• COMBINING SENSORS WITH AIRBORNE TELEMETRY INSTRUMENTATION TO MAKE RANGE MEASUREMENTS AND OBTAIN AERODYNAMICS

      Davis, Bradford S.; Brown, T. Gordon; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Obtaining a projectile’s free-flight motion profile and its aerodynamic coefficients is typically accomplished at indoor test ranges using photographic techniques synchronized to timing stations. Since these ranges are relatively short, many discrete tests are necessary to compile a complete understanding of the projectile’s behavior. When Time Space Position Information (TSPI) is requested over long-range flights, it has been gathered with expensive video, laser, and radar trackers. These can be inaccurate at times and are limited to locations where the range equipment is able to track the projectile’s entire flight. With the ever-increasing sophistication of ordnance, such as smart and competent munitions that have multi-stage thrusting and maneuvering capability, it is becoming increasingly difficult to make the necessary measurements using current measurement techniques. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors and other electro-optical and magnetic sensors referenced to the sun and earth allow the projectile’s angular rates (spin, pitch, and yaw) and accelerations (axial and radial) to be measured throughout the flight. These sensors have been packaged into miniaturized telemetry instrumentation systems and placed within empty voids of the munition or in place of the fuze or warhead section. By combining this sensor data with a 6-DOF trajectory code, many of the projectiles aerodynamic coefficients including drag, static moment, and damping moment over a large Mach Number range and over multiple flight paths have been obtained. These techniques decrease the number of test shots required, reduce the complexity of the test setup, and reduce the test costs. Test data from instrumented tank, artillery, and rocket flight tests are presented in this report to show the current capability of making inflight measurements using telemetry-based techniques.
    • HSTSS BATTERY DEVELOPMENT FOR MISSILE & BALLISTIC TELEMETRY APPLICATIONS

      Burke, Lawrence W., Jr.; Bukowski, Edward; Newnham, Colin; Scholey, Neil; Hoge, William; Ye, Zhiyaun; U.S. Army Research Laboratory; Ultralife Batteries (UK) Ltd.; Ultralife Batteries, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The rapid growth in portable and wireless communication products has brought valuable advancements in battery technology. No longer is a battery restricted to a metal container in cylindrical or prismatic format. Today’s batteries (both primary and secondary) can be constructed in thin sheets and sealed in foil/plastic laminate packages. Along with improvements in energy density, temperature performance, and environmentally friendly materials, these batteries offer greater packaging options at a significantly lower development cost. Under the Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) program these battery technologies have been further developed for high-g telemetry applications. Both rechargeable solid state lithium-ion polymer and primary lithium manganese dioxide batteries are being developed in conjunction with Ultralife Batteries Inc. Prototypes of both chemistries have been successfully tested in a ballistic environment while providing high constant rates of discharge, which is essential to these types of applications. Electrical performance and environmental data are reported.
    • CUSTOMIZABLE MULTICHIP MODULES FOR HIGH-G TELEMETRY APPLICATIONS

      Muller, Peter; Burke, Larry; Sommerfeldt, Scott; Lunceford, Brent; Francomacaro, Shaun; Lehtonen, S. John; Army Research Laboratory; Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation; Johns Hopkins University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC) has developed a rapid turn around process for fabricating multichip modules (MCM’s) called the Flexible Manufacturing of MCM’s (FMM). The Army Research Lab (ARL) in co-operation with the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), has investigated the survivability of this technology in high-g applications. Comparisons were made to other packaging technologies by constructing a 3-channel digital recorder in this and two other competing technologies.
    • SYSTEM MODEL FOR A LOW DATA RATE FULL DUPLEX OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS LINK BETWEEN EARTH AND LEO

