Ozkan, Siragan; Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the PTP EX, a 160 Mbps Telemetry and Command front-end system, which takes advantage of the state-of-the-art in networking and software technology, and the rapid development in PC components and FPGA design. Applications for the PTP EX include High-rate Remote Sensing Ground Stations, Satellite/Payload Integration and Testing, High-rate Bit Error Rate Test (BERT) System and High-rate Digital Recorder/Playback System. The PTP EX Interface Board, the MONARCH-EX PCI High Speed Frame Synchronizer/Telemetry Simulator with Reed-Solomon Encoder/Decoder, is designed with the following key capabilities: · 160 Mbps serial input for CCSDS Frame Processing (Frame Synchronization, Derandomization, CRC, Reed-Solomon decoding, time stamping, quality annotation, filtering, routing, and stripping); · 160 Mbps disk logging of Reed-Solomon corrected CCSDS frames with simultaneous real-time processing of spacecraft engineering data and ancillary payload data; · Onboard CCSDS Telemetry Simulation with 160 Mbps serial output (Sync Pattern, background pattern, ID counter, time stamp, CRC, Reed-Solomon encoding, Randomization, and Convolutional encoding); · Bit Error Rate Testing up to 160 Mbps (Pseudo-random transmitter and receiver with bit error counter). The innovative architecture of the MONARCH-EX allows for simultaneous logging of a high-rate data stream and real-time telemetry processing. The MONARCH-EX is also designed with the latest in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) technology. FPGAs allow the board to be reprogrammed quickly and easily to perform different functions. Thus, the same hardware can be used for both Telemetry processing and simulation, and BERT applications. The PTP EX also takes advantage of the latest advances in off-the-shelf PC computing and technology, including Windows NT, Pentium II, PCI, Gigabit Ethernet, and RAID subsystems. Avtec Systems, Inc. is leveraging the PTP EX to take advantage of the continuous improvement in high-end PC server components.

      Champion, James; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Within the industry, telemetry receivers are used in ground-based telemetry receiving stations to receive telemetry data from air or space-based sources. Equipment for the typical telemetry application is widely available. But when requirements create the need for a space-based telemetry receiver to uplink data from the ground, what are the choices for equipment? In such situations, adapting COTS equipment may present the only solution to meet delivery and budgetary constraints. The first part of this paper provides technical and contractual points a COTS supplier needs to consider when bidding on a COTS contract. The second part of this paper covers a project concerned with modification of a general-purpose ground telemetry receiver for use on the International Space Station. The information within the paper is useful to other engineers and companies considering contracts to modify COTS equipment for use on Shuttle or other space-based projects.
    • A Regional Application Center (RAC) Ingest System

      Brentzel, Kelvin; Coronado, Patrick; Brown, Barbie; Ghuman, Parminder; Harris, Carol; Global Science & Technology Inc.; NASA; Intellisource Information Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Over the next ten years, NASA’s Earth Science Enterprise Program is scheduled to deploy a series of remote sensing satellites that require high-rate downlinks. As part of the program, a goal has been defined to provide the user community with a low-cost solution for receiving this Earth Science spaceborne remotely sensed data. This paper describes one approach, the High-Rate Ingest System (HRIS), which can serve as a gateway between the satellites and the information systems. HRIS is capable of ingesting a UQPSK downlink at rates up to 200Mbps in real-time and provide a level 0 data product with rapid turnaround. The commercial components of the HRIS include a high performance 3.1-meter antenna system, a DEC Alpha workstation, and a RAID storage system. Within the DEC Alpha workstation are advanced technology hardware and software components that will become available for commercialization. The paper describes the architecture and proposed application of the HRIS as a complete end-to-end ingest solution for regional sites. In addition, collaborative commercial efforts and technologies, along with Goddard’s technology prototyping efforts will also be presented as part of HRIS.
    • A Modular Approach to Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) Development

      Carpenter, Robert E.; Schneider, Dennis; Advanced Systems Technology, Inc.; Simulation Training and Instrumentation Command (STRICOM) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      In the past, typical telemetry systems for munitions and small missiles have often comprised adaptations of monolithic components originally conceived for aircraft or large missile applications. Programs have developed expensive monolithic systems to meet the needs of specific programs, but they often require extensive redesign for use by other potential users. The tri-service HSTSS Integrated Product Team (IPT) determined that a monolithic “one size fits all” approach has technical and fiscal risks. Thus, a modular approach to system development has been adopted. The HSTSS IPT is flight qualifying commercial microelectronic products designed for environments similar to that of munition interiors, and is developing microelectronic components required to complete a subminiature system. HSTSS components can then be integrated to support the form factor and measurement needs of any given user. In addition to offering a flexible system to the user, the HSTSS lends itself to upgradability (modernization through spares).

