• NOW IS THE RIGHT TIME FOR SOLID STATE

      Berard, Al; Nixon, Chris; Lockard, Michael; Eglin Air Force Base; Data General Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      For the last 30 years Magnetic Tape Systems have been the primary means of recording data from airborne instrumentation systems. Increasing data rates and harsh environmental requirements have often exceeded the ability of tape-based systems to keep pace with technology. Throughout this time data recordings have been made mostly with analog longitudinal systems and most recently with digital recording systems that record on commercial DLT, and super VHS tape media. The recordings are played back with the same type of tape device allowing for the data to be processed and/or archived. Since not all data reduction facilities can process the same type of tape media, often tapes are dubbed from one type of tape media format to another, corrupting the translated data. This paper examines operational and data reduction benefits, and life cycle cost of Solid State Recorders as a replacement for existing airborne tape recorders.
    • PRODUCTION DESIGN OF GOVERNMENT STANDARDIZED SPECTRALLY EFFICIENT FQPSK TRANSMITTERS©

      Bottenfield, Joe; Carle, John; Heft, David; Herley Industries, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Herley Industries has applied state of the art design for production techniques to develop of a line of dual use spectrally efficient digital data transmitters. Herley has been a global leader in the design and production of high tech RF and microwave products for more than 30 years. The resulting transmitters support variable data rates up to 20 Mbps and output power levels to 10 Watts in both the L and S frequency bands. The transmitter product line implements Feher’s-patented Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (FQPSK) modulation technique, effectively doubling the spectral efficiency of conventional PCM-FM techniques. While the development of this transmitter product line represents the initial offering of Herley in the blossoming FQPSK industry, the design team has relied upon its extensive experience in producing RF and microwave products that represent the state of the art in design and manufacturing techniques. The end result has been the production of cost effective transmitters that meet the vibration, shock, EMI, altitude, and temperature requirements of missile and aircraft environments.
    • DIGITAL DATA RECORDING: NEW WAYS IN DATA PROCESSING

      Mueller, Guenter; DASA (EADS) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      With the introduction of digital data recorders new ways of data processing have been developed. The three most important improvements are discussed in this paper: A) By processing PCM Data from a digital recorder by using the SCSI-Interface our ground station has developed software to detect the synchronization pattern of the PCM data and then perform software frame decommutation. Many advantages will be found with this method. B) New digital recorders already use the CCSDS Standard as the internal recording format. Once this technique is implemented in our ground station’s software and becomes part of our software engineering team’s general know-how, the switch to CCSDS telemetry in the future will require no quantum leap in effort. C) Digital recorders offer a very new application: Writing data to a digital tape in the recorder’s own format, allows the replay of data using the recorder’s interfaces; i.e. writing vibration data from the host system to tape, using the analog format of the digital recorder, allows the analysis of the data either in analog form, using the analog interface of the recorder, or in digital form.
    • NATO ADVANCED DATA STORAGE STANDARD STANAG 4575

      Feuer, Gary; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      NATO NAFAG Air Group IV (AG IV) established the NATO Advanced Data Storage Technical Support Team (NADS TST) to investigate the technology and to develop an interface Standardization Agreement (STANAG) for recording, storage, and exchange of imagery data. Government agencies and industry involved in these technologies are participating in this effort.
    • SHOCK & VIBRATION TESTING OF AN AIRBORNE INSTRUMENTATION DIGITAL RECORDER

      Smedley, Mark; Simpson, Gary; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division; Metrum-Datatape Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Shock and vibration testing was performed on the Metrum-Datatape Inc. 32HE recorder to determine its viability as an airborne instrumentation recorder. A secondary goal of the testing was to characterize the recorder operational shock and vibration envelope. Both flight testing and laboratory environmental testing of the recorder was performed to make these determinations. This paper addresses the laboratory portion of the shock and vibration testing and addresses the test methodology and rationale, test set-up, results, challenges, and lessons learned.
    • Electro-Optic Hybrid Rotary Joint (EOHRJ)