      Hazzard, D. A.; MacCannell, J. A.; Lee, G.; Selves, E. R.; Moore, D.; Payne, J. A.; Garrett, C. D.; Dahlstrom, N.; Shay, T. M.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      We present a novel communications link concept. This system offers the potential of low data rate full-duplex communications between earth and LEO. We will present a detailed link model for this system.
    • MINIATURE, SINGLE CHANNEL, MEMORY-BASED, HIGH-G ACCELERATION RECORDER (MILLIPEN)

      Rohwer, Tedd A.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The Instrumentation and Telemetry Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have been instrumenting earth penetrators for over thirty years. Recorded acceleration data is used to quantify penetrator performance. Penetrator testing has become more difficult as desired impact velocities have increased. This results in the need for small-scale test vehicles and miniature instrumentation. A miniature recorder will allow penetrator diameters to significantly decrease, opening the window of testable parameters. Full-scale test vehicles will also benefit from miniature recorders by using a less intrusive system to instrument internal arming, fusing, and firing components. This single channel concept is the latest design in an ongoing effort to miniaturize the size and reduce the power requirement of acceleration instrumentation. A micro-controller/memory based system provides the data acquisition, signal conditioning, power regulation, and data storage. This architecture allows the recorder, including both sensor and electronics, to occupy a volume of less than 1.5 cubic inches, draw less than 200mW of power, and record 15kHz data up to 40,000 gs. This paper will describe the development and operation of this miniature acceleration recorder. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under contract DE-AC04- 94Al85000."
    • A LABVIEW-BASED CHANNEL ERROR SIMULATOR

      Horan, Stephen; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A PC-based space channel error simulator that includes differing forward and return data links, independent statistical characterization of the data links, and link propagation delay has been developed. The LabVIEW programming language has been used to configure this containing all of the error generation and processing in software. The simulator is used for testing networking protocols in a simulated space channel environment and can be used for other types of channels as well. This paper describes the design goals, hardware configuration, software, and testing of the simulator. This technique allows for rapid development and validation of the simulator.
    • ASSESSMENT OF PHOTONIC SWITCHES AS FUTURE REPLACEMENT FOR ELECTRONIC CROSS-CONNECT SWITCHES

      Youssef, Ahmed H.; TYBRIN Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper presents the future of optical networking via photonic switches as a potential replacement for the existing electronic cross-connects. Although optical amplifiers are now mainstream and wave division multiplexing (WDM) systems are a commercial reality, the industry’s long-term vision is one of the all-optical network. This will require optical switching equipment such as all-optical or “photonic” cross-connect switches that will provide packet switching at an optical layer. Currently, as voice calls or data traffic are routed throughout Range and commercial networks, the information can travel through many fiber-optic segments which are linked together using electronic cross-connects. However, this electronic portion of the network is the bottleneck that is preventing the ideal network from achieving optimal speeds. Information is converted from light into an electronic signal, routed to the next circuit pathway, then converted back into light as it travels to the next network destination. In an all-optical network, the electronics are removed from the equation, eliminating the need to convert the signals and thereby significantly improving network performance and throughput. Removing the electronics improves network reliability and restoration speeds in the event of an outage, provides greater flexibility in network provisioning, and provides a smooth transition when migrating to future optical transmission technologies. Despite the fact that photonic switching remains uncommercialized, it now seems apparent that the core switches in both the public networks and DoD Range networks of the early 21st century will probably carry ATM cells over a photonic switching fabric.
    • ADVANCED RANGE TELEMETRY DYNAMIC MEASUREMENT LISTS

      Luten, Robert H.; Diekmann, Vernon; Luten Data Systems; Tybrin Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A typical telemetry system for aircraft flight-testing transmits one or several data streams to the ground for real-time display and analysis, and also records the same stream onboard for later playback. During test operations, only a fraction of the available data is used at any given time for real-time display or analysis. More efficient use of the RF channel could be realized if only the data needed for the current test point is transmitted, rather than the entirety of the data. Intelligent selection of a subset of the data stream can provide large reductions in the required telemetry downlink bandwidth. As one of the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) On-Board Data Management (OBDM) initiatives, a prototype on-board data selection subsystem is being developed and demonstrated. The demonstration utilizes COTS telemetry workstations to the maximum extent possible and includes “plug-in” data requestor, selection, and server components to implement the added DML functionality. A significant objective of the OBDM/DML project will be to validate RF channel models to help minimize the amount of flight-testing necessary to validate the DML concept. This paper will discuss the OBDM/DML architecture, integration of several custom components with the COTS portions of the ARTM “test bench”, and the current status of the OBDM/DML development and test program.
    • PTP EX: HIGH-RATE FRONT-END TELEMETRY AND COMMAND PROCESSING SYSTEM

