• ADVANCED SIMULATION TOOLS TO MODEL AND ANALYZE OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS

      Claffey, Douglas J.; Analytical Graphics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Advances in high-level architectures in both hardware and software now allow 3D software modeling and interactive simulation to be done from the desktop computer. This paper will address the increasing demand for 3D software modeling and simulation applications throughout the aerospace industry, what kinds of tools are currently available, how operational data is being used in real-world applications, and how to couple real-time data with terrain models and simulation tools to model and analyze operational environments. The following specific areas will be addressed: · The creation of real-world environments by merging virtual objects and ground data with interactive simulation and advanced graphics. · Recent advances in software modeling and simulation tools, which mirror general industry trends. · The ongoing effort to establish standards for modeling and simulation applications throughout the aerospace industry. · Examples of applications using high-level architecture-enabling technology like the visual display of detailed terrain data, drag-and-drop imagery, the enhancement of graphical performance without compromising the quality of rendered data, and expanded support for raster file format images.
    • FLIGHT TEST INSTRUMENTATION OF THE PUSH-PULL EFFECT ON A CF-18 AIRCRAFT

      Caballero, Rubén; Canadian Forces Base Cold Lake (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      During high performance fighter aircraft manoeuvres, a fighter pilot may be exposed to a physiological phenomenon known as the “Push-Pull Effect” (reference (ref) [1]). This effect will alter the pilot’s homeostasis whereas blood flow to the brain will be increased during low negative normal acceleration (-Gz) and suddenly decreased during positive normal acceleration (+Gz). It has been hypothesized that this effect can lessen the Gtolerance of the human body thereby making the subject more susceptible to G induced Loss of Consciousness (G-LOC) (refs [2], [3] and [4]). G-LOC is not a desirable state for a pilot in a high performance aircraft such as a CF-18. To better understand and study the Push-Pull Effect on a fighter pilot, the Aerospace Engineering Test Establishment (AETE) and the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) produced an In-Flight Research (IFR) Program sponsored by the Canadian Forces (CF). The aim of this program was to measure the physiological response of relaxed test subjects, unprotected by a G-suit, when exposed to the Push-Pull manoeuvre in flight. This IFR would validate the centrifuge data and confirm that the Push-Pull Effect can occur in flight. This paper will present the instrumentation, design, telemetry system and installation methodology utilized to perform experimental physiological research on a high performance, ejection seat equipped fighter aircraft (CF-18). Also, preliminary results on the Push-Pull Effect, obtained through this IFR Program will be presented.
    • AUTONOMOUS SOCCER-PLAYING ROBOTS: A SENIOR DESIGN PROJECT

      Archibald, James K.; Kelsey, Jed M.; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the experiences and final design of one team in a senior design competition to build a soccer-playing robot. Each robot was required to operate autonomously under the remote control of a dedicated host computer via a wireless link. Each team designed and constructed a robot and wrote its control software. Certain components were made available to all teams. These components included wireless transmitters and receivers, microcontrollers, overhead cameras, image processing boards, and desktop computers. This paper describes the team’s hardware and software designs, problems they encountered, and lessons learned.
    • A NEW MINIATURE DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR F-16 FLUTTER AND LOADS TEST AIRCRAFT

      Nixon, David C.; Berard, Alfredo J.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The USAF SEEK EAGLE office, which has responsibility for all Air Force aircraft - store compatibility/certification activity is located at Eglin AFB FL. Two Eglin F-16 aircraft, primarily used by the SEEK EAGLE office for flutter and loads testing, recently underwent major instrumentation upgrades. This paper presents a comparison between the previous, pre-mission labor intensive analog FM-FM/low speed data acquisition system and the new miniature data collection system, referred to as Mini Common Airborne Instrumentation System (MCAIS), including PC work station compatible digital recorders. Issues concerning existing flight test aircraft instrumentation compatibility, commonality, installation design considerations, data supportability, reduced manning automated preflight data validation, low cost PC work station and data reduction are discussed.
    • THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NASA’s LOW EARTH ORBITER – TERMINAL AS AN AUTONOMOUS GROUND NETWORK ASSET

