-2002, the U.S. Air Force C-17 Follow-on Flight Test Program (FOFTP) transitioned to total bulk data collection employing the Veridian OMEGA™ Intelligent Multiplexer (IMUX) and associated Series 3000 Telemetry Processor. Advanced planning for the data management was deficient; engineers and analysts were overwhelmed by the actual quantity of instrumentation data collected, at a rate of 2- to 3-gigabytes per flight test hour. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the Test Director initiated comprehensive planning for management of the C-17 data elements. Including the bulk instrumentation data collected, this plan also addressed the management of programmatic information and correlation from the test definition program phase through the archiving of test reporting Information. The envisioned end-state of the C-17 test data archive effort, also referred to as the C-17 Enterprise Test Data Management System (ETDMS), seeks to provide the C-17 Test Team with cradle-to-grave data management at a level unprecedented in the flight test community and is described herein. Once funding was received, the C-17 Integrated Product Team (IPT) has aggressively moved into deploying the C-17 ETDMS at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Five modest objectives were set for the effort at initiation; these were: 􀂉 Objective 1: Establish C-17 Technical Library; Complete Deployment of LiveLink Distribution System 􀂉 Objective 2: Improve Data Analysis (Telemetry) Toolset and Products; Train Users 􀂉 Objective 3: Modernize Legacy Databases/Applications (Measurands, Calibrations, Generation of the Test Parameter Requirements [TPR] Document) 􀂉 Objective 4: Fix the Test Planning and Test Point Tracking User Interface 􀂉 Objective 5: Implement the Approved ETDMS Framework The C-17 ETDMS will link the many geographically separated users of C-17 test results in near real-time. Thus, providing the program decision-makers with the information required to support the current worldwide combat operations tempo by joint force elements as exhibited during the recent deployments and sustainment of operations in the Southwest Asian AOR. Collaterally, the C-17 ETDMS will support the efforts of our co-located NASA-Dryden colleagues seeking to improve the abilities of our National Airspace System (NAS) to support industry initiatives such as aircraft health monitoring and “call-ahead” maintenance planning. Currently ahead of schedule and within projected costs boundaries, the C-17 ETDMS will provide government off-the-shelf (GOTS)/commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions to the C- 17 test community during FY 2005.

      Johnson, Bruce; Smith, John; NAWCAD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper discusses using the CAN (Control Area Network) Bus protocol for control and status of flight test data acquisition systems. The application of the CAN (Control Area Network) on an F/A-18 aircraft will be discussed in detail.

      Blott, Michaela; ACRA CONTROL LTD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The adoption of commercial off the shelf networks, such as Ethernet, FireWire and FibreChannel, within the avionics community has dramatically changed the architecture of avionics busses and instrumentation networks. Higher bandwidth links and unified interconnects simplify existing infrastructure and wiring. But due to their point-to-point nature, networking topologies are fundamentally different from systems built on legacy bus technologies such as CAIS and MIL-STD-1553. Switched networks and ring topologies pose various challenges for the implementation of network monitoring hardware, and affect the design of bus monitors and distributed data acquisition systems. This paper discusses some of these issues. In particular we address deployment issues, architectural choices such as pass-through versus tap approach, as well as handling of bandwidth requirements and complex communication protocols. We illustrate on the basis of a FireWire monitoring system how these obstacles have been overcome for one given application.

      Dean, Richard A.; Britto, Elizabeth; Mwangi, Patricia; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents the issues related to the modeling and performance of the Radio Channel used in Telemetry. Because of the physical environment one expects stressed channel conditions due to multipath, shadowing, and high doppler shift caused by high speeds of up to mach 3. Prior work has created useful data and models for analysis of these radio channels. This paper will develop features of a channel simulator that will allow for evaluation of radio protocols for iNET. Substantial work has also been done to develop requirements for the iNET networked radio environment. This paper will map these requirements into technical features required for the radio link and consider how these will relate to the effects of the channels.

      Nelson, Tom; Perrins, Erik; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The ARTM Tier 1 waveforms include two versions of Feher patented QPSK (FQPSK-B and FQPSK-JR) and a version of shaped offset QPSK (SOQPSK-TG). In this paper we examine three common detector architectures for the ARTM Tier 1 modulations: a symbol-by-symbol detector, a cross correlated trellis coded modulation (XTCQM) detector, and a continuous phase modulation (CPM) detector. We show that when used to detect Tier 1 modulations, these detectors perform well even without knowledge of the modulation used by the transmitter. The common symbol-by-symbol detector suffers a loss of 1.5 dB for SOQPSK-TG and 1.6 dB for FQPSK-JR in bit error rate performance relative to the theoretical optimum for these modulations. The common XTCQM detector provides a bit error rate performance that is 0.1 dB worse than optimum for SOQPSK-TG and that matches optimum performance for FQPSK-JR. The common CPM detector achieves a bit error rate performance that is 0.25 dB worse than optimum for SOQPSK-TG and that approximately matches optimum for FQPSK-JR. The common XTCQM detector provides the best bit error rate performance, but this detector also has the highest complexity.
    • Common Electrical Block CMOS-Based MEMS Sensors for Embedded Instrumentation

