• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 35 (1999)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10
    • MOBILE TRACKING SYSTEM “MOTION ON THE OCEAN” TEST

      Pedroza, Moises; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The Transportable Range Augmentation and Control System (TRACS), Mobile Telemetry System (MTS), is a versatile system capable of supporting anywhere when called upon. The MTS is designed to operate anywhere on land. It is unknown how the system will perform on a floating platform without a stabilizing gimbal. The operation of a tracking system at sea generally require the use of a three-axis pedestal. The MTS is a two-axis pedestal. This paper is a report on how the MTS responds to simulated ocean-motion. Testing the system on a body of water is very expensive, especially out in the desert. The MTS was tested in the desert area of Las Cruces, New Mexico in the parking lot of EMI Technologies, prime contractor, using two forklifts to simulate ship motion in the pitch and yaw planes. The location is perfect for crossover dynamics tests. The tests conducted were for the purpose of determining if the MTS could auto-track a moving signal in space while it also moves due to “simulated ocean swells” that increase the generated tracking error signal levels in an opposite or in addition to the ones generated from the space vehicle. There is no gyroscopic correction. Successful results of the tests could preclude the use of a gyroscopically stabilized gimbaled platform necessary to keep the tracking system steady for auto-tracking a target during “6 degrees of freedom” disturbances. Several thousand dollars can be saved if the concept can be proven.
    • DESIGN OF A MULTI-PURPOSE KU-BAND STATION

      Nötzel, Klaus Ralf; Deutsche Telekom AG (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Deutsche Telekom has been operating different communication satellites for several years. DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.) with its GSOC (German Space Operation Center) is responsible for German space missions. Deutsche Telekom and DLR formed a joint venture to build a Ku-Band station for back-up purposes and to provide LEOP services in the Ku-Band for Europe. The station is located at the DLR premises near Munich. The new station is operational since 1998. The aim was to design the system in a way that the operation effort in costs aspects and human intervention is minimized. All operational tasks can be performed besides the routine work of one person at the Satellite Control Center (SCC). The station is remote controlled from different SCCs. The SCC has one consistent Human Machine Interfaces which includes not only the Ku-Band station but also the backup S-Band stations at different locations. This paper describes conception and operation of a LEOP Ku-Band Station with shared users at different sites.
    • SIMULTANEOUS DATA PROCESSING OF MULTIPLE PCM STREAMS ON A PC BASED SYSTEM

      Weisenseel, Chuck; Lane, David; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The trend of current data acquisition and recording systems is to capture multiple streams of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data on a single media. The MARS II data recording system manufactured by Datatape, the Asynchronous Realtime Multiplexer and Output Reconstructor (ARMOR) systems manufactured by Calculex, Inc., and other systems on the market today are examples of this technology. The quantity of data recorded by these systems can be impressive, and can cause difficulties in post-test data processing in terms of data storage and turn around time to the analyst. This paper describes the system currently in use at the Strategic Systems Combined Test Force B-1B division to simultaneously post-flight process up to twelve independent PCM streams at twice real-time speeds. This system is entirely personal computer (PC) based running the Window NT 4.0 operating system with an internal ISA bus PCM decommutation card. Each PC is capable of receiving and processing one stream at a time. Therefore, the core of the system is twelve PCs each with decommutation capability. All PCs are connected via a fast ethernet network hub. The data processed by this system is IRIG 106 Chapter 8 converted MIL-STD-1553B bus data and Chapter 4 Class I and II PCM data. All system operator inputs are via Distributed Component Object Modeling (DCOM) provided by Microsoft Developers Studio, Versions 5.0 and 6.0, which allows control and status of multiple data processing PCs from one workstation. All data processing software is written in-house using Visual C++ and Visual Basic.
    • ASSESSMENT OF PHOTONIC SWITCHES AS FUTURE REPLACEMENT FOR ELECTRONIC CROSS-CONNECT SWITCHES

