Lui, Gee L.; Tsai, Kuang; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A data-aided approach to symbol time and carrier phase synchronization applicable to general continuous phase modulation (CPM) signals with modulation index 0.5 is described. Simulated BER performance of two receivers equipped with these synchronizers is presented for a GMSK BT=1/5 signal received in noise with constant and dynamic synchronization errors. Results demonstrate that these synchronizers provide a very promising and yet simple solution to the tracking problem in the design of coherent CPM receivers.

      Colangelo, Ronald; Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) is a model program; executing Department of Defense (DoD) initiatives, such as Acquisition Reform, Industry Partnering, and the use of Integrated Product Teams (IPT). HSTSS is using partnering because the expertise is spread across the industry, and integration is required to fabricate an instrumentation system that would meet tri-service test requirements. This paper will describe the programmatic and technical approaches being used to mitigate risk. In this paper key management strategies will be addressed. I will discuss the affect that the IPT process has had on HSTSS to make the program so successful. This paper will essentially discuss the acquisition strategy as it has evolved to mitigate obsolescence. The strategy has been influenced by acquisition streamlining , commercial technology and the limited production requirements. In this paper I will address how partnering and the use of commercial technology will reduce the program costs as well as the unit cost. The importance of working together within the services and sharing funds and technology to accomplish more with less will be addressed in this paper. This paper will address how we intend to deliver a low cost, microminiature, high g (100,000 g), modular instrumentation system. This instrumentation is to be used for indirect fire and direct fire projectiles and small missiles. Data is to be collected from launch to impact. The modules being developed will include but not be limited to batteries, transmitter, data acquisition chipset and a variety of sensors (pressure, spin rate, GPS, etc.).

      Wang, Charles C.; Nguyen, Tien M.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The turbo code is a block code even though a convolutional encoder is used to construct codewords. Its performance depends on the code word length. Since the invention of the turbo code in 1993, most of the bit error rate (BER) evaluations have been performed using large block sizes, i.e., sizes greater than 1000, or even 10,000. However, for telemetry and command, a relatively short message (<500 bits) may be used. This paper investigates the turbo-coded BER performance for short packets. Fading channel is also considered. In addition, biased channel side information is adopted to improve the performance.

      Tsai, Kuang; Lui, Gee L.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) is a form of Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) whose spectral occupancy can be easily tailored to the available channel bandwidth by a suitable choice of signal parameters. The constant envelope of the GMSK signal enables it to corporate with saturated power amplifier without the spectral re-growth problem. This paper provides a quantitative synopsis of binary GMSK signals in terms of their bandwidth occupancy and coherent demodulation performance. A detailed account of how to demodulate such signals using the Viterbi Algorithm (VA) is given, along with analytical power spectral density (PSD) and computer simulated bit-error-rate (BER) results for various signal BT products. The effect of adjacent channel interference (ACI) is also quantified. Ideal synchronization for both symbol time and carrier phase is assumed.

      Olsen, Donald P.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Most traditional approaches to TT&C have employed waveforms that are neither very power nor bandwidth efficient. A new approach to TT&C waveforms greatly improves these efficiencies. Binary Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) provides a constant envelope bandwidth efficient signal for applications above about 10 Kbps. The constant envelope preserves the spectrum through saturated amplifiers. It provides the best power efficiency when used with turbo coding. For protection against various kinds of burst errors it includes the hybrid interleaving for memory and delay efficiency and packet compatible operations in Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) environments. Commanding, telemetry, mission data transmission, and tracking are multiplexed in TDMA format.
    • Study on Telemetry Data Authentication Protocol in Arms Control Verification

      Qiang, Huang; Fan, Yang; Xinan Electronnic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The arms control verification activity is executed between countries, so various telemetry data will be remote-transmitted in the public signal channel and can be easily tampered. In order to secure this data’s authenticity and integrality, the paper has established a Multi-layer Data Authentication Protocol (MDAP) in which the key cryptographic technologies are digital signature and authentication. Meanwhile, overall evaluations of MDAP have been presented. We proved the MDAP is secure.