      Xu, Guoda; Bartha, John; Zhang, Sean; Qiu, Wei; Lin, Freddie; McNamee, Stuart; Rheaume, Larry; Physical Optics Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      An advanced electro-optic hybrid rotary joint (EOHRJ) has been developed in Phase II of an AF SBIR effort with Physical Optics Corporation (POC) to replace cable wrap structure for multi-channel rotation-to-fixed (RTF) signal transmission. The EOHRJ meets AFFTC and other range special needs with a generic, high performance, rotary joint solution. At the moment, we have successfully installed and tested the EOHRJ on our KTM tracker system with the following capabilities: 1) able to accommodate hundreds of transmission channels, including electrical power, control, feedback, and low-speed signals; 2) able to accommodate multiple channel, high data rate (over gigabits per second), and bi-directional signal transmission; 3) able to be reliable for harsh environmental operation, adaptive to stringent sized requirement, and accommodating existing electrical and mechanical interfaces. The completed EOHRJ contains three uniquely integrated functional rings. The first and the outmost one is power ring, which provides RTF transmission channels for over 50 high voltage and high current channels. The second and the middle one is low speed electrical signal ring, which provides RTF transmission for over hundred control, feedback, and low speed data signals. The third and the inmost one is optical fiber slip ring, which, incorporating with current advanced signal multiplexing technologies (either time division or wavelength division multiplexing ) is able to provide multiple channel, high data rate, and bi-directional signal transmission. At the moment, the prototype module of the tree-layer EOHRJ has been successfully assembled in Air Force’s tracker system, and is providing a satisfactory performance. This paper presents our joint work on this project.
    • DESCRIPTION AND PERFORMANCE RESULTS FOR THE ADVANCED RANGE TELEMETRY (ARTM) TIER II WAVEFORM

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) program is a tri-service telemetry modernization project whose goal is to assure that all Department of Defense (DoD) test and training ranges are able to use telemetry as necessary to carry out their respective missions. Multi-h Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) has been selected by the ARTM JPO as the Tier II ARTM waveform, because it offers significant improvements over both legacy telemetry waveforms (PCM/FM) and the newly-introduced Tier I waveform (Feher-patented FQPSK) in terms of spectral containment and detection efficiency, while retaining a constant envelope characteristic. The paper describes the theoretical and measured performance of the ARTM Tier II multi-h CPM waveform, and the implementation of the trellis demodulator being developed for it.
    • NEAR-FAR RESISTANT PSEUDOLITE RANGING USING THE EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Pseudolites have been proposed for augmentation/replacement of the GPS system in radiolocation applications. However, a terrestrial pseudolite system suffers from the near-far effect due to received power disparities. Conventional code tracking loops as employed in GPS receivers are unable to suppress near-far interference. Here, a multiuser code tracking algorithm is presented based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF.) The EKF jointly tracks the delays and amplitudes of multiple received pseudolite waveforms. A modified EKF based on an approximate Bayesian estimator (BEKF) is also developed, which can in principle both acquire and track code delays, as well as detect loss-of-lock. Representative simulation results for the BEKF are presented for code tracking with 2 and 5 users.
    • AN OFF-LINE COHERENT FQPSK-B SOFTWARE REFERENCE RECEIVER

      Tsou, Haiping; Darden, Scott; Yan, Tsun-Yee; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Using Feher patented Quadrature Phase Shift Keying provides improved spectrum efficiency for high rate telemetry systems. This paper presents an off-line coherent FQPSK-B software reference receiver developed for hardware validation under contract from the Joint Services Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) program. This receiver is implemented in Matlab/Simulink that makes it easily configurable for different tasks and very flexible in handling many other types of QPSK signal or their derivatives with simple modifications. It also offers a cost-effective approach for end-to-end system design. The functionality and key features of this receiver (including its internal software transmitter) will be discussed in this paper. Results from end-to-end system simulations are included as examples.
    • ADVANCED SUBMINIATURE TELEMETRY: A NEXT GENERATION INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM

      Harrison, William D.; Copeland, Frank S.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      In performing its mission, the Air Force SEEK EAGLE Office (AFSEO) conducts a wide variety of tests with heavy emphasis on open-air flight tests. As budget pressures drive a reduction in the number of test sorties, maximizing the amount of quality data from each flight test is of paramount importance. This paper describes an AFSEO effort to develop a low cost, intelligent, subminiature telemetry and sensor system based on modern commercial wireless technologies. The instrumentation system is completely self-contained and can be externally mounted, thus eliminating the requirement for extensive aircraft modifications and minimizing the need for specially instrumented test aircraft. The system will make maximum use of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) components to reduce cost and insure availability. MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) technology will be incorporated as the technology matures.
    • AUTOMATIC TOOLS FOR TELEMETRY TEST RANGE SPECTRUM MANAGEMENT

      Woolsey, Roy B.; Technology for Communications International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Automatic spectrum management and monitoring systems are very useful to manage frequencies at test ranges and assure interference-free transmission of telemetry signals. Spectrum management systems assign telemetry frequencies using database information on available and occupied channels and analysis tools which can determine whether a data link will support telemetry. Modern, DSP-based spectrum monitoring systems, in fixed or mobile configurations, automate the process of performing spectrum occupancy to verify clear channels and identify and locate sources of interference; they are integrated with and utilize the management system database. Such systems are important to assure reliable communications channels for telemetry.
    • A HORSE POWER MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR NEXT GENERATION AIRCRAFT

      Mangino, Fred; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Understanding the horsepower demands that electrical and hydraulic systems place on an aircraft engine is critical since this directly effects engine performance. The current methods of measuring horsepower have been mainly limited to lower rpm engines and are not suitable for higher rpm jet engines. L-3 Telemetry East has developed instrumentation for the F-22 instrumentation group that is capable of measuring horsepower loads on engine shafts that are rotating at up to 18000RPM. This paper describes the operation of this system.
    • SUBMINIATURE GPS INERTIAL TIME SPACE POSITION INFORMATION

      Khosrowabadi, Allen; Gurr, Richard; Fleishans, Amy; TYBRIN Corporation; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      In the past few years, GPS has proven itself as an effective source of time space position information (TSPI) data for air vehicles. Currently, GPS truth systems are used to track aircraft ranging from low dynamic vehicles to high dynamic fighters. However, low-cost GPS TSPI instrumentation is not currently available for stores and weapons delivered by air vehicles. To date, data is collected by tracking dropped items using radar or optical means. This process is costly and time consuming. The purpose of this project is to leverage the recent advances in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a subminiature, inexpensive, low power, disposable telemetrytransmitting package. The purpose of this transmitting package is to up-link the GPS positional data from the weapon or store to the host aircraft. This data is then retransmitted by the host aircraft to a ground station and/or recorded on board for post processing. The transmission of the data to the host aircraft can provide near real- time position data for the released object. The transmitting package must have a unique identification method for application in tracking multiple objects. Since most of the systems used in weapons testing will be destroyed, it is extremely important to keep the development and maintenance cost low. In addition, the package must be non-intrusive to avoid any significant modification to the weapon and to facilitate quick instrumentation of the weapon for test and evaluation.
    • LINUX POWERED TELEMETRY PROCESSING

      Ayala, Joseph; Sorton, Eric; Command & Control Technologies Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Since its debut, the Linux operating system has garnered much attention in the software development community. This paper discusses the open source operating system, Linux, and it’s application as the operating system powering a commercial off-the-shelf telemetry processing system. The paper begins by discussing what are the real-time requirements of the operating system in a telemetry processing system. A discussion to the Linux system is then presented. Soft real-time features of Linux are discussed which allow it to meet the telemetry processing requirements. Linux is compared with the more traditional operating system products and points are made as to why open source software is just as capable, if not preferable, of handling mission critical applications. The paper also presents the authors’ view of future of Linux and open source software in the telemetry marketplace. The paper concludes with a summary of products available for Linux that support telemetry processing and the data acquisition environment.
    • A MODULAR APPROACH TO LANDSAT 7 GROUND PROCESSING

      Mah, G. R.; Pater, R.; Alberts, K.; O’Brien, M.; Senden, T.; Raytheon (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Current Landsat 7 processing is based on a single-string, multifunction approach. A follow-on system has been designed that repartitions functions across multiple hardware platforms to provide increased flexibility and support for additional missions. Downlink bit stream acquisition has been moved to lower cost systems functioning as “capture appliances” with high-speed network interconnections to Level 0 processing on generic compute servers. This decouples serial data stream acquisition from the processing system to allow the addition or replacement of compute servers, without the reintegration of specialized high-speed capture hardware. Moreover, it also allows the easy integration of new systems and missions without extensive system redesign or additional software.
    • TELEMETRY AND JUGGLING