      Bundick, Steven N.; Kremer, Steven E.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      As part of NASA’s goal to reduce costs for satellite telemetry and command ground support, the ground network has installed two autonomous ground terminals known as Low Earth Orbiter - Terminal’s, or LEO-T’s. These systems are highly automated and were developed to prove the feasibility of supporting multi-mission satellites in a handsoff mode.
    • COMBINING GPS AND PACKETIZED TELEMETRY CONCEPTS TO FORM A WIDE AREA DATA MULTIPLEX SYSTEM

      Grebe, David L.; Apogee Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      As testing requirements on the ranges require ever more sophisticated cross correlation of data from multiple data acquisition sources, it becomes increasingly advantageous to collect and disseminate this information in a more network oriented fashion. This allows any of the data collected at physically separated sites to be used simultaneously at multiple mission control or data reduction centers. This paper presents an approach that maximizes the use of legacy communication paths and data reduction systems to support an evolutionary migration toward the day when testing can take full advantage of commercial communication protocols and equipment such as OC-3, ATM, etc. One key element of this approach is the packetizing of data at each reception point to provide virtual circuit switching using packet routing. Based on the newly adopted IRIG/RCC 107-98 standard, the system may even be expanded all the way back to the actual sensors. The second key element is the use of the readily available time and timing pulses based on GPS to establish a uniform sampling interval that will allow the cross correlation of data received at different points spread over a wide area.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF PC-BASED SPACECRAFT SIMULATOR FOR EOS GROUND SYSTEM TESTING

      Noone, Estelle S.; Parker, Kevin; Swope, Janice; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Spacecraft communication simulators are extremely useful for integration and testing of spacecraft control centers and supporting ground systems. To reduce development costs, a Windows NT PC-based simulation system is being developed to support testing for upcoming NASA missions. The spacecraft simulation suite of tools integrates modules within a core infrastructure and is customized to meet mission unique specifications not met by the baseline system.
    • DESIGN OF A MULTI-PURPOSE KU-BAND STATION

      Nötzel, Klaus Ralf; Deutsche Telekom AG (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Deutsche Telekom has been operating different communication satellites for several years. DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.) with its GSOC (German Space Operation Center) is responsible for German space missions. Deutsche Telekom and DLR formed a joint venture to build a Ku-Band station for back-up purposes and to provide LEOP services in the Ku-Band for Europe. The station is located at the DLR premises near Munich. The new station is operational since 1998. The aim was to design the system in a way that the operation effort in costs aspects and human intervention is minimized. All operational tasks can be performed besides the routine work of one person at the Satellite Control Center (SCC). The station is remote controlled from different SCCs. The SCC has one consistent Human Machine Interfaces which includes not only the Ku-Band station but also the backup S-Band stations at different locations. This paper describes conception and operation of a LEOP Ku-Band Station with shared users at different sites.
    • DESIGN OF A SNOW AVALANCHE TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Schooley, L. C.; Lim, C.; Hardie, S.; Lyness, A.; McMillan, S.; Ung, L.; Yu, V.; University of Canterbury; The University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper was prepared as part of the team design competition for a graduate level course given at the University of Canterbury, in Christchurch, New Zealand. It presents a high level design of a snow avalanche telemetry system. The goal of the system is to provide data to better assess avalanche risk, and to assist in designing more effective protection measures in avalanche prone areas. The primary conditions monitored are air pressure, snow density, snow depth, snow temperature, wind velocity, wind direction, and ambient air temperature. All critical aspects of the telemetering system have been specified, including the sensors, transmitter/receiver, and telemetry frame design. Aspects of the system packaging and the link budget which are unique to the alpine environment are discussed.
    • AN AUTONOMOUS SATELLITE TRACKING STATION

      Anderson, Mike; Militch, Peter; Pickens, Hugh; AlliedSignal Technical Services (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      In 1998, AlliedSignal Technical Services (ATSC) installed three fully autonomous 13-meter satellite tracking systems for the Integrated Program Office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) at the Command and Data Acquisition Station near Fairbanks, Alaska. These systems track and command NOAA Polar Orbiting Weather Satellites and Defense Meteorological Satellites. Each tracking system operates for extended periods of time with little intervention other than periodic scheduling contacts. Schedule execution initiates equipment configuration, including establishing the RF communications link to the satellite. Station autonomy is achieved through use of a robust scheduler that permits remote users and the System Administrator to request pass activities for any of the supported missions. Spacecraft in the mission set are scheduled for normal operations according to the priority they have been assigned. Once the scheduler resolves conflicts, it builds a human-readable control script that executes all required support activities. Pass adds or deletes generate new schedule scripts and can be performed in seconds. The systems can be configured to support CCSDS and TDM telemetry processing, but the units installed at Fairbanks required only telemetry and command through-put capabilities. Received telemetry data is buffered on disk-storage for immediate, post-pass playback, and also on tape for long-term archiving purposes. The system can autonomously support up to 20 spacecraft with 5 different configuration setups each. L-Band, S-Band and X-Band frequencies are supported.
    • A REAL-TIME HIGH PERFORMANCE DATA COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS

      Yeh, Pen-Shu; Miller, Warner H.; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A high performance lossy data compression technique is currently being developed for space science applications under the requirement of high-speed push-broom scanning. The technique is also error-resilient in that error propagation is contained within a few scan lines. The algorithm is based on block-transform combined with bit-plane encoding; this combination results in an embedded bit string with exactly the desirable compression rate. The lossy coder is described. The compression scheme performs well on a suite of test images typical of images from spacecraft instruments. Hardware implementations are in development; a functional chip set is expected by the end of 2000.
    • TELEKNOSYS™ INTERACTIVE TOOL FOR A GOD'S EYE VIEW OF FLIGHT TEST EXPERIMENTS

      Platzbecker, Mark R.; Sandison, David R.; Ryerson, David E.; Ashcraft, Gary W.; Giron, Jeremy W.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Engineers at Sandia National Laboratories are combining entertainment industry software with traditional data collection techniques to create an interactive visualization tool called TeleKnoSys™. By replacing the usual flight simulator joystick with a telemetry data stream, experimental data is combined with existing three-dimensional (3D) engineering models. Users are immersed in their experiment, allowing interaction with and comprehension of complex data sets. Leveraging commercial software with existing model sets enables quick, cost effective development. Results from real-time flight tests will be presented.
    • REAL-TIME TELEMETRY DATA SUPPORT FOR THE F-22 FLIGHT TEST PROGRAM

      Kegel, Thomas; Lipe, Bruce; Swords, Jacquelyn; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the recently developed F-22 real-time telemetry data processing system. The F-22 Combined Test Force (CTF) and the Range Division worked together to develop a real-time telemetry processing system able to support the F-22’s fast paced flight test program. This paper provides an overview of the Ridley Mission Control Center (RMCC) modernization effort for F-22. The paper also describes how the F-22 uses the Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing Systems (ADAPS) Real-Time/Post Flight Processing (RT/PFP) system, the Integrated Analysis and Display System (IADS), and other mission control room system’s for F-22 mission control support.
    • VOLUMETRIC 3D VISUALIZATION OF TEST AND EVALUATION OPERATIONS

      Briggs, James R.; Deis, Michael R.; Geng, Jason; Edwards Air Force Base; Eglin Air Force Base; Genex Technologies, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Time-Space-Position-Information (TSPI) visualization systems used today at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) and simulation visualization tools used at the Air Armament Center (AAC) utilize two-dimensional (2D) display systems for both real-time and post-mission data analysis. Examples are monitors and large screen projection systems. Some TSPI visualization systems generate three-dimensional (3D) data as output, but the 3D data is translated so that it is compatible with 2D display systems. Currently, 3D volumetric display systems are being utilized by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for monitoring air traffic in 3D without 3D goggles. The aircraft’s position information is derived from radar and fed to a volumetric display. The AFFTC and AAC need a similar system for Open Air Range testing utilizing the Global Positioning System (GPS) as the source of position information and Installed Systems Testing utilizing 6 Degree of Freedom (DOF) flight simulation data as the source of position information. This system should be capable of displaying realistic terrain structures, vehicle models and physical test configurations along with text data overlays. The ability to display the mission in real-time on a volumetric 3D display makes it possible for test engineers to observe resource utilization continuously as the mission develops. Quicker turn-around times in the decision process will lead to more efficient use of limited test resources and will increase the information content of the data being collected.
    • COMMERCIAL OFF THE SHELF DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR THE SPACE SHUTTLE SOLID ROCKET BOOSTER PROGRAM