      Youssef, Ahmed H.; TYBRIN Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper presents the future of optical networking via photonic switches as a potential replacement for the existing electronic cross-connects. Although optical amplifiers are now mainstream and wave division multiplexing (WDM) systems are a commercial reality, the industry’s long-term vision is one of the all-optical network. This will require optical switching equipment such as all-optical or “photonic” cross-connect switches that will provide packet switching at an optical layer. Currently, as voice calls or data traffic are routed throughout Range and commercial networks, the information can travel through many fiber-optic segments which are linked together using electronic cross-connects. However, this electronic portion of the network is the bottleneck that is preventing the ideal network from achieving optimal speeds. Information is converted from light into an electronic signal, routed to the next circuit pathway, then converted back into light as it travels to the next network destination. In an all-optical network, the electronics are removed from the equation, eliminating the need to convert the signals and thereby significantly improving network performance and throughput. Removing the electronics improves network reliability and restoration speeds in the event of an outage, provides greater flexibility in network provisioning, and provides a smooth transition when migrating to future optical transmission technologies. Despite the fact that photonic switching remains uncommercialized, it now seems apparent that the core switches in both the public networks and DoD Range networks of the early 21st century will probably carry ATM cells over a photonic switching fabric.
    • SOFTWARE QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY: ARE THEY COMPATIBLE?

      Long, Rick; Crump, Peter; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Many view quality and productivity as competing concepts. After all, doesn’t high software quality come at a high cost? Doesn’t it mean that a large amount of "extra stuff" needs to be done during the software development cycle? And, doesn’t that mean that software productivity takes a back seat to (and a major hit from) quality efforts? This paper will explore these issues. This paper provides some preliminary data that supports how a disciplined software engineering process can (and has) resulted in high quality software while actually increasing productivity. Data has been gathered on organizations that have a disciplined, quality-oriented software engineering process in place. That data shows that quality and productivity can (and do) coexist. The data will be discussed along with an explanation of how these results can be achieved.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF PC-BASED SPACECRAFT SIMULATOR FOR EOS GROUND SYSTEM TESTING

      Noone, Estelle S.; Parker, Kevin; Swope, Janice; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Spacecraft communication simulators are extremely useful for integration and testing of spacecraft control centers and supporting ground systems. To reduce development costs, a Windows NT PC-based simulation system is being developed to support testing for upcoming NASA missions. The spacecraft simulation suite of tools integrates modules within a core infrastructure and is customized to meet mission unique specifications not met by the baseline system.
    • DOPPLER BANDWIDTH CHARACTERIZATION OF ARTM CHANNEL SOUNDING DATA

      Rice, Michael; Landon, David; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Data from ARTM channel sounding test flights is examined to characterize the dynamic channel behavior of aeronautical telemetry channels. The dynamic behavior is characterized using the Doppler power spectrum. The width of the Doppler power spectrum is the Doppler bandwidth of the channel which indicates the required bandwidth of adaptive detection techniques such as adaptive equalization, adaptive modulation, adaptive channel selection and adaptive error control coding. Data collected from ARTM Flight 11 suggest a Doppler bandwidth exceeding 6.7 Hz for the channel, but greater accuracy and resolution will only be possible with more data.
    • TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES AND RESOURCES OF THE EXTENDED TEST RANGE ALLIANCE

      Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert D.; NASA; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The Edwards Flight Test Range is a part of 20,000 square miles of DOD airspace (R-2508). A hypersonic air vehicle traveling above Mach 3 can easily exceed that airspace within seconds. An Unpiloted Autonomous Vehicle can exceed the airspace when flying long duration missions. To satisfy the flight-test requirements of Hypersonic Air Vehicles and Unpiloted Autonomous Vehicles, additional airspace and extended test ranges are required. The Air Force Flight Test Center and Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California have mutual goals to support these flight test programs. To meet these goals, the Extended Test Range Alliance was formed as an engineering and operations team to satisfy program requirements in the areas of telemetry, flight termination, ground communications, uplink command, and differential global positioning systems. This paper will discuss the resources and technical capabilities available through the Extended Test Range.
    • A STATUS REPORT OF THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION PROGRAM AN OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE CENTRAL TEST AND EVALUATION INVESTMENT PROGRAM INITIATIVE

