• TELEMETRY AND JUGGLING

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      One of the beauties of mathematics is its ability to demonstrate the relationship between apparently unrelated subjects. And this is not only an aesthetic attribute. The insight obtained by seeing relations where they are not obvious often leads to elegant solutions to difficult problems. This paper will demonstrate a mathematical relation between telemetry and juggling. Any given pulse code modulation (PCM) format can be mapped onto a juggling pattern. The Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Class I PCM formats are a subset of all juggling patterns while the Class II PCM formats are equivalent to the set of all juggling patterns (within some mathematically precise definitions). There are actually quite a few mathematical results regarding juggling patterns. This paper will also discuss how these topics relate to tessellations, bin packing, PCM format design, and dynamic spectrum allocation. One of the shortcomings of human nature is the tendency to get caught up in a particular topic or viewpoint. This is true of the telemetry community as well. It is hoped that this paper will increase the awareness that there are a variety of areas of theory outside of telemetry that may be applicable to the field.
    • RANGE UPGRADE FOR DATA RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION

      Nystrom, Ingemar; Gatton, Tim; AerotechTelub Miltest AB; Veridian Systems Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Flexible data multiplexing that supports both low-speed (4 Mbps) to very high-speed output devices (networks and recording systems up to 480 Mbps), along with data network formatting, can greatly enhance the results of range upgrading.
    • DESIGN OF A GPS/TELEMETRY ANTENNA FOR SMALL DIAMETER PROJECTILES

      Ryken, Marv; Davis, Rick; Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      In the past, airplanes, target drones, pods, and large missiles have been instrumented with telemetry, flight termination and beacon tracking antennas to assess performance. With the emerging use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for tracking purposes, GPS is also included as part of the instrumentation package. This paper addresses the design of a conformal wraparound antenna system to cover the telemetry and GPS L1 frequencies for a small (2.75 inch) diameter airborne projectile. A filter is also integrated into the antenna system to isolate the transmitted telemetry signal from the received GPS signal. This integration is necessary due to the lack of space in the small diameter projectile. Performance characteristics of the prototype antenna system are also presented.
    • ULTRA HIGH BIT RATE (UP TO 1GBIT/S) BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT FQPSK ALL-DIGITAL MODULATOR/DEMODULATOR ARCHITECTURES AND NASA IMPLEMENTATIONS

      Ghuman, Parminder; Koubek, Steve; Winkert, Tom; Gray, Andrew; Lay, Norm; Yan, Tsun-Yee; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The paper presents ongoing efforts at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to develop ultra high bit rate bandwidth efficient FQPSK modulators and demodulators. The ability to transmit and receive ever-increasing amounts of extremely high rate data is an enduring challenge in the arena of near-earth space borne science missions. Reliable and efficient transmission of information at these data rates requires the use of power and bandwidth efficient modulations that exhibit low transmitter, receiver, and decoder complexity. Conventional high rate approaches for achieving spectral limiting typically employ sharp post amplifier filtering at the transmitter to limit the interference to the adjacent bands. However, using analog filtering alone can produce substantial intersymbol interference and other distortions that substantially affect the detection performance of the signal. In contrast, various theoretical classes of modulation waveforms can be tailored to provide varying degrees of bandwidth and power efficiency or robustness to non-linear transmitter distortions while incurring little or no performance losses. In order to realize many of these signal types, precise amplitude and phase control over the synthesis of these signals is required, typically necessitating the use of digital signal processing.
    • A COMMERCIAL CCSDS TELECOMMAND PROCESSOR

      Shi, Jeff; Flanagan, Barbara; Mao, Tony; Sanford, Terry; TSI TelSys, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      After a slow start, the CCSDS Telecommand Recommendation is finally being embraced by a large number of NASA, ESA and NASDA space missions. Even some commercial satellites are exploring the possibility of using this advanced protocol. The CCSDS Telecommand is a closed-loop space communication protocol that offers its users a guaranteed data delivery service, which is essential for the satellite control operations. This paper describes a commercial product that supports the CCSDS Telecommand protocol. This product provides Telecommand uplink segmentation, transfer, coding and physical layer services and Command Operations Procedures (COP). Optionally, it provides corresponding functions at the receiving end for command link verification.
    • 800 Mbps TELEMETRY PROCESSING SYSTEM