      Crawford, Kevin; Pinkleton, David; NASA; Boeing North American Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The space shuttle has been flying for seventeen years and NASA plans to fly it for many more. To meet the requirement of supporting future flights, NASA has undertaken a Shuttle Upgrades Program to improve various shuttle components. The avionics on the solid rocket booster (SRB) is one of the areas being upgraded. To develop avionics hardware, the environments that they are to encounter during flight must be defined to a higher degree of fidelity than is currently available. This paper describes the effort to determine these environments via the use of a commercial off the shelf data acquisition system.
    • TELEMETRY AND RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION

      Heikkinen, Jouko; Tampere University of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Comparison of short-range telemetry and radio frequency identification (RFID) systems reveals that they are based on very similar operating principles. Combining the identification and measurement functions into one transponder sensor offers added value for both RFID and telemetry systems. The presence of a memory (e.g. FRAM) in the transponder, required for ID information, can also be utilized for storing measurement results. For passive transponders low power consumption is one of the main objectives. Wireless power transfer for passive transponder sensors together with above aspects concerning a combined telemetry and identification system are discussed.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A REQUIREMENTS REPOSITORY FOR THE ADVANCED DATA ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING SYSTEM (ADAPS)

      Rush, David; Hafner, F. W. (Bill); Humphrey, Patsy; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Standards lead to the creation of requirements listings and test verification matrices allow developer and acquirer to assure themselves and each other that the requested system is actually what is being constructed. Further, in the intricacy of the software test description, traceability of test process to the requirement under test is mandated so the acceptance test process can be accomplished in an efficient manner. In the view of the logistician, the maintainability of the software and the repair of fond faults is primary, while these statistics can be gathered by the producer to ultimately enhance the Capability Maturity Module (CMM) rating of the vendor.
    • Wavelet Based Video Compression for A Low-Rate Data Link

      Landry, Michael W.; Lee, Jeffrey C.; L3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Conventional video image transmission requires large data bandwidths, whether the signals are transmitted in analog or digital form. Many applications are limited to bandwidths that will not support image transmission unless high compression ratios are employed. Video compression techniques based on wavelet functions provide high data compression while preserving image quality, but are computationally demanding. Recently available high-integration devices that utilize wavelet basis functions for video compression have made possible low-cost high-performance video compression systems. Image data is more useful when provided with other data such as position information, telemetry, or other user data. This paper describes the technology, features, and limitations of a versatile low data rate system incorporating compressed video data.
    • SIMULTANEOUS DATA PROCESSING OF MULTIPLE PCM STREAMS ON A PC BASED SYSTEM

      Weisenseel, Chuck; Lane, David; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The trend of current data acquisition and recording systems is to capture multiple streams of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data on a single media. The MARS II data recording system manufactured by Datatape, the Asynchronous Realtime Multiplexer and Output Reconstructor (ARMOR) systems manufactured by Calculex, Inc., and other systems on the market today are examples of this technology. The quantity of data recorded by these systems can be impressive, and can cause difficulties in post-test data processing in terms of data storage and turn around time to the analyst. This paper describes the system currently in use at the Strategic Systems Combined Test Force B-1B division to simultaneously post-flight process up to twelve independent PCM streams at twice real-time speeds. This system is entirely personal computer (PC) based running the Window NT 4.0 operating system with an internal ISA bus PCM decommutation card. Each PC is capable of receiving and processing one stream at a time. Therefore, the core of the system is twelve PCs each with decommutation capability. All PCs are connected via a fast ethernet network hub. The data processed by this system is IRIG 106 Chapter 8 converted MIL-STD-1553B bus data and Chapter 4 Class I and II PCM data. All system operator inputs are via Distributed Component Object Modeling (DCOM) provided by Microsoft Developers Studio, Versions 5.0 and 6.0, which allows control and status of multiple data processing PCs from one workstation. All data processing software is written in-house using Visual C++ and Visual Basic.
    • CURRENT TIME SCALES AND CHALLENGES: GPS 1999 WNRO AND THE YEAR 2000

      Claflin, Ray, III; Claflin Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the current internationally recognized atomic time scales of International Atomic Time (TAI), Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), and Global Positioning System (GPS) Time as well as solar based Universal Time. The concept of Leap Seconds and the differences between the time scales are discussed. A brief history of the international agreements that created organizations responsible for maintaining these time scales is provided. A brief review of the GPS 1999 (Week Number Roll Over) WNRO with its potential GPS user problems is provided. Prudent personal precautions are proposed for the Year 2000 (Y2K) Rollover.