• MANAGING TELEMETRY AS AN ENTERPRISE SOLUTION LEVERAGING TECHNOLOGY INTO NEXT-GENERATION TELEMETRY ARCHITECTURES

      Yates, James William; L-3 Communications Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      With today’s rapidly shifting technology in the areas of networking, the Web, platform-independent software, and component technology, a paradigm shift will allow us to treat our telemetry systems as enterprise-wide solutions in the future. These technologies will revolutionize how we support all phases of telemetry data acquisition, processing, archiving, distribution, and display. This paper will explain how these changes affect systems designers, operators, and users. Specific technical areas of discussion include: § Technology adoption cycles § Object-oriented environments and component technologies § Database interconnectivity § Web-enabling concepts and implementations § Application servers § Database replication § Data warehousing § Embedded Web servers
    • LINUX POWERED TELEMETRY PROCESSING

      Ayala, Joseph; Sorton, Eric; Command & Control Technologies Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Since its debut, the Linux operating system has garnered much attention in the software development community. This paper discusses the open source operating system, Linux, and it’s application as the operating system powering a commercial off-the-shelf telemetry processing system. The paper begins by discussing what are the real-time requirements of the operating system in a telemetry processing system. A discussion to the Linux system is then presented. Soft real-time features of Linux are discussed which allow it to meet the telemetry processing requirements. Linux is compared with the more traditional operating system products and points are made as to why open source software is just as capable, if not preferable, of handling mission critical applications. The paper also presents the authors’ view of future of Linux and open source software in the telemetry marketplace. The paper concludes with a summary of products available for Linux that support telemetry processing and the data acquisition environment.
    • THE APPLICATION OF MAP MATCHING METHOD IN GPS/INS INTEGRATED NAVIGATION SYSTEM

      Fei, Peng; Qishan, Zhang; Zhongkan, Liu; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Map matching method plays an important role in vehicle location and navigation systems. It employs the information in a digital map to compensate the positioning error. This paper presents a fuzzy-logic-based probabilistic map-matching algorithm used in GPS/INS integrated navigation systems, in which the reliability degree of map matching resolution is given explicitly as the decision basis in selecting matching road segment by utilizing the fuzzy comprehensive judgement. The results of experimental simulations have shown that the system performance gained significant enhancement by introducing this algorithm.
    • HOW TO USE RBDS TO TRANSMIT DGPS CORRECTION MESSAGE

      Shengxi, Ding; Qishan, Zhang; Junfeng, Li; Dayi, Zheng; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics; Chongqing Bashan Instrumental Factory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper introduces the frequency spectrum characteristic of FM radio broadcast and the message format of RBDS (Radio Broadcast Data System). DGPS correction message in RBDS is described in detail. A design method of RBDS/DGPS system is proposed and the RBDS/DGPS system developed by us is introduced. Finally, some special advantages of RBDS/DGPS system are given.
    • A POLARIZATION-AGILE RADIATION TECHNIQUE FOR TESTING TELEMETRY RECEIVING SITES AT WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE

      Vines, Roger; Shaw, Stephen; Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Telemetry receiving sites at missile test ranges almost always use polarization diversity to maximize the quality of the telemetry signals collected from missiles during developmental tests. If the sites are operating optimally, their sensitivity should be independent of received polarization. In this paper a technique to test the sensitivity of each receiving site is presented that involves radiating from a central location with selectable polarization and precise power level. Results of testing five telemetry sites are presented and compared with performance predicted through link analysis using site G/T and location information.
    • INCREASING MONITORING CAPACITY TO KEEP PACE WITH THE WIRELESS REVOLUTION

      Chu, Joni; Harrison, Irving; High Tower Software (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      With wireless communications becoming the rule rather than the exception, satellite operators need tools to effectively monitor increasingly large and complex satellite constellations. Visual data monitoring increases the monitoring capacity of satellite operators by several orders of magnitude, enabling them to track hundreds of thousands of parameters in real-time on a single screen. With this powerful new tool, operators can proactively address potential problems before they become customer complaints.
    • NEXT GENERATION TDRSS MA BEAMFORMING SUBSYSTEM