      Lui, Gee L.; Tsai, Kuang; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Three different demodulators applicable to the coherent demodulation of binary Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) signal are described and their performance compared. These include a near-optimal trellis demodulator, which utilizes two matched filters and Viterbi algorithm to carry out maximum likelihood sequence estimation, and a singlefilter threshold demodulator with and without pulse equalization. The performance of these demodulators in noise and adjacent channel interference (ACI) are compared for several signal BT products. The equalized threshold demodulator is shown to perform nearly as well as the near-optimal trellis demodulator in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN), and substantially outperform the trellis demodulator under severe ACI condition.

      Bow, R. T.; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The design, implementation, and performance of a digital modem employing Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK) is described. The GMSK modem is implemented in field programmable gate array (FPGA) chips, and a laboratory test setup was developed to validate its performance for a signal BT value of 1/5. The measured spectrum of the GMSK modem and its bit error rate (BER) performance, which are found in very close agreement with those of theory and simulation, are presented in this paper.

      Lachapelle, John; McGrath, Finbarr; Osgood, Karina; Egri, Bob; Moysenko, Andy; Henderson, Greg; Burke, Lawrence W.; Faust, Jonah N.; M/A-COM Corporation; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The U.S. Army’s Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor Systems (HSTSS) program has engaged the M/A-COM Corporation to work in the development of a highly accurate, crystal controlled telemetry transmitter chip set to be used in Army and other U.S. military munitions. A critical factor in this work is the operating environment of up to 100,000-g launch accelerations. To support the Army in this project, M/A-COM is developing integrated Voltage Controlled Oscillators (VCO) for L and S band, a silicon synthesizer/phase locked loop (PLL) IC, and a family of power amplifiers. Lastly, the transmitter module will be miniaturized and hardened using M/A-COM’s latest chip-onboard mixed technology manufacturing capabilities. This new chip set will provide the telemetry engineer with unprecedented design flexibility. This paper will review the overall transmitter system design and provide an overview for each functional integrated circuit.

      Muller, Peter; Burke, Larry; Sommerfeldt, Scott; Lunceford, Brent; Francomacaro, Shaun; Lehtonen, S. John; Army Research Laboratory; Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation; Johns Hopkins University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation (MCC) has developed a rapid turn around process for fabricating multichip modules (MCM’s) called the Flexible Manufacturing of MCM’s (FMM). The Army Research Lab (ARL) in co-operation with the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), has investigated the survivability of this technology in high-g applications. Comparisons were made to other packaging technologies by constructing a 3-channel digital recorder in this and two other competing technologies.

      Davis, Bradford S.; Brown, T. Gordon; U.S. Army Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Obtaining a projectile’s free-flight motion profile and its aerodynamic coefficients is typically accomplished at indoor test ranges using photographic techniques synchronized to timing stations. Since these ranges are relatively short, many discrete tests are necessary to compile a complete understanding of the projectile’s behavior. When Time Space Position Information (TSPI) is requested over long-range flights, it has been gathered with expensive video, laser, and radar trackers. These can be inaccurate at times and are limited to locations where the range equipment is able to track the projectile’s entire flight. With the ever-increasing sophistication of ordnance, such as smart and competent munitions that have multi-stage thrusting and maneuvering capability, it is becoming increasingly difficult to make the necessary measurements using current measurement techniques. Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) sensors and other electro-optical and magnetic sensors referenced to the sun and earth allow the projectile’s angular rates (spin, pitch, and yaw) and accelerations (axial and radial) to be measured throughout the flight. These sensors have been packaged into miniaturized telemetry instrumentation systems and placed within empty voids of the munition or in place of the fuze or warhead section. By combining this sensor data with a 6-DOF trajectory code, many of the projectiles aerodynamic coefficients including drag, static moment, and damping moment over a large Mach Number range and over multiple flight paths have been obtained. These techniques decrease the number of test shots required, reduce the complexity of the test setup, and reduce the test costs. Test data from instrumented tank, artillery, and rocket flight tests are presented in this report to show the current capability of making inflight measurements using telemetry-based techniques.
    • The Impact of the Common Data Security Architecture (CDSA) on Telemetry Post Processing Architectures

