Hull, J. W., Jr.; TYBRIN Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper provides a current review of a new installed system test facility (ISTF) capability for the Air Force and Navy. The requirements, design characteristics, and status of the joint-service Communications, Navigation, Identification Simulator (CNIS) developments will be covered along with their relationships with the Air Force’s Avionics Test and Integration Complex (ATIC) and the Navy’s Air Combat Environment Test and Evaluation Facility (ACETEF) ISTFs. These developments provide the services an interactive spatially, temporally, and tactically coherent signal environment for development and operational test and evaluation. The Joint Communications Simulator (JCS) and Joint Data Link Simulator (JDLS) capabilities, integration aspects, and development schedules (2000 IOC) will also be addressed. Finally, installed system test and evaluation concepts, both Air Force and Navy, using the simulators will be previewed to assist upcoming development programs in identifying potential applications.
    • Shallow Water Training Range

      Reid, Robert; Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      During the cold war, undersea warfare (USW) was perceived as a large-area, deep-water operation. The need for USW has recently shifted to the shallow water, littoral environment. Consequently, US naval forces must train to operate in these littoral environments where regional conflicts are most likely to occur. In light of these requirements the Shallow Water Training Range (SWTR) has been initiated. Telemetry is used in the following areas of SWTR: fiber optic, microwave, RF and underwater. Only phase 1 of 8 phases of the program is executing therefore SWTR is a good opportunity for telemetry industry involvement.

      Schuite, Gerard; South African Air Force (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The aim of this presentation is to give an overview of TFDC’s capabilities as a flight test centre and the approach with respect to the management of flight testing.

      Penna, Sergio D.; Rios, Domingos B.; EMBRAER Flight Test Division; LE Consultoria (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Upgrading or replacing production systems is always a very resource-consuming task, in particular if the systems being replaced are quite specialized, such as those serving any Flight Test Ground Station. In the recent past a large number of Ground Station systems were based in Digital’s VAX/VMS architecture. The computer industry then expanded very fast and by 1990 realtime PCM data processing systems totally dependent on hardware and software designed for IBM-PC compatible micro-computers were becoming available. A complete system replacement in a typical Ground Station can take from one to several years to become a reality. It depends on how complex the original system is, how complex the resulting system needs to be, how much resources are available to support the operation, how soon the organization needs it, etc. This paper intends to review the main concerns encountered during the replacement of a typical VAX/VMS-based by an Intel-Windows NT-based Ground Station. It covers the transition from original requirements to totally new requirements, from mini-computers to micro-computers, from DMA to high-speed LAN data transfers, while conserving some key architectural features. This 8-month development effort will expand EMBRAER’s capability in acquiring, processing and archiving PCM data in the next few years at a lower cost, while preserving compatibility with old legacy flight test data.

      Mason, Terry; Thames, Fred (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The ultra high capacity disk-based data recorders now entering service offer not just a convenient and inexpensive alternative to conventional tape systems for applications like Telemetry and Flight Test but also a unique opportunity to rethink the classical models for data capture, analysis and storage. Based on ‘open architecture’ interface standards- typically SCSI-this new generation of products represents an entirely new approach to the way data is handled. But the techniques they employ are equally applicable to any SCSI storage device. This Paper discusses a range of practical scenarios illustrating how it is now possible to `mix-and-match’ recording technologies at will-disk-array, DLT, DTF, ExaByte, JAZ, ZIP, DVD, etc.- to produce an almost infinite combination of readily scaleable plug-and-play data capture, analysis and archiving solutions. The cost and reliability benefits arising from the use of standard mass-produced storage sub-systems are also considered

      Luten, Robert H.; Diekmann, Vernon; Luten Data Systems; Tybrin Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A typical telemetry system for aircraft flight-testing transmits one or several data streams to the ground for real-time display and analysis, and also records the same stream onboard for later playback. During test operations, only a fraction of the available data is used at any given time for real-time display or analysis. More efficient use of the RF channel could be realized if only the data needed for the current test point is transmitted, rather than the entirety of the data. Intelligent selection of a subset of the data stream can provide large reductions in the required telemetry downlink bandwidth. As one of the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) On-Board Data Management (OBDM) initiatives, a prototype on-board data selection subsystem is being developed and demonstrated. The demonstration utilizes COTS telemetry workstations to the maximum extent possible and includes “plug-in” data requestor, selection, and server components to implement the added DML functionality. A significant objective of the OBDM/DML project will be to validate RF channel models to help minimize the amount of flight-testing necessary to validate the DML concept. This paper will discuss the OBDM/DML architecture, integration of several custom components with the COTS portions of the ARTM “test bench”, and the current status of the OBDM/DML development and test program.
    • A Modular Approach to Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) Development

      Carpenter, Robert E.; Schneider, Dennis; Advanced Systems Technology, Inc.; Simulation Training and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      In the past, typical telemetry systems for munitions and small missiles have often comprised adaptations of monolithic components originally conceived for aircraft or large missile applications. Programs have developed expensive monolithic systems to meet the needs of specific programs, but they often require extensive redesign for use by other potential users. The tri-service HSTSS Integrated Product Team (IPT) determined that a monolithic “one size fits all” approach has technical and fiscal risks. Thus, a modular approach to system development has been adopted. The HSTSS IPT is flight qualifying commercial microelectronic products designed for environments similar to that of munition interiors, and is developing microelectronic components required to complete a subminiature system. HSTSS components can then be integrated to support the form factor and measurement needs of any given user. In addition to offering a flexible system to the user, the HSTSS lends itself to upgradability (modernization through spares).