      Xu, Guoda; Bartha, John M.; McNamee, Stuart; Rheaume, Larry; Khosrowabadi, Allen; Physical Optics Corp.; 412TW/TSD; Tybrin Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Current ground-based tracking systems at the DoD test and training ranges require transmission of a variety of signals from rotating platform to fixed control and process center. Implementation of commercial off the shelf (COTS) solution for transmitting high-speed, multiple-channel data signals over a rotational platform prompt the development of an advanced electro-optic hybrid rotating-to-fixed information transmission technology. Based on current demand, an Air Force-sponsored Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract has been awarded to Physical Optics Corporation (POC) to modify existing tracking mounts with a unique electro-optic hybrid rotary joint (EOHRJ). The EOHRJ under current development is expected to provide the following features: 1) include a specially designed electrical slip-ring, which is able to accommodate hundreds of transmission channels, including electrical power, control, feedback, and low-speed data signals; 2) include an optical fiber slip-ring which, by incorporating with electrical time division mulitplexing (TDM) and optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technologies, is able to provide multiple channel, high data rate (over gigabits per second), and bi-directional signal transmission; and 3) is designed to be reliable for harsh environmental operation, adaptive to stringent size requirement, and accommodating to existing electrical and mechanical interfaces. Besides the military use, other possible commercial applications include on board monitoring of satellite spinners, surveillance systems, instrumentation and multi spectral vision systems, emergency/medical instruments, remote sensing, and robotics.

      Xuefang, Rao; Qishan, Zhang; Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The mathematics basis that can form a telemetry system is orthogonal functions. Three kinds of orthogonal functions are used up to now. First of them is sine and cosine function family. The second one is block pulse function family. The third one is Walsh function family. Their corresponding telemetry systems are FDM, TDM and SDM (CDM). Later we introduced an orthogonal function which is called Bridge function. The corresponding system is named telemetry system based on Bridge function. Now a new kind of orthogonal function, Generalized Bridge function, has been found. It can be applied to practical multiplex of information transmission. In this paper the author provides the design concept, block diagram, operational principle and technical realization of telemetry system based on Generalized Bridge function.

      Honglin, Yang; Yonghui, Yang; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper introduces the development of an S-band miniaturized solid-state pulse transmitter. Four-way power combination technique is applied to raise output power. The output power of the RF pulse exceeds 500W, and the combined efficiency amounts to 90%. The transmitter has many other good characteristics, such as small dimensions, light weight, low power consumption, high duty factor and so on. Development of this transmitter will greatly improve the ability of telemetry. It will undoubtedly promote the application and development of pulse telemetry system.
    • Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing System (ADAPS) – The Current State of the System

      Hafner, F. W. (Bill); Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The technology growth in the Aerospace industry, as manifested and embodied in the current fighter technology, presents many challenges in the area of flight test and data processing. Past papers have delineated the concepts brought to bear in the design and implementation of the AFFTC’s latest generation of telemetry data systems in the Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing System (ADAPS) program. The current deployed system incorporates the planned approach of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and government-off-the-shelf (GOTS) elements as basic to the system solution. The state of the program has advanced through full development, delivery and performance testing. The system is currently deployed in support of flight testing at Edwards AFB. This paper will present the status of the program.

      Penna, Sergio D.; Rios, Domingos B.; EMBRAER Flight Test Division; LE Consultoria (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Upgrading or replacing production systems is always a very resource-consuming task, in particular if the systems being replaced are quite specialized, such as those serving any Flight Test Ground Station. In the recent past a large number of Ground Station systems were based in Digital’s VAX/VMS architecture. The computer industry then expanded very fast and by 1990 realtime PCM data processing systems totally dependent on hardware and software designed for IBM-PC compatible micro-computers were becoming available. A complete system replacement in a typical Ground Station can take from one to several years to become a reality. It depends on how complex the original system is, how complex the resulting system needs to be, how much resources are available to support the operation, how soon the organization needs it, etc. This paper intends to review the main concerns encountered during the replacement of a typical VAX/VMS-based by an Intel-Windows NT-based Ground Station. It covers the transition from original requirements to totally new requirements, from mini-computers to micro-computers, from DMA to high-speed LAN data transfers, while conserving some key architectural features. This 8-month development effort will expand EMBRAER’s capability in acquiring, processing and archiving PCM data in the next few years at a lower cost, while preserving compatibility with old legacy flight test data.