      Kalibjian, Jeffrey R.; CounterSign Software, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      It is an increasing requirement that commercial satellite telemetry data product be protected from unauthorized access during transmission to ground stations. While the technology (cryptography) to secure telemetry data product is well known, the software infrastructure to support such security is costly, and very customized. Further, many software packages have difficulty interoperating. The Common Data Security Architecture [1] [2] [3] (originally proposed by the Intel Corporation, and now adopted by the Open Group), is a set of common cryptographic [4] and public key infrastructure (PKI) application programming interfaces (APIs) which will facilitate better cryptographic interoperability as well as making cryptographic resources more readily available in telemetry post processing environments.
    • Mixing Staged Data Flow and Stream Computing Techniques in Modern Telemetry Data Acquisition/Processing Architectures

      Yates, James William; L-3 Communications Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Today’s flight test processing systems must handle many more complex data formats than just the PCM and analog FM data streams of yesterday. Many flight test programs, and their respective test facilities, are looking to leverage their computing assets across multiple customers and programs. Typically, these complex programs require the ability to handle video, packet, and avionics bus data in real time, in addition to handling the more traditional PCM format. Current and future telemetry processing systems must have an architecture that will support the acquisition and processing of these varied data streams. This paper describes various architectural designs of both staged data flow and stream computing architectures, including current and future implementations. Processor types, bus design, and the effects of varying data types, including PCM, video, and packet telemetry, will be discussed.
    • A PC Database and GUI for Telemetry Data Reduction

      Reinsmith, Lee; Surber, Steven; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The Telemetry Definition and Processing (TDAP II) application is a PC-based software tool that meets the varied needs - both now and into the 21st century - of instrumentation engineers, data analysts, test engineers, and project personnel in the Test and Evaluation (T&E) community. TDAP II uses state-of-the-art commercial software technology that includes a Microsoft Access 97Ô database and a Microsoft Visual BasicÔ Graphical User Interface (GUI) for users to view and navigate the database. Developed by the Test and Analysis Division of the 96th Communications Group for the tenants of the Air Armament Center (AAC), Eglin AFB Florida, TDAP II provides a centralized repository for both aircraft and weapons instrumentation descriptions and telemetry EU conversion calibrations. Operating in a client/server environment, TDAP II can be effectively used on a small or large network as well as on both a classified or unclassified Intranet or Internet. This paper describes the components and design of this application, along with its operational flexibility and varied uses resulting from the chosen commercial software technology.

      Weisenseel, Chuck; Lane, David; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The trend of current data acquisition and recording systems is to capture multiple streams of Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) data on a single media. The MARS II data recording system manufactured by Datatape, the Asynchronous Realtime Multiplexer and Output Reconstructor (ARMOR) systems manufactured by Calculex, Inc., and other systems on the market today are examples of this technology. The quantity of data recorded by these systems can be impressive, and can cause difficulties in post-test data processing in terms of data storage and turn around time to the analyst. This paper describes the system currently in use at the Strategic Systems Combined Test Force B-1B division to simultaneously post-flight process up to twelve independent PCM streams at twice real-time speeds. This system is entirely personal computer (PC) based running the Window NT 4.0 operating system with an internal ISA bus PCM decommutation card. Each PC is capable of receiving and processing one stream at a time. Therefore, the core of the system is twelve PCs each with decommutation capability. All PCs are connected via a fast ethernet network hub. The data processed by this system is IRIG 106 Chapter 8 converted MIL-STD-1553B bus data and Chapter 4 Class I and II PCM data. All system operator inputs are via Distributed Component Object Modeling (DCOM) provided by Microsoft Developers Studio, Versions 5.0 and 6.0, which allows control and status of multiple data processing PCs from one workstation. All data processing software is written in-house using Visual C++ and Visual Basic.

      Penna, Sergio D.; Rios, Domingos B.; EMBRAER Flight Test Division; LE Consultoria (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Upgrading or replacing production systems is always a very resource-consuming task, in particular if the systems being replaced are quite specialized, such as those serving any Flight Test Ground Station. In the recent past a large number of Ground Station systems were based in Digital’s VAX/VMS architecture. The computer industry then expanded very fast and by 1990 realtime PCM data processing systems totally dependent on hardware and software designed for IBM-PC compatible micro-computers were becoming available. A complete system replacement in a typical Ground Station can take from one to several years to become a reality. It depends on how complex the original system is, how complex the resulting system needs to be, how much resources are available to support the operation, how soon the organization needs it, etc. This paper intends to review the main concerns encountered during the replacement of a typical VAX/VMS-based by an Intel-Windows NT-based Ground Station. It covers the transition from original requirements to totally new requirements, from mini-computers to micro-computers, from DMA to high-speed LAN data transfers, while conserving some key architectural features. This 8-month development effort will expand EMBRAER’s capability in acquiring, processing and archiving PCM data in the next few years at a lower cost, while preserving compatibility with old legacy flight test data.