      Scofield, Don; Powell, Dave; NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI), a 1997 new-start multi-year Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP), is developing advanced telemetry system components that can be used in an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI will provide telemetry, Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI), flight termination and end-game vector scoring in a low cost, modular package that will allow world-wide test and training- eliminating, in most cases, the need for range-specific (or multi-system) facilities. JAMI will incorporate Global Positioning System (GPS)-based technology as the TSPI and vector scoring engine, and address the feasibility of a solid state programmable safe and arm. This paper discusses the progress of the program during the Test Technology Development and Demonstration (TTD&D) phase and the efforts planned for fiscal year 1999. Preliminary testing of GPS receivers and conformal GPS antennas on missile platforms are discussed.
    • FLEXIBLE ALL-DIGITAL RECEIVER FOR BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT MODULATIONS

      Gray, Andrew; Srinivasan, Meera; Simon, Marvin; Yan, Tsun-Yee; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      An all-digital high data rate parallel receiver architecture developed jointly by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is pre- sented. This receiver utilizes only a small number of high speed components along with a majority of lower speed components operating in a parallel fre- quency domain structure implementable in CMOS, and can process over 600 Mbps with numerous varieties of QPSK modulation, including those incorpo- rating precise pulse shaping for bandwidth eÆcient modulation. Performance results for this receiver for bandwidth eÆcient QPSK modulation schemes such as square-root raised cosine pulse shaped QPSK and Feher’s patented QPSK are presented, demonstrating the great degree of exibility and high performance of the receiver architecture.
    • HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE COMPRESSION

      Hallidy, William H., Jr.,; Doerr, Michael; Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) compared compression and decompression algorithms and developed optimal forms of lossless and lossy compression for hyperspectral data. We examined the relationship between compression-induced distortion and additive noise, determined the effect of errors on the compressed data, and showed that the data could separate targets from clutter after more than 50:1 compression.
    • MATCHED FILTER-BOUND OF BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT MULTISCALE WAVELET SIGNALING OVER MULTIPATH RAYLEIGH FADING CHANNELS

      Lo, Chet; Moon, Todd K.; Utah State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      In this paper, we extended the matched filter bound (MFB) of time-discrete multipath Rayleigh fading channels derived in [1,2] for multiscale wavelet signaling communication.
    • LEVERAGING GOVERNMENT AND COMMERCIAL INVESTMENTS

      D’Amico, William P.; US Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      It is tempting to conceive a program that is self-contained and to fiscally control the all the necessary developments. Such a path will lead to a program that is technically stovepiped and extremely expensive. For the test and evaluation (T&E) community, products are often developed only for single application. We do not exist in such times. The use of other program’s products and commercial products is basically required. This is the path that the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) has taken. The HSTSS philosophy required that the technologies common to telemetry systems be examined for reduction in cost, size, ease of use, and above all the survivability under high-g or high shock environments. It was clear that HSTSS could not support all of these requirements for transmitters, batteries, electronic packaging, and sensors and be realistically affordable with a good return on investment. This paper describes how the HSTSS program has accomplished the development of new batteries, transmitters, and data acquisition devices based upon a leveraged acquisition strategy.
    • A TELEMETRY TRANSMITTER CHIP SET FOR BALLISTIC APPLICATIONS