      Hamory, Philip J.; Diamond, John K.; Bertelrud, Arild; NASA; Analytical Services and Materials, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      This paper describes the design and calibration of a four-channel, airborne, swept-tuned spectrum analyzer used in two hypersonic flight experiments for characterizing dynamic data up to 25 kHz. Built mainly from commercially available analog function modules, the analyzer proved useful for an application with limited telemetry bandwidth, physical weight and volume, and electrical power. The authors discuss considerations that affect the frequency and amplitude calibrations, limitations of the design, and example flight data.
    • Today’s Technical Control Center

      Eslinger, Brian; Palmer, Rob; Watkins, Darryl; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      As the flight test community moves into the 21st century, the ever increasing demand for higher telemetry data rates and the need to transport additional data types is becoming the challenge of every flight test range. The evolution of the flight test range has grown from low telemetry data rates and a few 2400 baud tracking sources into high-speed telemetry, GPS based tracking, networking, digital video, and more. Recognizing the need to change the way data is managed has resulted in an effort to redefine the work centers at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC) at Edwards AFB. The Technical Control Center (TCC) within the Ridley Mission Control Center at Edwards AFB is currently being relocated with the intent of achieving tomorrow’s vision, while supporting the missions of today. One major goal of this redefinition is the elimination of as much analog transmission equipment as possible in favor of digital transmission. The new digital range requires management of data and allocation of that management in different ways than the past. Moving to an all-digital range has advantages that are just now being realized. This paper outlines the current and future design, configuration, maintenance, and operation of the TCC and touches on how some of the other range functions are impacted. In addition, the challenges and benefits of implementing the next generation in range communications will be discussed.

      Lipe, Bruce; Cronauer, Tom; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The 412th Test Wing, Range Division has developed an all-terrain van system to receive real-time telemetry and also to display the processed data for remote location flight-testing. The vans are refurbished Ground Launch Cruise Missile (GLCM), Launch Control Centers (LCC). The vans were a joint development effort between the Range and the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI) program office. The van systems were specifically designed to support Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) testing. However, the van systems have been successfully used to support other customers, with remote telemetry needs, due to the systems Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) design. This document will describe the design, layout and rationale for the systems design. This paper will also provide the systems capabilities with top-level block diagrams.

      Fuentes, Richard J.; Winstead, Michael L.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A number of methods exist for the transmission of digital telemetry data. This paper explores four separate methods of transmitting and receiving high bit rate telemetry data (13 megabit/sec). Since choices may need to be made in terms of performance and cost, these are the areas that are explored in some detail. Costs may also include considerations of existing equipment which can be somewhat intangible. Performance can be limited to transmitted and received signal levels in order to quantify the ability of the equipment to handle received signal levels. Although the results may indicate rather clear cut “winners” in both cost and performance, other factors may provide the deciding influence for the purchase of such a system.

      Haiou, Zheng; Naitong, Zhang; Harbin Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      In this paper, a hybrid frequency division multiple access/code division multiple access (FDMA/CDMA) system in a Rician fading channel is described and analysis. The performance of the hybrid system is compared with a wideband CDMA system, which occupies the same total bandwidth. The results show that for DPSK modulation with a RIKE receiver, a hybrid system can have a greater capacity with a strong direct path component or a high signal to noise ratio (SNR). Otherwise, a wideband system remains optimal.

      Horan, Stephen; Wang, Ru-hai; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The CCSDS SCPS FP file transfer performance is compared with that of TCP/IP FTP in a simulated satellite channel environment. The comparison is made as a function of channel bit error rate and forward/return data rates. From these simulations, we see that both protocols work well when the channel error rate is low (below 10^-6) and the SCPS FP generally performs better when the error rate is higher. We also noticed a strong effect on the SCPS FP throughput as a function of forward transmission rate when running unbalanced channel tests.
    • Cost Beneficial Solution for High Rate Data Processing