      Ozkan, Siragan; Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the PTP EX, a 160 Mbps Telemetry and Command front-end system, which takes advantage of the state-of-the-art in networking and software technology, and the rapid development in PC components and FPGA design. Applications for the PTP EX include High-rate Remote Sensing Ground Stations, Satellite/Payload Integration and Testing, High-rate Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) System and High-rate Digital Recorder/Playback System. The PTP EX Interface Board, the MONARCH-EX PCI High Speed Frame Synchronizer/Telemetry Simulator with Reed-Solomon Encoder/Decoder, is designed with the following key capabilities: · 160 Mbps serial input for CCSDS Frame Processing (Frame Synchronization, Derandomization, CRC, Reed-Solomon decoding, time stamping, quality annotation, filtering, routing, and stripping); · 160 Mbps disk logging of Reed-Solomon corrected CCSDS frames with simultaneous real-time processing of spacecraft engineering data and ancillary payload data; · Onboard CCSDS Telemetry Simulation with 160 Mbps serial output (Sync Pattern, background pattern, ID counter, time stamp, CRC, Reed-Solomon encoding, Randomization, and Convolutional encoding); · Bit Error Rate Testing up to 160 Mbps (Pseudo-random transmitter and receiver with bit error counter). The innovative architecture of the MONARCH-EX allows for simultaneous logging of a high-rate data stream and real-time telemetry processing. The MONARCH-EX is also designed with the latest in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. FPGAs allow the board to be reprogrammed quickly and easily to perform different functions. Thus, the same hardware can be used for both Telemetry processing and simulation, and BERT applications. The PTP EX also takes advantage of the latest advances in off-the-shelf PC computing and technology, including Windows NT, Pentium II, PCI, Gigabit Ethernet, and RAID subsystems. Avtec Systems, Inc. is leveraging the PTP EX to take advantage of the continuous improvement in high-end PC server components.
    • DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF ANTENNA COUPLERS FOR CERTIFICATION OF AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION ANTENNAS

      Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Davis, Rick; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Instrumentation antennas installed on missiles and airborne targets are required to be tested and certified prior to flight. The antenna coupler is a means of certifying that the antenna is in proper working condition prior to deployment, as damage to the antennas may have occurred during transportation or installation. This coupler also provides a low cost means to evaluate and monitor the antenna throughout the various stages of design and assembly. These antennas can contain arrays for telemetry, beacon tracking, global positioning systems and flight termination. A failure by any one of these arrays could result in the loss of data or improper operation of the flight vehicle. Description of the design and function of antenna couplers will be discussed.
    • SIMULTANEOUS DATA PROCESSING OF MULTIPLE PCM STREAMS ON A PC BASED SYSTEM