      Gitlin, Thomas; Nguyen, Diem V.; Harlacher, Marc; Smarrelli, Robert; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Lockheed Martin; ITT (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Multiple Access (MA) Return Service provides a communication path that originates at a customer platform (either a spacecraft or other type of emitter) and is routed through a geosynchronous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) back to a customer control center or data acquisition location. Conventional operations provide Space Network (SN) customers with MA Service based on a schedule generated from user requests. The MA Service currently provides return link telemetry services to customer platforms with real-time, playback, and science data rates up to 100 kbps. This paper describes an integrated approach, using state-of-the-art technology and fault-tolerant architecture, to develop the next generation of TDRSS MA beamforming equipment. New designs will result in significant reduction in beamformer size and cost by at least an order of magnitude relative to the current MA equipment. This new equipment will provide the potential for increased usage of TDRSS MA services. The paper describes the in-development Demand Access (DA) Return Service that provides a new class of service using next generation technology.
    • HARDWARE DOWNLOADABLE MULTI-FUNCTION TELEMETRY INPUT MODULE

      Nicolais, Ray; Nicolo, Stephen J.; Snyder, Ed; GDP Space Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper describes a Multi-Function Telemetry Input Module (TIM). The TIM module includes a 30 Mbps PCM frame synchronizer, a time code translator/generator, a PCM simulator and a tunable bit synchronizer all on a single PCI card. The module uses a generic architecture including: high density Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), look-up table memory, dual port A/B data buffer memory and a full function PCI interface. The FPGA and the logic function of the card are downloadable via the PCI interface. This allows a single module to support many hardware functions in a telemetry front-end. The TIM is an integral part of a PC-based Advanced Telemetry Processing and Display System. This concept for hardware design ushers in a new generation of flexible downloadable telemetry products.
    • A COMMERCIAL OFF THE SHELF CONTINUOUSLY TUNABLE HIGH DATA RATE SATELLITE RECEIVER

      Varela, Julio; Conrad, Robert; TSI TelSys, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      TSI TelSys, Inc. is in the process of developing a production level, continuously tunable satellite receiver designed to support multiple high data rate, low earth and geostationary orbit missions in the 20 Mbps to 800 Mbps composite QPSK data rate range. This paper will evaluate market demands on satellite receivers and outline receiver design technique as a solution to high rate, multi-mission support.
    • MODULATOR IMBALANCE EFFECTS ON THE FQPSK AIRBORNE TELEMETRY LINK

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      When designing transmitters for quadrature modulation schemes, the designer always tries to achieve good balance and symmetry of the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) branches of the modulator in terms of amplitude, phase, and offsets. Perfect balance between modulators is ideal but rarely if ever achieved. The Advance Range Telemetry (ARTM) program has placed indirect specifications on the remnant carrier and sideband levels which are controlled by modulator imbalance. These specifications will govern the ARTM programs first generation of Feher’s patented quadrature phase shift keying, version B (FQPSK-B) [9] airborne telemetry transmitters. The ARTM Program has also adopted test procedures for quantifying these modulation imbalances. This paper looks at the effects of modulator imbalances on spectral occupancy and bit error probability of the airborne telemetry link. It also outlines how these imbalances influence the levels in one of the ARTM specifications. Recommendations are presented based on the measured data for higher bit rate telemetry systems.
    • ENHANCED PERFORMANCE OF FQPSK-B RECEIVER BASED ON TRELLIS-CODED VITERBI DEMODULATION

