• CHALLENGES IN MONITORING MODERN INSTRUMENTATION NETWORKS

      Blott, Michaela; ACRA CONTROL LTD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The adoption of commercial off the shelf networks, such as Ethernet, FireWire and FibreChannel, within the avionics community has dramatically changed the architecture of avionics busses and instrumentation networks. Higher bandwidth links and unified interconnects simplify existing infrastructure and wiring. But due to their point-to-point nature, networking topologies are fundamentally different from systems built on legacy bus technologies such as CAIS and MIL-STD-1553. Switched networks and ring topologies pose various challenges for the implementation of network monitoring hardware, and affect the design of bus monitors and distributed data acquisition systems. This paper discusses some of these issues. In particular we address deployment issues, architectural choices such as pass-through versus tap approach, as well as handling of bandwidth requirements and complex communication protocols. We illustrate on the basis of a FireWire monitoring system how these obstacles have been overcome for one given application.
    • A Low Cost TDRSS Compatible Transmitter Option

      Whiteman, Don; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The NASA Space-based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) program has developed and tested a low cost Ku-Band transmitter alternative for TDRSS applications based on an existing IRIG shaped offset quaternary phase shift keying (SOQPSK) transmitter. This paper presents information related to the implementation of this low cost system, as well as performance measurements of the alternative TDRSS transmitter system compared with an existing QPSK TDRSS transmitter.
    • LEVERAGING COMMERCIAL DIGITAL POLAR TRANSMITTER IC DEVELOPMENT TO REALIZE MINIATURE, LOW COST MULTIMODE TELEMETRY TRANSMITTERS

      Dennis, Anthony; Sarraf, Mohsen; Burke, Larry; McGrath, Finbarr; Tyco Electronics Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      There is a need for low cost, spectrally efficient, miniature, rugged, telemetry transmitters for small missiles, rockets, projectiles, and micro-UAV’s. Current solutions are typically only suitable for large missile platforms and aircraft and are cost prohibitive for expendable munitions such as projectiles. M/A-COM, Inc. has developed new digital polar transmitter architectures (DTx) for use in cellular handsets. This break through technology reduces size, power consumption, and component count. This significantly reduces the size and cost of transmitter circuitry for the handset. The architecture provides digital phase up-conversion and digital RF amplitude modulation. In addition it allows for achieving power amplifier efficiencies similar to linear PA’s with constant envelop waveforms when presented with non-constant envelop waveforms. This technology development can be utilized to provide very low cost, miniature, rugged transmitter solutions for systems requiring a flexible embedded instrumentation solution. This paper reviews the system architecture, discusses the integrated circuits development, and provides possible applications.
    • ADVANCED DISTRIBUTED WIDEBAND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Wideband data acquisition units have been used as part of an instrumentation system for several decades. Historically, these units operated asynchronously from each other, and from the rest of the instrumentation system when installed on the same test vehicle. When many wideband units are required to slave their formats or sampling rate to the test vehicle’s event of interest such as external computer event clock, radar, or laser pulse train; few solutions were available. Additionally, a single test vehicle may use ten to thirty wideband units operating at up to 20 Mbps each. Such systems present a challenge to the instrumentation engineers to synchronize, transmit safety of flight information, and record. This paper will examine a distributed wideband data acquisition system in which each acquisition unit operates under its own data rate and format, yet remains fully synchronized to an external fixed or variable simultaneous sampling rate to provide total system coherency. The system aggregate rate can be as low as a few Mbps to as high as 1 Gbps. Data acquired from the acquisition units is further multiplexed per IRIG-106 chapter 10 using distributed data multiplexers for recording.
    • ACCEPTANCE TESTING PROCEDURE (ATP) COMPLIANCE TESTING OF IRIG-106 CHAPTER 10 RECORDERS

      Lamphear, Eric; Berard, Alfredo J.; Klein, Lorin D.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Range Commanders Council (RCC) Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Chapter 10 (CH 10) Solid State recording standard has made the possibility of large scale interoperability between ranges, test and operational communities, and maintenance a reality. The standard allows for software and hardware playback/analysis tools to be created that will work seamlessly with any IRIG-106 CH 10 compliant recorder. Incorporation of a standard also allows the same recorder to record Video, Audio as well as data from MIL-STD-1553 busses and instrumentation data (PCM, UART, etc.). The IRIG-106 CH 10 standard provides enormous benefits for its users, but without a fully compliant IRIG-106 CH 10 recorder, these benefits cannot be realized.
    • SERIALLY CONCATENATED ARTM TIER I WAVEFORMS WITH ITERATIVE DETECTION

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      We investigate the performance of Feher-patented quadrature phase-shift keying (FQPSK) and shaped-offset QPSK (SOQPSK) when serially concatenated with an outer code. We show that the receiver complexity for FQPSK and SOQPSK can be greatly reduced by viewing them as continuous phase modulation (CPM) waveforms. We use the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) representation of CPM, which allows near-optimum detection of both modulations using a simple 4-state trellis. We compare the performance of the PAM-based approximation with another common approximation known as frequency/phase pulse truncation (PT).We use both of these reduced-complexity designs in serially concatenated coding schemes with iterative detection. In the end, we show that the PAM approximation has a slight performance advantage over PT, but both approximations achieve large coding gains in the proposed serially concatenated systems.
    • Assuring Post Processed Telemetry Data Integrity With a Secure Data Auditing Appliance