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      One of the beauties of mathematics is its ability to demonstrate the relationship between apparently unrelated subjects. And this is not only an aesthetic attribute. The insight obtained by seeing relations where they are not obvious often leads to elegant solutions to difficult problems. This paper will demonstrate a mathematical relation between telemetry and juggling. Any given pulse code modulation (PCM) format can be mapped onto a juggling pattern. The Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Class I PCM formats are a subset of all juggling patterns while the Class II PCM formats are equivalent to the set of all juggling patterns (within some mathematically precise definitions). There are actually quite a few mathematical results regarding juggling patterns. This paper will also discuss how these topics relate to tessellations, bin packing, PCM format design, and dynamic spectrum allocation. One of the shortcomings of human nature is the tendency to get caught up in a particular topic or viewpoint. This is true of the telemetry community as well. It is hoped that this paper will increase the awareness that there are a variety of areas of theory outside of telemetry that may be applicable to the field.
    • IRIG FQPSK-B STANDARDIZATION PROGRESS REPORT

      Law, Eugene L.; NAWCWD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper will provide an overview of the process used to develop the bandwidth efficient modulation sections of the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) standard. The modulation method selected was Feher’s patented quadrature phase shift keying (FQPSK-B). The important characteristics of a bandwidth efficient modulation method for aeronautical telemetry will be presented first followed by a summary of the results of the research, laboratory test, and flight test efforts. Future plans will then be summarized followed by the FQPSK-B sections of the current IRIG Telemetry Standard (the standard is available online at: http://tecnet0.jcte.jcs.mil/RCC/oldoc.htm).
    • GPS RECEIVER SELECTION AND TESTING FOR LAUNCH AND ORBITAL VEHICLES

      Schrock, Ken; Freestone, Todd; Bell, Leon; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      NASA Marshall Space Flight Center’s Bantam Robust Guidance Navigation & Control Project is investigating off the shelf navigation sensors that may be inexpensively combined into Kalman filters specifically tuned for launch and orbital vehicles. For this purpose, Marshall has purchased several GPS receivers and is evaluating them for these applications. The paper will discuss the receiver selection criteria and the test equipment used for evaluation. An overview of the analysis will be presented including the evaluation used to determine their success or failure. It will conclude with goals of the program and a recommendation for all GPS users.
    • TRANSPORTATION OF THE RF SPECTRA OVER FIBER: A WORKING SYSTEM

      Moore, Jeanne; NAWCWD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper presents the results of installing a distributed feedback (DFB) laser transmitter and the appropriate optical receiver in an operational site. Frequencies from 1435 to 2400 megahertz are transported intact from a remote site to a local site. From the theoretical calculations, 10 dB of dynamic range may need to be recovered by the use of an automatic gain circuit. The actual device is a delight, needing no additional circuitry to meet specifications. Predictions of performance were made from calculations. The installed system was measured for 1 dB compression point and for figure of merit.
    • SPECTRAL EFFICIENT BIT RATE AGILE AND IF FREQUENCY SELECTABLE FQPSK COMMERCIAL AND GOVERNMENT PRODUCTS DEVELOPMENTS

      Eastman, Paul; Formeister, R. B.; RF Networks (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      RF Networks developed one of the first flight tested practical modems to use the Feher-patented Quadrature Shift Keying (FQPSK) [1] modulation technique. The modem was developed, using as a base platform, a modem originally developed to transmit data over coaxial cable and microwave systems. Modifications were made to the modem to accommodate the patented modulation at baseband and to ruggedize the modem for prototype testing in flight telemetry applications. Pioneering efforts resulted in the first transmitter/receiver pair to be flight proven utilizing the FQPSK modulation technique. Results of these tests confirmed an acceptable alternative to PCM-FM that provides a significantly improved spectral utilization. Current development of data rate agile transmitters and receivers for aircraft and missile telemetry for the US Air Force will be discussed in general terms.