      Weisenseel, Chuck; Lane, David; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The trend of current data acquisition and recording systems is to capture multiple streams of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data on a single media. The MARS II data recording system manufactured by Datatape, the Asynchronous Realtime Multiplexer and Output Reconstructor (ARMOR) systems manufactured by Calculex, Inc., and other systems on the market today are examples of this technology. The quantity of data recorded by these systems can be impressive, and can cause difficulties in post-test data processing in terms of data storage and turn around time to the analyst. This paper describes the system currently in use at the Strategic Systems Combined Test Force B-1B division to simultaneously post-flight process up to twelve independent PCM streams at twice real-time speeds. This system is entirely personal computer (PC) based running the Window NT 4.0 operating system with an internal ISA bus PCM decommutation card. Each PC is capable of receiving and processing one stream at a time. Therefore, the core of the system is twelve PCs each with decommutation capability. All PCs are connected via a fast ethernet network hub. The data processed by this system is IRIG 106 Chapter 8 converted MIL-STD-1553B bus data and Chapter 4 Class I and II PCM data. All system operator inputs are via Distributed Component Object Modeling (DCOM) provided by Microsoft Developers Studio, Versions 5.0 and 6.0, which allows control and status of multiple data processing PCs from one workstation. All data processing software is written in-house using Visual C++ and Visual Basic.
    • PROGRAM MANAGEMENT FOR 2001 INSTRUMENTATION

      Colangelo, Ronald; Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) is a model program; executing Department of Defense (DoD) initiatives, such as Acquisition Reform, Industry Partnering, and the use of Integrated Product Teams (IPT). HSTSS is using partnering because the expertise is spread across the industry, and integration is required to fabricate an instrumentation system that would meet tri-service test requirements. This paper will describe the programmatic and technical approaches being used to mitigate risk. In this paper key management strategies will be addressed. I will discuss the affect that the IPT process has had on HSTSS to make the program so successful. This paper will essentially discuss the acquisition strategy as it has evolved to mitigate obsolescence. The strategy has been influenced by acquisition streamlining , commercial technology and the limited production requirements. In this paper I will address how partnering and the use of commercial technology will reduce the program costs as well as the unit cost. The importance of working together within the services and sharing funds and technology to accomplish more with less will be addressed in this paper. This paper will address how we intend to deliver a low cost, microminiature, high g (100,000 g), modular instrumentation system. This instrumentation is to be used for indirect fire and direct fire projectiles and small missiles. Data is to be collected from launch to impact. The modules being developed will include but not be limited to batteries, transmitter, data acquisition chipset and a variety of sensors (pressure, spin rate, GPS, etc.).
    • USING SHORT-BLOCK TURBO CODES FOR TELEMETRY AND COMMAND

      Wang, Charles C.; Nguyen, Tien M.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The turbo code is a block code even though a convolutional encoder is used to construct codewords. Its performance depends on the code word length. Since the invention of the turbo code in 1993, most of the bit error rate (BER) evaluations have been performed using large block sizes, i.e., sizes greater than 1000, or even 10,000. However, for telemetry and command, a relatively short message (<500 bits) may be used. This paper investigates the turbo-coded BER performance for short packets. Fading channel is also considered. In addition, biased channel side information is adopted to improve the performance.
    • AFFTC RADIOMETRIC ANALYSIS AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

      Schmidt, Allen; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A broad class of Electro-Optical (E-O) sensors are continually being improved and/or developed for aircraft to assist in performance of such tasks as surveillance, target acquisition, target designation, and weapons delivery. These E-O sensors possess a variety of Electro-Optical links that encompass the spectral region of 0.4 to 14 micrometers. The Radiometric Lab at Edwards Air Force base is tasked to provide instrumentation support for projects that develop, test, and evaluate ground and airborne E-O systems/sensors. The heart of the labs support capability is the Radiometric Analysis and Measurement System (RAMS) and is contained within an all-terrain van. A variety of sub-systems exist within the van to meet support requirements. These include an 8 to 12 micron infrared (IR) imaging system, 4 to 14 micron spectral radiometer, 380 to 1068 nanometer spectral radiometer, 400 to 1800 nanometer imaging camera, 1.064 nd:YAG laser, off-axis collimator with IR and visible light sources, and a weather station. This paper describes the system, its capabilities and limitations, and its application in aircraft sensor evaluation.
    • THE ADAPS REAL-TIME / POST FLIGHT PROCESSING SYSTEM

