Tian, Hai; Trojak, Tom; Jones, Charles; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper introduces a study of the feasibility and initial hardware design for transmitting data over aircraft power lines. The intent of this design is to significantly reduce the wiring in the aircraft instrumentation system. The potential usages of this technology include Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) or clock distribution. Aircraft power lines channel characteristics are presented and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is introduced as an attractive modulation scheme for high-speed power line transmission. A design of a full-duplex transceiver with accurate frequency planning is then discussed. A general discussion of what communications protocols are appropriate for this technology is also provided.
    • Assuring Post Processed Telemetry Data Integrity With a Secure Data Auditing Appliance

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Wierenga, Steven; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Recent federal legislation (e.g. Sarbanes Oxley, Graham Leach Bliley) has introduced requirements for compliance including records retention and records integrity. Many industry sectors (e.g. Energy, under the North American Energy Reliability Council) are also introducing their own voluntary compliance mandates to avert possible additional federal regulation. A trusted computer appliance device dedicated to data auditing may soon be required in all corporate IT infrastructures to accommodate various compliance directives. Such an auditing device also may have application in telemetry post processing environments, as it maybe used to guarantee the integrity of post-processed telemetry data.
    • Relational Database for Visual Data Management

      Kosbar, Kurt; Lord, Dale; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Often it is necessary to retrieve segments of video with certain characteristics, or features, from a large archive of footage. This paper discusses how image processing algorithms can be used to automatically create a relational database, which indexes the video archive. This feature extraction can be performed either upon acquisition or in post processing. The database can then be queried to quickly locate and recover video segments with certain specified key features

      Dennis, Anthony; Sarraf, Mohsen; Burke, Larry; McGrath, Finbarr; Tyco Electronics Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      There is a need for low cost, spectrally efficient, miniature, rugged, telemetry transmitters for small missiles, rockets, projectiles, and micro-UAV’s. Current solutions are typically only suitable for large missile platforms and aircraft and are cost prohibitive for expendable munitions such as projectiles. M/A-COM, Inc. has developed new digital polar transmitter architectures (DTx) for use in cellular handsets. This break through technology reduces size, power consumption, and component count. This significantly reduces the size and cost of transmitter circuitry for the handset. The architecture provides digital phase up-conversion and digital RF amplitude modulation. In addition it allows for achieving power amplifier efficiencies similar to linear PA’s with constant envelop waveforms when presented with non-constant envelop waveforms. This technology development can be utilized to provide very low cost, miniature, rugged transmitter solutions for systems requiring a flexible embedded instrumentation solution. This paper reviews the system architecture, discusses the integrated circuits development, and provides possible applications.

      Portnoy, Michael; Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Designing and implementing an instrumentation cockpit display system presents many unique challenges. The system must be easy to use, yet highly customizable. Typically, these systems require an experienced programmer to create graphical display screens. Furthermore, most current display systems do not provide for bi-directional communication between the instrumentation system and the display system. This paper discusses an architecture that addresses these issues and other common problems with cockpit displays. This system captures data from the instrumentation system, displays parameters, and returns calculated parameters and status information regarding pilot actions to the instrumentation system. Unlike traditional systems, the configuration of the graphical presentation of the cockpit display can be done by a non-programmer. All communication between the instrumentation system and the cockpit display system is done transparently using XML. The usage of XML in this system facilitates real-time form previewing, cross-platform compatibility, and seamless transitions between project management, graphical configuration, and engineering unit conversions.

      Lamphear, Eric; Berard, Alfredo J.; Klein, Lorin D.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Range Commanders Council (RCC) Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Chapter 10 (CH 10) Solid State recording standard has made the possibility of large scale interoperability between ranges, test and operational communities, and maintenance a reality. The standard allows for software and hardware playback/analysis tools to be created that will work seamlessly with any IRIG-106 CH 10 compliant recorder. Incorporation of a standard also allows the same recorder to record Video, Audio as well as data from MIL-STD-1553 busses and instrumentation data (PCM, UART, etc.). The IRIG-106 CH 10 standard provides enormous benefits for its users, but without a fully compliant IRIG-106 CH 10 recorder, these benefits cannot be realized.

      Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Wideband data acquisition units have been used as part of an instrumentation system for several decades. Historically, these units operated asynchronously from each other, and from the rest of the instrumentation system when installed on the same test vehicle. When many wideband units are required to slave their formats or sampling rate to the test vehicle’s event of interest such as external computer event clock, radar, or laser pulse train; few solutions were available. Additionally, a single test vehicle may use ten to thirty wideband units operating at up to 20 Mbps each. Such systems present a challenge to the instrumentation engineers to synchronize, transmit safety of flight information, and record. This paper will examine a distributed wideband data acquisition system in which each acquisition unit operates under its own data rate and format, yet remains fully synchronized to an external fixed or variable simultaneous sampling rate to provide total system coherency. The system aggregate rate can be as low as a few Mbps to as high as 1 Gbps. Data acquired from the acquisition units is further multiplexed per IRIG-106 chapter 10 using distributed data multiplexers for recording.