      Bishop, Jim; Welch, John; TSI TelSys, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Satellites are becoming more capable and complex, as such their downlink requirements are increasing. In addition, future satellite systems will be operating at Ka-band that provides ample bandwidth to support the increase in downlink rates up to 800 Mbps. This paper describes a new generation commercial solution that can support 800 Mbps telemetry processing for data reception, frame synchronization, time tagging, Reed-Solomon forward error correction, data routing, data storage, data playback for testing, networking, and Bit Error Rate (BER) Testing.
    • BANDWIDTH EFFICIENCY AND BER PERFORMANCE OF ENHANCED AND FEC CODED FQPSK

      Lin, Jinsong; Feher, Kamilo; University of California, Davis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Bit error rate (BER) and bandwidth efficiency of several variations of enhanced Feher patented quadrature phase shift keying (FQPSK) [1] are described. An enhanced FQPSK increases the channel packing density of that of the IRIG 106-00 standardized FQPSK-B by approximately 50% in adjacent channel interference (ACI) environment. As the bandwidth efficiency of FQPSK-B DOUBLES (2×) that of pulse code modulation/Frequency modulation (PCM/FM) [5], the enhanced FQPSK, with a simpler transceiver than FQPSK-B, has a channel packing density of TRIPLE (3×) that of PCM/FM. One of the other enhanced FQPSK prototypes has an end to end system loss of only 0.4 dB at BER=1x10^(-3) and 0.5 dB at BER=1x10^(-4) from ideal linearly amplified QPSK theory. The enhanced FQPSK has a simple architecture, thus is inexpensive and has small size, for ultra high bit rate implementation. With low redundancy forward error correction (FEC) coding which expands the spectrum by approximately 10%, further improvement of about 3-4.5dB E N b o is attained with NLA FQPSK-B and enhanced FQPSK at BER=1x10^(-5) .
    • HIGH PERFORMANCE SATELLITE RANGING TECHNIQUE UTILIZING A FLEXIBLE RANGING SIGNAL WAVEFORM

      McLean, Roger; Walker, Niles; Slivkoff, William; ITT Industries (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Range to an orbiting satellite from a ground reference point (ground station) can be determined by measuring the round trip time for a waveform transmitted to the satellite and returned to the ground station (Turnaround Ranging) and more recently by using the Global Positioning System (GPS). This paper first summarizes and compares the two approaches. The paper then describes and analyzes a new turn-around ranging system which uses a flexible ranging waveform that provides spectral compatibility with existing Military, NASA, and Commercial satellite uplink/downlink signals.
    • MODULATOR IMBALANCE EFFECTS ON THE FQPSK AIRBORNE TELEMETRY LINK

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      When designing transmitters for quadrature modulation schemes, the designer always tries to achieve good balance and symmetry of the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) branches of the modulator in terms of amplitude, phase, and offsets. Perfect balance between modulators is ideal but rarely if ever achieved. The Advance Range Telemetry (ARTM) program has placed indirect specifications on the remnant carrier and sideband levels which are controlled by modulator imbalance. These specifications will govern the ARTM programs first generation of Feher’s patented quadrature phase shift keying, version B (FQPSK-B) [9] airborne telemetry transmitters. The ARTM Program has also adopted test procedures for quantifying these modulation imbalances. This paper looks at the effects of modulator imbalances on spectral occupancy and bit error probability of the airborne telemetry link. It also outlines how these imbalances influence the levels in one of the ARTM specifications. Recommendations are presented based on the measured data for higher bit rate telemetry systems.
    • TechSat21 TESTBED DATABASE

      Self, Lance; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      TechSat21 is sponsored by the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research1. Its mission is to control a cluster of satellites that, when combined, create a “virtual satellite” with which to conduct various experiments in sparse aperture sensing and formation flying. Customers of the TechSat21 database include mission planners and system engineers. Mission Planners need information that allows them to make high level planning and scheduling decisions. System Engineers need information to predict satellite sub-system problems and conduct satellite design and performance trade studies. This paper describes those users and the project database.
    • NEXT GENERATION TDRSS MA BEAMFORMING SUBSYSTEM

      Gitlin, Thomas; Nguyen, Diem V.; Harlacher, Marc; Smarrelli, Robert; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Lockheed Martin; ITT (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Multiple Access (MA) Return Service provides a communication path that originates at a customer platform (either a spacecraft or other type of emitter) and is routed through a geosynchronous Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) back to a customer control center or data acquisition location. Conventional operations provide Space Network (SN) customers with MA Service based on a schedule generated from user requests. The MA Service currently provides return link telemetry services to customer platforms with real-time, playback, and science data rates up to 100 kbps. This paper describes an integrated approach, using state-of-the-art technology and fault-tolerant architecture, to develop the next generation of TDRSS MA beamforming equipment. New designs will result in significant reduction in beamformer size and cost by at least an order of magnitude relative to the current MA equipment. This new equipment will provide the potential for increased usage of TDRSS MA services. The paper describes the in-development Demand Access (DA) Return Service that provides a new class of service using next generation technology.
    • SATELLITE CLUSTER CONTROL IN THE DISTRIBUTED ARCHITECTURE SIMULATION LABORATORY