      Lee, Dennis; Simon, Marvin; Yan, Tsun-Yee; Jet Propulsion Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Commercial FQPSK-B receivers traditionally use symbol-by-symbol detection and have a 2 dB Eb=No loss relative to ideal QPSK at a bit error rate (BER) of 10^(-5). An enhanced FQPSK-B receiver using a Viterbi algorithm (VA) to perform trellis decoding is simulated and shown to have a 1.2 dB Eb=No improvement over symbol-by-symbol detection for 10^(-5)5 BER at the cost of increased complexity. A simplified Viterbi receiver with a reduced trellis and significantly less complexity is introduced with only a slight BER degradation compared to the full Viterbi receiver. In addition, a theoretical bit error probability expression for the symbol-by-symbol FQPSK-B receiver is derived and compared with simulation results.
    • FQPSK DEVELOPMENTS RECOMMENDED FOR CCSDS STANDARDIZATION BY NASA JPL

      Martin, Warren L.; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      In 1992, international space agencies became concerned that increasing frequency band congestion, together with attempts by the mobile telephone industry to obtain additional bandwidth, would result in substantially more interference incidents. The CCSDS undertook a technical study to identify and recommend more bandwidth efficient modulation schemes, which would permit more users to co-exist in a frequency band while reducing interference incidents. This paper describes the contribution of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to that effort.
    • ULTRA HIGH BIT RATE (UP TO 1GBIT/S) BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT FQPSK ALL-DIGITAL MODULATOR/DEMODULATOR ARCHITECTURES AND NASA IMPLEMENTATIONS

      Ghuman, Parminder; Koubek, Steve; Winkert, Tom; Gray, Andrew; Lay, Norm; Yan, Tsun-Yee; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The paper presents ongoing efforts at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to develop ultra high bit rate bandwidth efficient FQPSK modulators and demodulators. The ability to transmit and receive ever-increasing amounts of extremely high rate data is an enduring challenge in the arena of near-earth space borne science missions. Reliable and efficient transmission of information at these data rates requires the use of power and bandwidth efficient modulations that exhibit low transmitter, receiver, and decoder complexity. Conventional high rate approaches for achieving spectral limiting typically employ sharp post amplifier filtering at the transmitter to limit the interference to the adjacent bands. However, using analog filtering alone can produce substantial intersymbol interference and other distortions that substantially affect the detection performance of the signal. In contrast, various theoretical classes of modulation waveforms can be tailored to provide varying degrees of bandwidth and power efficiency or robustness to non-linear transmitter distortions while incurring little or no performance losses. In order to realize many of these signal types, precise amplitude and phase control over the synthesis of these signals is required, typically necessitating the use of digital signal processing.
    • PHASE CENTER MEASUREMENTS FOR A WRAP-AROUND GPS ANTENNA

      Meyer, Steven J.; Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is being used as a sensor in telemetry systems to provide time, space and position information (TSPI) as well as end game or vector scoring. The accuracy of these measurements depends on precisely locating the phase center of the GPS antenna. A procedure has not currently been addressed by anyone to measure the phase center of a conformal wrap-around GPS antenna. This paper will discuss some techniques on determining the antenna phase center.
    • AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS TEST FACILITY AND AVIONICS SYSTEM TEST (ACTFAST): GEARING UP FOR NEXT GENERATION AVIONICS SYSTEMS TESTING

      Switzer, Earl; Whelan, Michael; Lagunas, Farncisco; Air Force Flight Test Center; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Growth in civil aviation is overwhelming worldwide airspace and air traffic services. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Department of Defense (DoD) are proposing or implementing numerous changes to address this growth. The changes are broadly contained in what the civil aviation community calls Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and the DoD calls Global Air Traffic Management (GATM). A major component of both civil and DoD proposed changes are data link systems digitally transmitting information between aircraft, air traffic control centers, and aircraft operations centers. The real-time interactive nature of these data-link systems and the integration of the aircraft avionics into a worldwide network are forcing aircraft test agencies to acquire access to this capability. Aircraft flighttesting must address both the specific aircraft avionics test requirements and the system-of-systems aspects of data-link applications. This paper describes the factors driving changes in the worldwide CNS/ATM system and identifies specific proposed or implemented changes. Various flight-test requirements, both civil and military, of the proposed changes are enumerated. Particular attention is paid to the DoDs GATM certification requirements. Finally, we present the Air Traffic Control Communications Test Facility and Avionics System Test (ACTFAST) program and explain its capabilities. Rationale for ACTFAST component parts is included along with a brief outline of how the capabilities represented by each component part are used during flight test to acquire the necessary information to meet civil and DoD aircraft certification requirements.
    • DEVELOPMENT OF THE VHF AIR/GROUNG DATA LINK FOR CAAC