      Ozkan, Siragan; Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the PTP EX, a 160 Mbps Telemetry and Command front-end system, which takes advantage of the state-of-the-art in networking and software technology, and the rapid development in PC components and FPGA design. Applications for the PTP EX include High-rate Remote Sensing Ground Stations, Satellite/Payload Integration and Testing, High-rate Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) System and High-rate Digital Recorder/Playback System. The PTP EX Interface Board, the MONARCH-EX PCI High Speed Frame Synchronizer/Telemetry Simulator with Reed-Solomon Encoder/Decoder, is designed with the following key capabilities: · 160 Mbps serial input for CCSDS Frame Processing (Frame Synchronization, Derandomization, CRC, Reed-Solomon decoding, time stamping, quality annotation, filtering, routing, and stripping); · 160 Mbps disk logging of Reed-Solomon corrected CCSDS frames with simultaneous real-time processing of spacecraft engineering data and ancillary payload data; · Onboard CCSDS Telemetry Simulation with 160 Mbps serial output (Sync Pattern, background pattern, ID counter, time stamp, CRC, Reed-Solomon encoding, Randomization, and Convolutional encoding); · Bit Error Rate Testing up to 160 Mbps (Pseudo-random transmitter and receiver with bit error counter). The innovative architecture of the MONARCH-EX allows for simultaneous logging of a high-rate data stream and real-time telemetry processing. The MONARCH-EX is also designed with the latest in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. FPGAs allow the board to be reprogrammed quickly and easily to perform different functions. Thus, the same hardware can be used for both Telemetry processing and simulation, and BERT applications. The PTP EX also takes advantage of the latest advances in off-the-shelf PC computing and technology, including Windows NT, Pentium II, PCI, Gigabit Ethernet, and RAID subsystems. Avtec Systems, Inc. is leveraging the PTP EX to take advantage of the continuous improvement in high-end PC server components.

      Cronauer, Tom; Cronk, Steve; Lipe, Bruce; Air Force Flight Test Center Range Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The Range Division of the 412th Test Wing has recently had to incorporate high power RF transmission, remote monitoring and remote operation of systems to support the new Range Safety function incorporated within the Range. The sub-systems that make-up the Range Safety System are: Command Transmitter System (CTS) Command Panel System (CPS) Instantaneous Impact Prediction (IIP) (modified TECCS) Range Safety Data Display (ADAPS) Range Safety Data Recording (RaSDR) Flight Termination Test Set Being aware of the increasing importance of cost associated with ground and flight testing, the Range has structured its systems around Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) hardware and software and remote operations where ever and when ever possible. This paper will outline the Ranges approach to Range safety addressing the rational behind the system design and making the customer happy. We will also discuss typical operations and how the Range maintains redundancy and RCC compliance.

      Meier, Robert C.; Cincinnati Electronics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Collecting and analyzing vehicle performance data is an essential part of the launch process. Performance data is used to determine mission success. Performance data also provides essential feedback to the launch vehicle design engineers. This feedback can be used to improve the overall vehicle design and thereby improve the probability of a successful launch. Various Telemetry products are used to gather and process critical information on board launch vehicles. Data is transmitted by RF links to fixed or mobile receiving stations. These Telemetry products are ruggedized for the extreme launch environments. This paper discusses the use of video telemetry as a means of providing launch vehicle performance data.

      McMahon, Michael; Rhoads, Albert; Winter, Frank; Pierson, Graham; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A programmable RF ASIC is described which provides most of the RF functions within a next generation S-band transponder for space applications. The unique 18-contact LCC device can be programmed to perform a variety of RF and analog functions. This single space qualified high speed bipolar "function toolbox" is used in 39 locations throughout the transponder to provide a flexible radio architecture. The ASIC design process, internal electrical design, circuit application, space environment performance, and RF testing of the RF ASIC are described. This proprietary part provides a space-qualified solution for RF circuitry that can be applied to a variety of space application products.