      Wainwright, Ross H.; Air Force Research Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Space Vehicles Directorate (VS), is developing an advanced, space-based, sparse-array aperture system, called TechSat 21. TechSat 21 will be a cluster of micro-satellites that operate cooperatively to perform the function of a larger, single satellite at lower cost. AFRL is assembling a computer laboratory in which to support TechSat 21 development. The Distributed Architecture Simulation Laboratory provides high-fidelity simulations, visual displays, analysis tools, and Satellite Cluster Control. Satellite Cluster Control is flight software and hardware, communication links, telemetry analysis, and command and control.
    • GPS RECEIVER SELECTION AND TESTING FOR LAUNCH AND ORBITAL VEHICLES

      Schrock, Ken; Freestone, Todd; Bell, Leon; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      NASA Marshall Space Flight Center’s Bantam Robust Guidance Navigation & Control Project is investigating off the shelf navigation sensors that may be inexpensively combined into Kalman filters specifically tuned for launch and orbital vehicles. For this purpose, Marshall has purchased several GPS receivers and is evaluating them for these applications. The paper will discuss the receiver selection criteria and the test equipment used for evaluation. An overview of the analysis will be presented including the evaluation used to determine their success or failure. It will conclude with goals of the program and a recommendation for all GPS users.
    • LINUX POWERED TELEMETRY PROCESSING

      Ayala, Joseph; Sorton, Eric; Command & Control Technologies Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Since its debut, the Linux operating system has garnered much attention in the software development community. This paper discusses the open source operating system, Linux, and it’s application as the operating system powering a commercial off-the-shelf telemetry processing system. The paper begins by discussing what are the real-time requirements of the operating system in a telemetry processing system. A discussion to the Linux system is then presented. Soft real-time features of Linux are discussed which allow it to meet the telemetry processing requirements. Linux is compared with the more traditional operating system products and points are made as to why open source software is just as capable, if not preferable, of handling mission critical applications. The paper also presents the authors’ view of future of Linux and open source software in the telemetry marketplace. The paper concludes with a summary of products available for Linux that support telemetry processing and the data acquisition environment.
    • PHASE CENTER MEASUREMENTS FOR A WRAP-AROUND GPS ANTENNA

      Meyer, Steven J.; Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is being used as a sensor in telemetry systems to provide time, space and position information (TSPI) as well as end game or vector scoring. The accuracy of these measurements depends on precisely locating the phase center of the GPS antenna. A procedure has not currently been addressed by anyone to measure the phase center of a conformal wrap-around GPS antenna. This paper will discuss some techniques on determining the antenna phase center.
    • REAL-TIME SPECTRALLY EFFICIENT TARGET IMAGING

      McNamee, Stuart; Rheaume, Larry; Shnitser, P.; Agurok, I.; Sandomirsky, S.; Avakian, A.; Air Force Flight Test Center; Physical Optics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      To enhance the visibility of remote objects under test at Air Force testing facilities in adverse weather conditions, the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards AFB, California, contracted with Physical Optics Corporation’s (POC) Applied Technology Division, Torrance CA, to investigate a realtime spectrally enhanced imaging prototype system. When installed on an optical target tracker, this system will automatically adjust its spectral transmission in such a way that the intensity of the background illumination will be reduced significantly while providing minimum reduction of the light reflected from a detected target. A laboratory prototype of this system was developed under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I contract. The prototype consists of the optical part that will be attached to the large tracker lens and to a portable computer. The key element of this system is an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) that is capable of quickly varying the shape of its spectral transmission curve in the entire visible range under computer control. The developed system automatically analyzes the spectral signatures of the background and of the selected object of interest. It calculates a spectrally matched filter for the background suppression and target contrast enhancement. This filtered data then goes directly into the optical channel with the minimal computer image processing. The resulting image with the enhanced target contrast can be displayed in real time on a common computer monitor and can be recorded by a VCR. The performance of the laboratory prototype demonstrated enhancement of the visibility of objects immersed in a scattering medium. Successful development of a working system will make flight testing of military equipment more informative and less expensive. It will reduce the dependence of the flight test program on the weather conditions and will allow for collecting more data by providing real-time images with enhanced target visibility.
    • PROPULSIVE SMALL EXPENDABLE DEPLOYER SYSTEM (PROSEDS) MISSION AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM OVERVIEW