      Lachapelle, John; McGrath, Finbarr; Osgood, Karina; Egri, Bob; Moysenko, Andy; Henderson, Greg; Burke, Lawrence W., Jr.; Faust, Jonah N.; M/A-COM Corporation; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The U.S. Army’s Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor Systems (HSTSS) program has engaged the M/A-COM Corporation to work in the development of a highly accurate, crystal controlled telemetry transmitter chip set to be used in Army and other U.S. military munitions. A critical factor in this work is the operating environment of up to 100,000-g launch accelerations. To support the Army in this project, M/A-COM is developing integrated Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCO) for L and S band, a silicon synthesizer/phase locked loop (PLL) IC, and a family of power amplifiers. Lastly, the transmitter module will be miniaturized and hardened using M/A-COM’s latest chip-onboard mixed technology manufacturing capabilities. This new chip set will provide the telemetry engineer with unprecedented design flexibility. This paper will review the overall transmitter system design and provide an overview for each functional integrated circuit.
    • DATA COMPRESSION STATISTICS AND IMPLICATIONS

      Horan, Sheila; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Bandwidth is a precious commodity. In order to make the best use of what is available, better modulation schemes need to be developed, or less data needs to be sent. This paper will investigate the option of sending less data via data compression. The structure and the entropy of the data determine how much lossless compression can be obtained for a given set of data. This paper shows the data structure and entropy for several actual telemetry data sets and the resulting lossless compression obtainable using data compression techniques.
    • BINARY GMSK: CHARACTERISTICS AND PERFORMANCE

      Tsai, Kuang; Lui, Gee L.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) is a form of Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) whose spectral occupancy can be easily tailored to the available channel bandwidth by a suitable choice of signal parameters. The constant envelope of the GMSK signal enables it to corporate with saturated power amplifier without the spectral re-growth problem. This paper provides a quantitative synopsis of binary GMSK signals in terms of their bandwidth occupancy and coherent demodulation performance. A detailed account of how to demodulate such signals using the Viterbi Algorithm (VA) is given, along with analytical power spectral density (PSD) and computer simulated bit-error-rate (BER) results for various signal BT products. The effect of adjacent channel interference (ACI) is also quantified. Ideal synchronization for both symbol time and carrier phase is assumed.
    • HSTSS-DAC CUSTOM INTEGRATED CIRCUITS FOR SUBMINIATURE PCM TELEMETRY AND SIGNAL CONDITIONING

      Gibson, David; Penrose, N.B.; Doerr, Michael; Borgen, Gary; Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC); Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      To meet specific test and evaluation requirements, the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor Systems (HSTSS) program is addressing the miniaturization and ‘G’ hardening of telemetry components. Two custom Integrated Circuits (ICs) are in development to support the design of miniature Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) systems with up to 128 analog input channels. This paper describes the design and development of the custom IC chips of the HSTSS Data Acquisition Chipset (DAC). The original requirements, the roll of the Integrated Product Team (IPT), design decisions, a discussion of the additional features, and practical limitations of the Data Acquisition Chipset will be covered.
    • Bandwidth Efficient Signaling Using Multiscale Wavelet Functions and its Performance in a Rician Fast Fading Channel Employing Differential Detection

      Moon, Todd K.; Lo, Chet; Utah State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      In this paper, orthogonal wavelets are employed to produce multiscale signaling. It is shown that signaling using these functions is bandwidth efficient compared other signaling schemes, including SFSK and GMSK. For signaling in Rician fast fading channel, it is also shown that scaling functions is superior in term of achieving low level of probability of error. Even for multiscale signaling, the level probability of error achieved by using wavelet is lower than conventional flat-top signaling. The benefits are largest for channels with small B(D)T , in which the degradation due to fading is most severe.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF A REQUIREMENTS REPOSITORY FOR THE ADVANCED DATA ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING SYSTEM (ADAPS)

      Rush, David; Hafner, F. W. (Bill); Humphrey, Patsy; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Standards lead to the creation of requirements listings and test verification matrices allow developer and acquirer to assure themselves and each other that the requested system is actually what is being constructed. Further, in the intricacy of the software test description, traceability of test process to the requirement under test is mandated so the acceptance test process can be accomplished in an efficient manner. In the view of the logistician, the maintainability of the software and the repair of fond faults is primary, while these statistics can be gathered by the producer to ultimately enhance the Capability Maturity Module (CMM) rating of the vendor.