      Borgen, Gary; US Navy (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Encoders used in Telemetry Instrumentation systems have traditionally been implemented using sequencer or state-machine based micro-architectures with distributed control and signal acquisition components. This architecture requires the use of many discrete electronic components and custom micro-code programming or state machine development for the control of the systems. The advent of relatively high-speed microcontrollers with embedded signal acquisition subsystems has brought about the ability to implement highly integrated PCM Encoder systems using fewer components and standardized programming methods. This paper will discuss sequencer based PCM encoders for background and then introduce the concept of Microcontroller Based PCM Encoders for Telemetry Instrumentation. Specific design examples will be introduced. Advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques will be discussed.

      Beihang University; Lei, Huang; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      In GPS receiver the acquisition process generates two important parameters: the initial carrier frequency and the initial phase of the C/A code. In this paper two different methods for acquisition are mainly discussed: serial search in the time domain and FFT search in the frequency domain. Frequency domain acquisition involves using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to convert the GPS signals into the frequency domain. One fast and easy-to-implement algorithm for averaging correlation is implemented and explained in detail. The FFT search method is both simulated in Matlab and evaluated in Altera Stratix DSP development board.

      Zhengxuan, Zhang; Yanhong, Kou; Qishan, Zhang; Beihang University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The GPS receiver based on software radio technology is a kind of general purpose GPS signal processing platform which makes use of advanced design ideas and advanced design tools nowadays. We used FPGA device and lots of necessary peripherals such as DSP and PCI controller in our design to promote flexibility and practicability effectively. Various fast acquisition means and accurate tracking algorithms could be realized, improved and validated on this platform, besides basic GPS receiver function.

      Bedgar, Kenda J.; Cullison, Anthony J.; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper is about the installation of the instrumentation system and the strain gages on an E-2C Hawkeye for the Advanced Hawkeye Loads Risk Reduction project. Background information on why this project came about will be given. Explanations on why the existing instrumentation system was modified to the current system will be presented. Anthony Cullison (co-author of this paper) will explain the installation of the strain gages.

      Henderson, Landon; Perez, Miguel (Mike); Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      During the era 2000-2002, the U.S. Air Force C-17 Follow-on Flight Test Program (FOFTP) transitioned to total bulk data collection employing the Veridian OMEGA™ Intelligent Multiplexer (IMUX) and associated Series 3000 Telemetry Processor. Advanced planning for the data management was deficient; engineers and analysts were overwhelmed by the actual quantity of instrumentation data collected, at a rate of 2- to 3-gigabytes per flight test hour. In fiscal year (FY) 2003, the Test Director initiated comprehensive planning for management of the C-17 data elements. Including the bulk instrumentation data collected, this plan also addressed the management of programmatic information and correlation from the test definition program phase through the archiving of test reporting Information. The envisioned end-state of the C-17 test data archive effort, also referred to as the C-17 Enterprise Test Data Management System (ETDMS), seeks to provide the C-17 Test Team with cradle-to-grave data management at a level unprecedented in the flight test community and is described herein. Once funding was received, the C-17 Integrated Product Team (IPT) has aggressively moved into deploying the C-17 ETDMS at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) located at Edwards Air Force Base, California. Five modest objectives were set for the effort at initiation; these were: 􀂉 Objective 1: Establish C-17 Technical Library; Complete Deployment of LiveLink Distribution System 􀂉 Objective 2: Improve Data Analysis (Telemetry) Toolset and Products; Train Users 􀂉 Objective 3: Modernize Legacy Databases/Applications (Measurands, Calibrations, Generation of the Test Parameter Requirements [TPR] Document) 􀂉 Objective 4: Fix the Test Planning and Test Point Tracking User Interface 􀂉 Objective 5: Implement the Approved ETDMS Framework The C-17 ETDMS will link the many geographically separated users of C-17 test results in near real-time. Thus, providing the program decision-makers with the information required to support the current worldwide combat operations tempo by joint force elements as exhibited during the recent deployments and sustainment of operations in the Southwest Asian AOR. Collaterally, the C-17 ETDMS will support the efforts of our co-located NASA-Dryden colleagues seeking to improve the abilities of our National Airspace System (NAS) to support industry initiatives such as aircraft health monitoring and “call-ahead” maintenance planning. Currently ahead of schedule and within projected costs boundaries, the C-17 ETDMS will provide government off-the-shelf (GOTS)/commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) solutions to the C- 17 test community during FY 2005.
    • Data, Information, and Knowledge Management

      Harley, Samuel; Reil, Michael; Blunt-Henderson, Thea; Bartlett, George; Aberdeen Test Center; SFA Inc (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Aberdeen Test Center Versatile Information System – Integrated, ONline (VISION) project has developed and deployed a telemetry capability based upon modular instrumentation, seamless communications, and the VISION Digital Library. Each of the three key elements of VISION contributes to a holistic solution to the data collection, distribution, and management requirements of Test and Evaluation. This paper provides an overview of VISION instrumentation, communications, and overall data management technologies, with a focus on engineering performance data.