      Mirchandani, Chandru; Fisher, David; Ghuman, Parminder; Lockheed-Martin Space Mission Systems; Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      GSFC in keeping with the tenets of NASA has been aggressively investigating new technologies for spacecraft and ground communications and processing. The application of these technologies, together with standardized telemetry formats, make it possible to build systems that provide high-performance at low cost in a short development cycle. The High Rate Telemetry Acquisition System (HRTAS) Prototype is one such effort that has validated Goddard's push towards faster, better and cheaper. The HRTAS system architecture is based on the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus and VLSI Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). These ASICs perform frame synchronization, bit-transition density decoding, cyclic redundancy code (CRC) error checking, Reed-Solomon error detection/correction, data unit sorting, packet extraction, annotation and other service processing. This processing in performed at rates of up to and greater than 150 Mbps sustained using a high-end performance workstation running standard UNIX O/S, (DEC 4100 with DEC UNIX or better). ASICs are also used for the digital reception of Intermediate Frequency (IF) telemetry as well as the spacecraft command interface for commands and data simulations. To improve the efficiency of the back-end processing, the level zero processing sorting element is being developed. This will provide a complete hardware solution to extracting and sorting source data units and making these available in separate files on a remote disk system. Research is on going to extend this development to higher levels of the science data processing pipeline. The fact that level 1 and higher processing is instrument dependent; an acceleration approach utilizing ASICs is not feasible. The advent of field programmable gate array (FPGA) based computing, referred to as adaptive or reconfigurable computing, provides a processing performance close to ASIC levels while maintaining much of the programmability of traditional microprocessor based systems. This adaptive computing paradigm has been successfully demonstrated and its cost performance validated, to make it a viable technology for the level one and higher processing element for the HRTAS. Higher levels of processing are defined as the extraction of useful information from source telemetry data. This information has to be made available to the science data user in a very short period of time. This paper will describe this low cost solution for high rate data processing at level one and higher processing levels. The paper will further discuss the cost-benefit of this technology in terms of cost, schedule, reliability and performance.

      Schmidt, Allen; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      A broad class of Electro-Optical (E-O) sensors are continually being improved and/or developed for aircraft to assist in performance of such tasks as surveillance, target acquisition, target designation, and weapons delivery. These E-O sensors possess a variety of Electro-Optical links that encompass the spectral region of 0.4 to 14 micrometers. The Radiometric Lab at Edwards Air Force base is tasked to provide instrumentation support for projects that develop, test, and evaluate ground and airborne E-O systems/sensors. The heart of the labs support capability is the Radiometric Analysis and Measurement System (RAMS) and is contained within an all-terrain van. A variety of sub-systems exist within the van to meet support requirements. These include an 8 to 12 micron infrared (IR) imaging system, 4 to 14 micron spectral radiometer, 380 to 1068 nanometer spectral radiometer, 400 to 1800 nanometer imaging camera, 1.064 nd:YAG laser, off-axis collimator with IR and visible light sources, and a weather station. This paper describes the system, its capabilities and limitations, and its application in aircraft sensor evaluation.
    • Mixing Staged Data Flow and Stream Computing Techniques in Modern Telemetry Data Acquisition/Processing Architectures

      Yates, James William; L-3 Communications Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      Today’s flight test processing systems must handle many more complex data formats than just the PCM and analog FM data streams of yesterday. Many flight test programs, and their respective test facilities, are looking to leverage their computing assets across multiple customers and programs. Typically, these complex programs require the ability to handle video, packet, and avionics bus data in real time, in addition to handling the more traditional PCM format. Current and future telemetry processing systems must have an architecture that will support the acquisition and processing of these varied data streams. This paper describes various architectural designs of both staged data flow and stream computing architectures, including current and future implementations. Processor types, bus design, and the effects of varying data types, including PCM, video, and packet telemetry, will be discussed.

      Cheng, Miao Liu; Beijing Institute Of Tracking & Telecommunication Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      The telemetry system has been used in many important fields. Generally speaking, it’s easy to judge whether the system operation is successful or not. But when it is running normally, it is not easy to evaluate the medium state (between success and fail) of the telemetry system, likes a man’s spirit state. In this paper, a method with fuzzy theory is brought forward to evaluate the “Spirit State” of the telemetry system. This method can be used to evaluate the telemetry system, or to evaluate other important system states. By this method, the estimation to the mission will be very exact and reliable.

      Palmer, Robert; Wolf, Glen; TYBRIN, Corp.; SPARTA, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 1999-10)
      NASA and the Air Force are increasing the number of hypersonic and access-to-space programs creating a growing requirement for flight test ranges over large regional areas. A principal challenge facing these extended test ranges is the ability to provide continuous vehicle communications by filling the gaps in coverage between fixed ground stations. Consequently, there is a need for mobile range systems that provide a multitude of communication services under varying circumstances. This paper discusses the functional design and systems capabilities, as well as the mission support criteria, concerning NASA’s Mobile Operations Facility (MOF). The MOF will be deployed to Dugway Proving Grounds (DPG), Utah, in support of the X-33 single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) demonstrator.