      Rice, Michael; Landon, David; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Data from ARTM channel sounding test flights is examined to characterize the dynamic channel behavior of aeronautical telemetry channels. The dynamic behavior is characterized using the Doppler power spectrum. The width of the Doppler power spectrum is the Doppler bandwidth of the channel which indicates the required bandwidth of adaptive detection techniques such as adaptive equalization, adaptive modulation, adaptive channel selection and adaptive error control coding. Data collected from ARTM Flight 11 suggest a Doppler bandwidth exceeding 6.7 Hz for the channel, but greater accuracy and resolution will only be possible with more data.

      Hart, Alan D.; US ARMY YUMA PROVING GROUND (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper briefly reports on concepts for hardening (physically toughening) crystal reference oscillators for the highly integrated program known as HSTSS. Within the HSTSS program is the L & S band transmitter development contract. The harshest requirements for this contract are surviving and functioning, to within 20 ppm of its center frequency, 30 ms after sustaining a shock pulse of 100,000 (g) for 0.5 ms on any axis. Additional requirements call for the transmitter to be no larger than 0.2 in3, and to operate within a 20 ppm frequency stability throughout the temperature range of -400 to +850 centigrade and during centrifugal spins of up to 300 Hz or 25,000 (g). Fundamentally the question is, is it feasible for any telemetry system to be capable of withstanding such harsh conditions and, to be practical on all DoD Test Ranges, still adhere to the stability tolerance guidelines set forth by the Range Commanders Council on Telemetry Standards - IRIG 106-96? Under "normal" conditions, stability requirements for "Range" transmitters are easily satisfied through the use of off-the-shelf crystal reference oscillators which provide the reference frequencies required within a transmitter’s phase lock loop circuitry. Unfortunately, the oscillator is also the most vulnerable part of a transmitter to the conditions listed and is the key to this problem. The oscillator’s weak points are in its resonator’s fragile quartz structure (the blank) and support mechanism. The challenge is to invent and adapt this area to these newer harsher conditions and to do it in the smallest space ever required.

      Noone, Estelle S.; Parker, Kevin; Swope, Janice; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Spacecraft communication simulators are extremely useful for integration and testing of spacecraft control centers and supporting ground systems. To reduce development costs, a Windows NT PC-based simulation system is being developed to support testing for upcoming NASA missions. The spacecraft simulation suite of tools integrates modules within a core infrastructure and is customized to meet mission unique specifications not met by the baseline system.

      Claffey, Douglas J.; Analytical Graphics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Advances in high-level architectures in both hardware and software now allow 3D software modeling and interactive simulation to be done from the desktop computer. This paper will address the increasing demand for 3D software modeling and simulation applications throughout the aerospace industry, what kinds of tools are currently available, how operational data is being used in real-world applications, and how to couple real-time data with terrain models and simulation tools to model and analyze operational environments. The following specific areas will be addressed: · The creation of real-world environments by merging virtual objects and ground data with interactive simulation and advanced graphics. · Recent advances in software modeling and simulation tools, which mirror general industry trends. · The ongoing effort to establish standards for modeling and simulation applications throughout the aerospace industry. · Examples of applications using high-level architecture-enabling technology like the visual display of detailed terrain data, drag-and-drop imagery, the enhancement of graphical performance without compromising the quality of rendered data, and expanded support for raster file format images.

      Nötzel, Klaus Ralf; Deutsche Telekom AG (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Deutsche Telekom has been operating different communication satellites for several years. DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.) with its GSOC (German Space Operation Center) is responsible for German space missions. Deutsche Telekom and DLR formed a joint venture to build a Ku-Band station for back-up purposes and to provide LEOP services in the Ku-Band for Europe. The station is located at the DLR premises near Munich. The new station is operational since 1998. The aim was to design the system in a way that the operation effort in costs aspects and human intervention is minimized. All operational tasks can be performed besides the routine work of one person at the Satellite Control Center (SCC). The station is remote controlled from different SCCs. The SCC has one consistent Human Machine Interfaces which includes not only the Ku-Band station but also the backup S-Band stations at different locations. This paper describes conception and operation of a LEOP Ku-Band Station with shared users at different sites.

      Hamory, Philip J.; Diamond, John K.; Bertelrud, Arild; NASA; Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the design and calibration of a four-channel, airborne, swept-tuned spectrum analyzer used in two hypersonic flight experiments for characterizing dynamic data up to 25 kHz. Built mainly from commercially available analog function modules, the analyzer proved useful for an application with limited telemetry bandwidth, physical weight and volume, and electrical power. The authors discuss considerations that affect the frequency and amplitude calibrations, limitations of the design, and example flight data.