      Kennedy, Paul; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama will launch the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment in late 2000. ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system and will utilize a conducting wire tether to generate limited spacecraft power. This paper will provide an overview of the ProSEDS mission and will discuss the design, and test of the spacecraft telemetry system. The ProSEDS telemetry subsystem employs a combination of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware and launch vehicle telemetry system components to minimize costs as well as power consumption. Several measures were used to aid the conservation of spacecraft power resources. First, the transmitter was modified to limit input power consumption to less that 20 watts while providing approximately two watts Radio Frequency (RF) output power. Secondly, the ProSEDS on board Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is being used to control input power to the transmitter in order to limit the telemetry operations to occasions when the spacecraft is in proximity to preprogrammed ground station locations.
    • AFFORDABLE, ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR MEETING CIVIL AVIATION REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMUM (RVSM) REQUIRMENTS ON MILITARY/COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT

      Pratt, Robert L.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      A recent Air Traffic Management (ATM) initiative has reduced certain oceanic routes from a 2,000-foot vertical separation minimum to a 1,000-foot (300 m) separation minimum between flight levels of 29,000 feet and 41,000 feet. As a result of this initiative, an aircraft transitioning from the Continental United States (CONUS) to Europe or Asia will be required to have a validated, certified altimeter reporting system within the specified tolerances. The aging military airframes are not currently Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) certified. The impact on military deployment time to foreign theatres as well as high- fuel cost makes this a high-priority DoD issue. This paper describes the test and evaluation (T&E) challenge, viable solutions and test method for meeting the RVSM requirements in an approved, affordable, and least down-time (minimal aircraft modification) manner. The test method described herein utilizes a PACER aircraft in formation with the RVSM candidate aircraft. The RVSM is just one of the many Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) requirements which must be met for military aircraft to fly within premium airspace during overseas deployment. The commercial equivalent of GATM is Communications Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM). Our focus will be on meeting the RVSM certification requirements as related to the test environment.
    • NEW TELEMETRY HARDWARE FOR THE DEEP SPACE NETWORK TELEMETRY PROCESSOR SYSTEM

      Puri, Amit; Ozkan, Siragan; Schaefer, Peter; Anderson, Bob; Williams, Mike; Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper describes the new Telemetry Processor Hardware (TPH) that Avtec Systems has developed for the Deep Space Network (DSN) Telemetry Processor (TLP) system. Avtec is providing the Telemetry Processor Hardware to RTLogic! for integration into the Telemetry Processor system. The Deep Space Network (DSN) is an international network of antennas that supports interplanetary spacecraft missions for exploration of the solar system and the universe. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the DSN for NASA. The TLP system provides the capability to acquire, process, decode and distribute deep space probe and Earth orbiter telemetry data. The new TLP systems will be deployed at each of the three deep-space communications facilities placed approximately 120 degrees apart around the world: at Goldstone, California; near Madrid, Spain; and near Canberra, Australia. The Telemetry Processor Hardware (TPH) supports both CCSDS and TDM telemetry data formats. The TPH performs the following processing steps: soft-symbol input selection and measurement; convolutional decoding; routing to external decoders; time tagging; frame synchronization; derandomization; and Reed-Solomon decoding. The TPH consists of a VME Viterbi Decoder/MCD III Interface board (VM-7001) and a PCI-mezzanine Frame Synchronizer/Reed-Solomon Decoder (PMC- 6130-J) board. The new Telemetry Processor Hardware is implemented using the latest Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology to provide the density and speed to meet the current requirements as well as the flexibility to accommodate processing enhancements in the future.
    • TELEMETERING SYSTEM FOR THE UA SATELLITE

      Schooley, Larry C.; Hammond, C.; Beauvarlet, D.; Kipple, A.; Condit, R.; Firestone, T.; Ling, V.; Morris, G.; Powers, D.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This student paper was produced as part of the team design competition in the University of Arizona course ECE 485, Radiowaves and Telemetry. It presents a telemetering system proposed for UASat, a small satellite being designed for launch in the year 2004. The overall system architecture is described, including the transducers used by each subsystem, the command and telemetry packet formats, the antennas and modulation schemes, the link budget, and some hardware recommendations. A discussion of the data analysis is also included.