      Meyer, Steven J.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Joint Advance Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) program has developed a Time Space Position Information (TSPI) unit (JTU). The JTU employs a novel use of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and inertial measurement units (IMU) to provide a real time trajectory for high dynamic missile systems. The GPS system can function during high g maneuvers that an air-to-air missile might encounter. The IMU is decoupled from the GPS sensor. The IMU data is a secondary navigation source for the JTU and will provide platform attitude. The GPS data and IMU data are sent to the ground in telemetry packet called TSPI Unit Message Structure (TUMS). The TUMS packet is sent to a computer that hosts the JAMI Data Processing (JDP) software, which performs a Kalmam filter on the GPS and IMU data to provide a real time TSPI solution to the range displays. The packetized TUMS data is available in three different output formats: RS-232 serial data, 16-bit parallel and PCM. This paper focuses on how to integrate the JTU into a telemetry system, use it as a standalone system, and provides examples of possible uses.

      Rice, Michael; Wardle, Mason; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The PAM representation was used to formulate a reduced-complexity detector for the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) whose performance is 5.6 dB better than limiter-discriminator detection when no phase noise is present and 3.4 dB better in the presence of expected phase noise in EFTS.

      Wei, Huang; Weiling, Wu; Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper tries to discuss the mobility management when Internet technology is applied along the whole path from spacecraft to ultimate customers in ground. In addition to Mobile IP protocol, micromobility solution is introduced during cross-support. Those competing micromobility solutions in mobile network research area are compared to select one that is most suitable to space network topology characteristics and operation traditions. Other issues are also taken into account, such as deployment and compatibility with Mobile IP when cross-support is not provided. Simulation comparison for hand-off performance with and without micro-mobility solution during cross-support is presented to justify our proposition.

      Nelson, Tom; Rice, Michael; Jensen, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      When using two antennas to transmit telemetry from an airborne platform, self interference results when both transmit antennae are visible to the receive antenna. This self interference can lead to link outages and severe distortion, especially as data rates increase above 5 Mbits/sec. Space-time coding can be used to provide transmit diversity to overcome this self interference problem. This paper describes the results of experiments (conducted at Edwards Air Force Base, California, USA) using FQPSK-JR waveforms coded with ARTM Tier-1 Space-Time Block Code.

      Kim, Sung-Wan; Hwang, Soo-Sul; Lee, Jae-Deuk; Korea Aerospace Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      This paper presents the dynamic RF link estimation result for telemetry system of KSLV (Korea Space Launch Vehicle)-I. In particular, it utilizes the parameters of the instantaneous vehicle antenna gain pattern in three dimensions, the improvement by polarization diversity combiner at the ground receiver, and the free space propagation loss. The structural transformation and discontinuity of ground plane after the separation events of nose fairing, stage, and spacecraft, are also included in this analysis. As a consequence, the prediction of link variation has been performed in accordance with ARDP (Antenna Radiation Distribution Plot) and look angle trace of vehicle. In addition, the optimum position of onboard antennas has been investigated to provide better RF link margin in the nominal trajectory.

      Panagos, Adam G.; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      Multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) communication systems can have dramatically higher throughput than single-input, single-output systems. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to find the space-time codes these systems need to achieve their potential. Previously published results located good codes by minimizing the maximum correlation between transmitted signals. This paper shows how this min-max method may produce sub-optimal codes. A new method which sorts codes based on the union bound of pairwise error probabilities is presented. This new technique can identify superior MIMO codes, providing higher system throughput without increasing the transmitted power or bandwidth requirements.
    • Software Decommutation and Integration

      Guadiana, Juan; Benitez, Jesus; Pasillas, Roger; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2005-10)
      The Telemetry Data Center (TDC) at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico recently targeted analog best source selectors for replacement along with their associated signal handling equipments. The commercial selectors available offered no better performance, so TDC engineers circulated a "White Paper" on real time correlation based compositing. Within two years a Correlating Source Selector (CSS) was fielded successfully. The CSS’s bridging feature unexpectedly opened the door to a ubiqituous software decommutator (decom) that has catalyzed a complete “make-over” of the entire TDC architecture. Hardware and software interaction in a decom is different with the CSS. While performing its correlation tasks the CSS is able to provide raw data over TCP/IP directly to the end application. The CSS places the data in computer friendly frame aligned form and the decommutation may be performed in software. The converse is similarly simple, a data file maybe transferred to the CSS for commutation into PCM. This white paper describes the morphing of software decommutation into a commodity, integrated into each end device, be it graphics display, Disk or Chart recorder. The result is an interesting consolidation that spawns a new functionally integrated Telemetry Data Center ( iTDC). This integrated Display Decom (iDD) concept has been demonstrated on Apple G5 RISC computers.