      Qing, Zhong; Qi-shan, Zhang; Xingjian, Huang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The VHF air/ground data link of CAAC is introduced in detail. This paper proposes a solution of VHF air/ground data link system, which exchanges downlink messages and uplink messages in data link information processing networks. The following topics are covered in this paper: components of VHF data link; data processing and design about VHF data link Gateway system; the application of VHF air/ground data link in airlines.
    • A COMPARISON OF VIDEO COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS

      Thom, Gary A.; Deutermann, Alan R.; Delta Information Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Compressed video is necessary for a variety of telemetry requirements. A large number of competing video compression algorithms exist. This paper compares the ability of these algorithms to meet criteria which are of interest for telemetry applications. Included are: quality, compression, noise susceptibility, motion performance and latency. The algorithms are divided into those which employ inter-frame compression and those which employ intra-frame compression. A video tape presentation will also be presented to illustrate the performance of the video compression algorithms.
    • REAL-TIME SPECTRALLY EFFICIENT TARGET IMAGING

      McNamee, Stuart; Rheaume, Larry; Shnitser, P.; Agurok, I.; Sandomirsky, S.; Avakian, A.; Air Force Flight Test Center; Physical Optics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      To enhance the visibility of remote objects under test at Air Force testing facilities in adverse weather conditions, the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards AFB, California, contracted with Physical Optics Corporation’s (POC) Applied Technology Division, Torrance CA, to investigate a realtime spectrally enhanced imaging prototype system. When installed on an optical target tracker, this system will automatically adjust its spectral transmission in such a way that the intensity of the background illumination will be reduced significantly while providing minimum reduction of the light reflected from a detected target. A laboratory prototype of this system was developed under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I contract. The prototype consists of the optical part that will be attached to the large tracker lens and to a portable computer. The key element of this system is an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) that is capable of quickly varying the shape of its spectral transmission curve in the entire visible range under computer control. The developed system automatically analyzes the spectral signatures of the background and of the selected object of interest. It calculates a spectrally matched filter for the background suppression and target contrast enhancement. This filtered data then goes directly into the optical channel with the minimal computer image processing. The resulting image with the enhanced target contrast can be displayed in real time on a common computer monitor and can be recorded by a VCR. The performance of the laboratory prototype demonstrated enhancement of the visibility of objects immersed in a scattering medium. Successful development of a working system will make flight testing of military equipment more informative and less expensive. It will reduce the dependence of the flight test program on the weather conditions and will allow for collecting more data by providing real-time images with enhanced target visibility.
    • EMBEDDED VIDEO TRANSMISSION IN A CAIS DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM

      Brauer, David A.; L-3 Communications Telemetry-East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Acquiring real-time video data, during flight testing, has become an integral component in aircraft design and performance evaluation. This unique data acquisition capability has been successfully integrated into the JSF (Joint Strike Fighter), CAIS compliant, FTIDAS (Flight Test Instrumentation Data Acquisition System) developed by L-3 Communications Telemetry-East.
    • RANGE UPGRADE FOR DATA RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION

      Nystrom, Ingemar; Gatton, Tim; AerotechTelub Miltest AB; Veridian Systems Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Flexible data multiplexing that supports both low-speed (4 Mbps) to very high-speed output devices (networks and recording systems up to 480 Mbps), along with data network formatting, can greatly enhance the results of range upgrading.