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Wierenga, Steven; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Recent federal legislation (e.g. Sarbanes Oxley, Graham Leach Bliley) has introduced requirements for compliance including records retention and records integrity. Many industry sectors (e.g. Energy, under the North American Energy Reliability Council) are also introducing their own voluntary compliance mandates to avert possible additional federal regulation. A trusted computer appliance device dedicated to data auditing may soon be required in all corporate IT infrastructures to accommodate various compliance directives. Such an auditing device also may have application in telemetry post processing environments, as it maybe used to guarantee the integrity of post-processed telemetry data.
    • REDUCTION AND ANALYSIS PROGRAM FOR TELEMETRY RECORDINGS (RAPTR): ANALYSIS AND DECOMMUTATION SOFTWARE FOR IRIG 106 CHAPTER 10 DATA

      Kim, Jeong Min; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Solid State On-Board Recording is becoming a revolutionary way of recording airborne telemetry data and IRIG 106 Chapter 10 “Solid State On-Board Recorder Standard” provides interface documentation for solid state digital data acquisition. The Reduction and Analysis Program for Telemetry Recordings (RAPTR) is a standardized and extensible software application developed by the 96th Communications Group, Test and Analysis Division, at Eglin AFB, and provides a data reduction capability for disk files in Chapter 10 format. This paper provides the system description and software architecture of RAPTR and presents the 96th Communication Group’s total solution for Chapter 10 telemetry data reduction.
    • Implementation of IRIG-106-05 Chapter 10

      Lamphear, Eric; Berard, Alfredo J.; Campa, Raul; Wyzgowski, Tom; 46th Test Wing/ Flight Test Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      For the last 30 years Magnetic Tape Systems have been the primary means of recording data from airborne instrumentation systems. Increasing data rates and harsh environmental requirements have often exceeded the ability of tape-based systems to keep pace with technology. This paper examines operational and data reduction benefits when employing the IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Solid State Recorder Standard introduced by the Range Commanders Council (RCC) Telemetry Group (TG). This paper provides method of installation and retrofit of legacy recorders in F16, F15, A-10, and B-52 aircraft.
    • CAN BUS USED FOR DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM CONTROLS (AUTOMOTIVE SOLUTION FOR AIRCRAFT PROBLEM)

      Johnson, Bruce; Smith, John; NAWCAD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper discusses using the CAN (Control Area Network) Bus protocol for control and status of flight test data acquisition systems. The application of the CAN (Control Area Network) on an F/A-18 aircraft will be discussed in detail.
    • A LOOK AT CELLULAR PACKET DATA PERFORMANCE FOR APPLICATION IN iNET

      Dean, Richard; Webley, Kayonne; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) environment is meant to build and improve on the existing unidirectional legacy telemetry links. The optimized network would have to be capable of providing bi-directional, spectrally efficient, reliable, dynamically allocated, real time or near real time access to video and other types of test data over a shared bandwidth, high capacity network. Developed specifically for providing a reliable means of communications for large numbers of users, cellular technology seems particularly suited to addressing iNET’s needs. This paper investigates the creation of a cellular model for enhanced throughput for data users wherein a user would dynamically be allocated high data rates dependent on parameters such as the received signal to noise ratio (SNR). Our future work will develop the average data performance, comparing both the time division multiple access (TDMA) and code division multiple access (CDMA) environments for potential application in iNET.
    • A FLEXIBLE DATA ACQUISITION, CONTROL AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR EXPERIMENTAL PAYLOADS

      Wilkins, Bryce; Erwin, Daniel A.; University of Southern California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Experimental science payloads vary greatly in design for the purpose of performing specialized tasks. As such, their supporting control, data acquisition and telemetry subsystems are often expensive custom designed units with specific abilities, thus limiting reuse. This paper presents a payload control, data acquisition and telemetry system capable of providing a range of functionality to science payloads as a consequence of its accommodating architecture, programmability, and physical modular design. Details of the system and its capabilities are presented followed by an actual configuration of the system as the backbone of a micro-electro-mechanical-systems technology demonstration payload designed for suborbital flight.
    • AN XML-DRIVEN ARCHITECTURE FOR INSTRUMENTATION COCKPIT DISPLAY SYSTEMS

      Portnoy, Michael; Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Designing and implementing an instrumentation cockpit display system presents many unique challenges. The system must be easy to use, yet highly customizable. Typically, these systems require an experienced programmer to create graphical display screens. Furthermore, most current display systems do not provide for bi-directional communication between the instrumentation system and the display system. This paper discusses an architecture that addresses these issues and other common problems with cockpit displays. This system captures data from the instrumentation system, displays parameters, and returns calculated parameters and status information regarding pilot actions to the instrumentation system. Unlike traditional systems, the configuration of the graphical presentation of the cockpit display can be done by a non-programmer. All communication between the instrumentation system and the cockpit display system is done transparently using XML. The usage of XML in this system facilitates real-time form previewing, cross-platform compatibility, and seamless transitions between project management, graphical configuration, and engineering unit conversions.
    • THE IRIG 106 CHAPTER 10 SOLID-STATE ON-BOARD RECORDER STANDARD: A DATA PROCESSING PERSPECTIVE