      Kegel, Thomas; Lipe, Bruce; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the Real-Time/Post-Flight Processing System (RT/PFP) developed under the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing Systems (ADAPS) development program. The RT/PFP is currently being deployed at all Range Division Mission Control Facilities as the principal Range Division telemetry processing system. This paper provides an overview of the RT/PFP system, its current capabilities, and future enhancements being developed. The RT/PFP is currently used to support the F-22 flight test program, and to provide telemetry processing support for the AFFTC Range Safety Office. The RT/PFP is also used in a mobile configuration to support the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration program.
    • NEXT GENERATION DATA VISUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS FOR SATELLITE, NETWORK, AND GROUND STATION OPERATIONS

      Harrison, Irving; High Tower Software (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Recent years have seen a sharp rise in the size of satellite constellations. The monitoring and analysis tools in use today, however, were developed for smaller constellations and are ill-equipped to handle the increased volume of telemetry data. A new technology that can accommodate vast quantities of data is 3-D visualization. Data is abstracted to show the degree to which it deviates from normal, allowing an analyst to absorb the status of thousands of parameters in a single glance. Trend alarms notify the user of dangerous trends before data exceeds normal limits. Used appropriately, 3-D visualization can extend the life of a satellite by ten to twenty percent.
    • RESTORE PCM TELEMETRY SIGNAL WAVEFORM BY MAKING USE OF MULTI-SAMPLE RATE INTERPOLATION TECHNOLOGY

      Peng, Song; China Luoyang Optoelectro Technology Development Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      There are two misty understandings about PCM telemetry system in conventional concept: Waveform can not be restored accurately; to be restored accurately, a measured signal must be sampled at a higher sample rate. This paper discusses that by making use of multi-sample rate DSP technology, the sample rate of a measured signal can be reduced in transmission equipment, or system precision can be retained even if the performance of low pass filter declined.
    • DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIRBORNE FQPSK TRANSMITTER

      Horcher, Gregg; L-3 Aydin Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the design considerations used by Aydin Telemetry in the development of its high data rate Feher Patented Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (FQPSK) [1] frequency agile transmitter. We will address several key areas of interest to the Telemetry community, such as the use of commercially available VLSI parts to minimize parts count while maximizing reliability, adaptive filtering to accommodate a wide range of data rates, and user selectable features to achieve a universal transmitter design. User selectable features include differential encoder, 15 stage IRIG randomizer, and 1/2 rate convolutional FEC coding. This paper also addresses the spectral efficiency that can be achieved using a Class-C amplifier with FQPSK and the measured bit error rate (BER) performance versus Eb/No.
    • COMPARISON OF FILE TRANSFER USING SCPS FP AND TCP/IP FTP OVER A SIMULATED SATELLITE CHANNEL

      Horan, Stephen; Wang, Ru-hai; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The CCSDS SCPS FP file transfer performance is compared with that of TCP/IP FTP in a simulated satellite channel environment. The comparison is made as a function of channel bit error rate and forward/return data rates. From these simulations, we see that both protocols work well when the channel error rate is low (below 10^-6) and the SCPS FP generally performs better when the error rate is higher. We also noticed a strong effect on the SCPS FP throughput as a function of forward transmission rate when running unbalanced channel tests.
    • Mixing Staged Data Flow and Stream Computing Techniques in Modern Telemetry Data Acquisition/Processing Architectures

      Yates, James William; L-3 Communications Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Today’s flight test processing systems must handle many more complex data formats than just the PCM and analog FM data streams of yesterday. Many flight test programs, and their respective test facilities, are looking to leverage their computing assets across multiple customers and programs. Typically, these complex programs require the ability to handle video, packet, and avionics bus data in real time, in addition to handling the more traditional PCM format. Current and future telemetry processing systems must have an architecture that will support the acquisition and processing of these varied data streams. This paper describes various architectural designs of both staged data flow and stream computing architectures, including current and future implementations. Processor types, bus design, and the effects of varying data types, including PCM, video, and packet telemetry, will be discussed.