      D’Amico, William; Rebello, Keith J.; Park, Rudolph V.; Fedder, Gary K.; The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory; Carnegie Mellon University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      As the need for embedded instrumentation (EI) grows in the military community, unique telemetry and sensor suites will be required. The typical path for combining sensors and telemetry is to select the packaged sensors for the required measurements and then to configure a separately packaged telemetry device. Today since die level telemetry systems are emerging, it should be considered that sensor suites are integrated at the die level with the telemetry components into a miniature and low power EI system.

      Hudgins, B. Gene; Lucas, Jason; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      While military asset testing and training might be seen as complementary in supporting military prepareness, they cannot complement each other without an effective and efficient method of distributing data laterally across geographically separated data gathering, analysis, and display systems. This cost-effective integration of range data and telemetry resources is critical to ensuring the war worthiness of today’s advanced weapon systems such as the Joint Strike Fighter and the sensor and weapon platforms such as the highly sophisticated unmanned vehicles that are beginning to populate the air, land, and sea areas of operations. To ensure the advantages of range interoperability are available across the DoD Test and Training ranges, a Central Test and Evaluation Program (CTEIP) project has developed and is refining the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA). The core of TENA is the TENA Common Infrastructure, including the TENA Middleware and TENA Repository. The TENA Middleware is the high-performance, real-time, low-latency communication infrastructure used by range instrumentation software and tools during execution of a range event. The TENA Object Model enables semantic interoperability among range resource applications by encoding the information to be communicated among those range applications. It may be seen as a range community-wide set of interface and protocol definitions encapsulated in an object-oriented design. The TENA tools, utilities, and gateways assist the user in creating and managing an integration of range resources, as well as in optimizing the TENA Common Infrastructure. TENA has proven to be a critical enabler of distributed live exercises to include the U.S. Joint Forces Command’s Millennium Challenge 2002, two major Joint National Training Capability exercises in 2004, Cope Thunder 04-02, and Joint Roving Sands/Red Flag 2005. TENA, as integral part of range data systems, has become an important component in the realization of range interoperability.

      Tian, Hai; Trojak, Tom; Jones, Charles; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper introduces a study of the feasibility and initial hardware design for transmitting data over aircraft power lines. The intent of this design is to significantly reduce the wiring in the aircraft instrumentation system. The potential usages of this technology include Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) or clock distribution. Aircraft power lines channel characteristics are presented and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is introduced as an attractive modulation scheme for high-speed power line transmission. A design of a full-duplex transceiver with accurate frequency planning is then discussed. A general discussion of what communications protocols are appropriate for this technology is also provided.

      Fitzgerald, Alan; Adtron Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Solid state disk characteristics make them ideal for data collection in both harsh environments and secure telemetry application. In comparison to their magnetic counterparts, solid state disks are faster, more reliable, extremely durable and, with changing economies and geometries, more affordable and available in higher capacities than ever before. This paper will discuss solid state disk storage, access controls, and data elimination in relation to various telemetry scenarios. The reader will be introduced to the operational considerations of solid state disk data security and the underlying technical concepts of how these are implemented.

      Walter, Patrick L.; PCB Piezotronics; Texas Christian University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      There are increasing demands, particularly from government agencies, to perform uncertainty analysis in order to assign accuracy bounds to telemetered data from environmental measuring transducers (pressure, acceleration, force, strain, temperature, etc.). Several requirements must be fulfilled before measurement uncertainty analysis is justified. These requirements include good measurement system design practices such as adequate low- and high-frequency response and data-sampling rates, appropriate anti-aliasing filter selection^(1), proper grounding and shielding, and many more. In addition, there are applications (e.g., flight test) in which the environment of the transducer varies with time and/or location. In these applications, it is a requisite that data-validation be performed to establish that an individual transducer responds only to the environmental stimulus that it is intended to measure. Without this validation component designed into the telemetry system, assigned accuracy bounds can be totally meaningless. This paper presents examples and describes techniques for data validation of signals from environmental measuring transducers.
    • Data, Information, and Knowledge Management

      Harley, Samuel; Reil, Michael; Blunt-Henderson, Thea; Bartlett, George; Aberdeen Test Center; SFA Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Aberdeen Test Center Versatile Information System – Integrated, ONline (VISION) project has developed and deployed a telemetry capability based upon modular instrumentation, seamless communications, and the VISION Digital Library. Each of the three key elements of VISION contributes to a holistic solution to the data collection, distribution, and management requirements of Test and Evaluation. This paper provides an overview of VISION instrumentation, communications, and overall data management technologies, with a focus on engineering performance data.