      Thomas, Tim; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Telemetry Group (TG) of the Range Commanders Council (RCC) developed the Chapter 10 addition to the IRIG 106 standard to “establish a common interface standard for the implementation of solid-state digital data acquisition and on-board recording systems” ([1]). This standard is intended to allow the development of a common set of data playback/reduction software, minimizing the need for a large number of unique programs to handle proprietary data structures. This paper analyzes the Chapter 10 standard from a data processing perspective, providing insight into the benefits and challenges developers will face when writing Chapter 10 software.
    • AN AIRCRAFT T&E METHODOLOGY BASED ON THE IEEE 1451 FAMILY OF STANDARDS

      Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Koola, Paul; Garner, Mark; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper describes a methodology for aircraft T&E processes that exploits the advantages of the IEEE 1451 family of standards, including the design, implementation, test, and maintenance of instrumentation systems. The methodology includes the use of handheld and desktop applications that support the design of sensor networks, commissioning of sensors, sensor health monitoring, sensor plug-and-play capability, alarm management, and reports. The methodology incorporates the use of existing instrumentation support systems that have traditionally been used for aircraft T&E processes.
    • DEVELOPING INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL TRANSLATORS FOR DATA DISPLAY SYSTEMS

      Fernandes, Ronald; Graul, Michael; Hamilton, John; Meric, Burak; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The focus of this paper is to describe a unified methodology for developing both internal and external data display translators between an Instrumentation Support System (ISS) format and Data Display Markup Language (DDML), a neutral language for describing data displays. The methodology includes aspects common to both ISSs that have a well documented text-based save format and those that do not, as well as aspects that are unique to each type. We will also describe the means by which an external translator can be integrated into a translator framework. Finally, we will describe how an internal translator can be integrated directly into the ISS.
    • A RECONFIGURABLE SENSOR NETWORK FOR VEHICLE SYSTEM AND ITS RELIABILITY PREDICTION

      Kim, Joonyun; Jung, Haeseung; Lee, Jae-Deuk; Kim, Bo-Gwan; Korea Aerospace Research Institute; Chungnam National University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper suggests a reconfigurable sensor network (data bus) which is well suited for telemetry mission of rockets and launch vehicles. Reconfiguration of sensors’ channel information can be achieved without additional software and hardware. The proposed network consists of a central unit and multiple remote units with RS-485 data bus. Since those units need only an FPGA and a programmable ROM to be implemented, the network can provide minimum costs and high reliability. And this paper also presents reliability prediction result of a unit based on MIL-HDBK-217F and Monte Carlo simulation.
    • TRENDS IN COTS STORAGE SOLUTIONS FOR DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS

      Tsur, Ofer; M-Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper discusses data storage requirements for data acquisition systems, and evaluates the ability of three of the most popular COTS data storage solutions - mechanical disk, ruggedized mechanical disk and solid-state flash disk - to meet these requirements today and in the future. It addresses issues of capacity, data reliability, endurance, form factor, cost and security. It concludes with a discussion of trends to implement high-speed serial interfaces in data acquisition systems, and the challenges that these trends pose for COTS storage solutions.
    • DESIGN OF A NEW WEBGIS SYSTEM BASED ON XML

      Zhenhua, Yu; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang; BeiHang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      With the development of Internet and the urgent need for GIS (Geographic Information System), XML (eXtensible Markup Language) provides a powerful new way for new web application. This paper makes a research on the application of SVG based on XML in the WebGIS (World Wide Web Geographical Information System). In this paper, the characteristics of XML are illuminated in short; the application of XML in WebGIS is discussed and the features of SVG and its usage with XML are presented; a design of SVG based on XML in the WebGIS system is given.
    • Acoustic Telemetry for UUVs using Walsh/m-sequence Waveforms

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Underwater acoustic (UWA) telemetry requires wideband waveforms for anti-multipath which are simultaneously easy to equalize and demodulate. The Walsh/m-sequence waveforms proposed here are robust to multipath and with appropriate time-guard bands do not require equalization. For example, in the UCSB prototype acoustic modem, a data rate of 133 bps is achieved using 8-ary Walsh signaling with an 11.2 msec. symbol duration. Demodulation is performed using noncoherent detection, and hence accurate phase tracking, which is difficult to achieve in the UWA channel, is not required. However, telemetry from unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is more problematic due to large Doppler shifts resulting from platform motion. A new receiver algorithm based on Matching Pursuits is proposed which combines channel and Doppler shift estimation. Symbol-error rate (SER) simulation results are presented for the UWA modem under realistic Doppler/multipath conditions.