      Horan, Stephen; Wang, Ru-hai; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The CCSDS SCPS FP file transfer performance is compared with that of TCP/IP FTP in a simulated satellite channel environment. The comparison is made as a function of channel bit error rate and forward/return data rates. From these simulations, we see that both protocols work well when the channel error rate is low (below 10^-6) and the SCPS FP generally performs better when the error rate is higher. We also noticed a strong effect on the SCPS FP throughput as a function of forward transmission rate when running unbalanced channel tests.

      Haiou, Zheng; Naitong, Zhang; Harbin Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      In this paper, a hybrid frequency division multiple access/code division multiple access (FDMA/CDMA) system in a Rician fading channel is described and analysis. The performance of the hybrid system is compared with a wideband CDMA system, which occupies the same total bandwidth. The results show that for DPSK modulation with a RIKE receiver, a hybrid system can have a greater capacity with a strong direct path component or a high signal to noise ratio (SNR). Otherwise, a wideband system remains optimal.

      Horan, Stephen; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A PC-based space channel error simulator that includes differing forward and return data links, independent statistical characterization of the data links, and link propagation delay has been developed. The LabVIEW programming language has been used to configure this containing all of the error generation and processing in software. The simulator is used for testing networking protocols in a simulated space channel environment and can be used for other types of channels as well. This paper describes the design goals, hardware configuration, software, and testing of the simulator. This technique allows for rapid development and validation of the simulator.
    • Cost Beneficial Solution for High Rate Data Processing

      Mirchandani, Chandru; Fisher, David; Ghuman, Parminder; Lockheed-Martin Space Mission Systems; Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      GSFC in keeping with the tenets of NASA has been aggressively investigating new technologies for spacecraft and ground communications and processing. The application of these technologies, together with standardized telemetry formats, make it possible to build systems that provide high-performance at low cost in a short development cycle. The High Rate Telemetry Acquisition System (HRTAS) Prototype is one such effort that has validated Goddard's push towards faster, better and cheaper. The HRTAS system architecture is based on the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus and VLSI Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). These ASICs perform frame synchronization, bit-transition density decoding, cyclic redundancy code (CRC) error checking, Reed-Solomon error detection/correction, data unit sorting, packet extraction, annotation and other service processing. This processing in performed at rates of up to and greater than 150 Mbps sustained using a high-end performance workstation running standard UNIX O/S, (DEC 4100 with DEC UNIX or better). ASICs are also used for the digital reception of Intermediate Frequency (IF) telemetry as well as the spacecraft command interface for commands and data simulations. To improve the efficiency of the back-end processing, the level zero processing sorting element is being developed. This will provide a complete hardware solution to extracting and sorting source data units and making these available in separate files on a remote disk system. Research is on going to extend this development to higher levels of the science data processing pipeline. The fact that level 1 and higher processing is instrument dependent; an acceleration approach utilizing ASICs is not feasible. The advent of field programmable gate array (FPGA) based computing, referred to as adaptive or reconfigurable computing, provides a processing performance close to ASIC levels while maintaining much of the programmability of traditional microprocessor based systems. This adaptive computing paradigm has been successfully demonstrated and its cost performance validated, to make it a viable technology for the level one and higher processing element for the HRTAS. Higher levels of processing are defined as the extraction of useful information from source telemetry data. This information has to be made available to the science data user in a very short period of time. This paper will describe this low cost solution for high rate data processing at level one and higher processing levels. The paper will further discuss the cost-benefit of this technology in terms of cost, schedule, reliability and performance.

      Vines, Roger M.; Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Coupling a distortion-free telemetry signal from an encanistered missile by using a pickup antenna inside the canister can be difficult, because the RF energy leaving the missile antenna travels through the canister and is reflected and absorbed in a complex manner before being received by the pickup antenna. In this paper the distortion incurred by a PCM/FM signal is described and used to predict the resulting distortion on the video after demodulation. Effects on bit error rate are presented as a function of delay distortion and bit rate. A demonstrated method of receiving a relatively undistorted telemetry signal using a pickup antenna is described.

      Cheng, Miao Liu; Beijing Institute Of Tracking & Telecommunication Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The telemetry system has been used in many important fields. Generally speaking, it’s easy to judge whether the system operation is successful or not. But when it is running normally, it is not easy to evaluate the medium state (between success and fail) of the telemetry system, likes a man’s spirit state. In this paper, a method with fuzzy theory is brought forward to evaluate the “Spirit State” of the telemetry system. This method can be used to evaluate the telemetry system, or to evaluate other important system states. By this method, the estimation to the mission will be very exact and reliable.

      Kegel, Thomas; Lipe, Bruce; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the Real-Time/Post-Flight Processing System (RT/PFP) developed under the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing Systems (ADAPS) development program. The RT/PFP is currently being deployed at all Range Division Mission Control Facilities as the principal Range Division telemetry processing system. This paper provides an overview of the RT/PFP system, its current capabilities, and future enhancements being developed. The RT/PFP is currently used to support the F-22 flight test program, and to provide telemetry processing support for the AFFTC Range Safety Office. The RT/PFP is also used in a mobile configuration to support the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration program.