• STUDY ON HIGH-RATE TELEMETRY DATA REAL-TIME PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

      Chun, Yang; Hongling, Yang; Jie, Zhou; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Owing to rapid development of PC industry, personal computer has been surprisingly improved on reliability and speed and it has been applied to many fields, such as aerospace, satellite and telemetry applications. As we all known, two aspects decide how fast the PC-based data acquisition can be reached. One aspect is CPU processing and the other is I/O bandwidth. Indeed, the first aspect has changed increasingly insignificant because the frequency of CPU has exceeded 700MHz which can satisfy fully the need of high rate data processing. So I/O bandwidth is the only key factor of the high rate PC-based data acquisition and we must adopt efficient data buffer techniques to satisfy the demand of telemetry data entry. This paper presents a buffered data channel which use memory mapping, EPLD and Dual-Port SRAM techniques. The operation platform of this design is WINDOWS95/98 and the software includes device driver and real-time processing routines.
    • A COMPARISON OF VIDEO COMPRESSION ALGORITHMS

      Thom, Gary A.; Deutermann, Alan R.; Delta Information Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Compressed video is necessary for a variety of telemetry requirements. A large number of competing video compression algorithms exist. This paper compares the ability of these algorithms to meet criteria which are of interest for telemetry applications. Included are: quality, compression, noise susceptibility, motion performance and latency. The algorithms are divided into those which employ inter-frame compression and those which employ intra-frame compression. A video tape presentation will also be presented to illustrate the performance of the video compression algorithms.
    • COMPATIBILITY OF IRIG-106-00 STANDARDIZED FEHERPATENTED FQPSK WITH OTHER DATA LINKS AND WIDEBAND W-CDMA

      McCorduck, James A.; Feher, Kamilo; University of California, Davis; Entech Engineering; Digcom Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The interoperability of Feher-patented Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (FQPSK) systems with future and legacy data links is discussed in this paper. In particular, the benefits of “forward” interoperability with 3G (3rd Generation) wireless systems such as WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) up to 40 Mchips/sec are highlighted. Other proposals of forward interoperability with future data links include an enhanced, ultra-bandwidth efficient FQPSK and 16-state FQAM (Feher’s Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) architectures. In addition, since FQPSK based systems have been proven in “dual use” systems and extensively tested and evaluated by the Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA, the analysis of “backward” interoperability with legacy data links such as GSM is also included in this paper.
    • MODULATOR IMBALANCE EFFECTS ON THE FQPSK AIRBORNE TELEMETRY LINK

      Temple, Kip; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      When designing transmitters for quadrature modulation schemes, the designer always tries to achieve good balance and symmetry of the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) branches of the modulator in terms of amplitude, phase, and offsets. Perfect balance between modulators is ideal but rarely if ever achieved. The Advance Range Telemetry (ARTM) program has placed indirect specifications on the remnant carrier and sideband levels which are controlled by modulator imbalance. These specifications will govern the ARTM programs first generation of Feher’s patented quadrature phase shift keying, version B (FQPSK-B) [9] airborne telemetry transmitters. The ARTM Program has also adopted test procedures for quantifying these modulation imbalances. This paper looks at the effects of modulator imbalances on spectral occupancy and bit error probability of the airborne telemetry link. It also outlines how these imbalances influence the levels in one of the ARTM specifications. Recommendations are presented based on the measured data for higher bit rate telemetry systems.
    • PROPULSIVE SMALL EXPENDABLE DEPLOYER SYSTEM (PROSEDS) MISSION AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM OVERVIEW

      Kennedy, Paul; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama will launch the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment in late 2000. ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system and will utilize a conducting wire tether to generate limited spacecraft power. This paper will provide an overview of the ProSEDS mission and will discuss the design, and test of the spacecraft telemetry system. The ProSEDS telemetry subsystem employs a combination of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware and launch vehicle telemetry system components to minimize costs as well as power consumption. Several measures were used to aid the conservation of spacecraft power resources. First, the transmitter was modified to limit input power consumption to less that 20 watts while providing approximately two watts Radio Frequency (RF) output power. Secondly, the ProSEDS on board Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is being used to control input power to the transmitter in order to limit the telemetry operations to occasions when the spacecraft is in proximity to preprogrammed ground station locations.
    • A POLARIZATION-AGILE RADIATION TECHNIQUE FOR TESTING TELEMETRY RECEIVING SITES AT WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE

      Vines, Roger; Shaw, Stephen; Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Telemetry receiving sites at missile test ranges almost always use polarization diversity to maximize the quality of the telemetry signals collected from missiles during developmental tests. If the sites are operating optimally, their sensitivity should be independent of received polarization. In this paper a technique to test the sensitivity of each receiving site is presented that involves radiating from a central location with selectable polarization and precise power level. Results of testing five telemetry sites are presented and compared with performance predicted through link analysis using site G/T and location information.
    • IEEE P1451.3 A STANDARD FOR NETWORKED TRANSDUCERS

      Eccles, Lee H.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      IEEE P1451.3 is an attempt to define a standard that will allow a transducer manufacturer to build transducers that have a wide range of price and performance but which are all inter-operable within a system. The standard will allow for simple devices with relatively low data sampling rates and moderate time correlation requirements to be designed and built. At the other end of the spectrum will be devices that have bandwidth requirements to several hundred kilohertz and time correlation requirements in the range of nanoseconds. It is expected that devices from either end of the spectrum will be able to peacefully coexist in the same system. In the physical realm a single transmission line will be used to supply power to the transducers and to provide the communications between the bus controller and the transducers. A bus is expected to have one bus controller and many transducers. A Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) contains the controller for the bus and the interface to the broader network, such as NexGenBus, that may support many other nodes, NCAPs and transducer buses. A bus controller will only reside in an NCAP if the transducer bus exists within a hierarchy of networks; it may reside in a host computer or other device. This paper discusses the approach being taken and gives the status of the standard.
    • AN ENHANCED, CONSTANT ENVELOPE, INTEROPERABLE SHAPED OFFSET QPSK (SOQPSK) WAVEFORM FOR IMPROVED SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY

      Hill, Terrance J.; Nova Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Shaped BPSK (SBPSK) and Shaped Offset QPSK (SOQPSK), as defined in various MIL standards, are widely employed on SATCOM links because they offer an attractive combination of good spectral efficiency, constant envelope characteristics, and interoperability with legacy equipments. More recently, numerous terrestrial applications of OQPSK and similar waveforms (Feher-patented FQPSK) have been proposed. The present paper describes a simple non-proprietary modification of the MIL-STD SOQPSK waveform which offers spectral containment and detection efficiency comparable to or better than FQPSK-B (Revision A1), while preserving a constant envelope characteristic and backward compatibility with existing equipment.
    • HARDWARE-INDEPENDENT AND SOFTWARE-INDEPENDENT IN SYSTEM DESIGN

      Liucheng, Miao; Jiangang, Su; Bingxuan, Feng; Beijing Institute of Tracking & Telecommunication Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Today, open technology has been widely used in computer and other field, including software and hardware. The “Open Technology” about hardware and software can be called “Hardware-Independent and Software-Independent”(For example, Open Operating System in Computer.). But, in telemetry technology field, the system design based on “Hardware-Independent and Software-Independent” is primary stage. In this paper, the following question will be discussed: a. Why telemetry system design needs “open technology” b. How to accomplish system design based on “Hardware-Independent and Software-Independent” c. The application prospect of “hardware-Independent and Software-Independent” in system design.
    • AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL COMMUNICATIONS TEST FACILITY AND AVIONICS SYSTEM TEST (ACTFAST): GEARING UP FOR NEXT GENERATION AVIONICS SYSTEMS TESTING

      Switzer, Earl; Whelan, Michael; Lagunas, Farncisco; Air Force Flight Test Center; TYBRIN Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Growth in civil aviation is overwhelming worldwide airspace and air traffic services. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Department of Defense (DoD) are proposing or implementing numerous changes to address this growth. The changes are broadly contained in what the civil aviation community calls Communication, Navigation, and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM) and the DoD calls Global Air Traffic Management (GATM). A major component of both civil and DoD proposed changes are data link systems digitally transmitting information between aircraft, air traffic control centers, and aircraft operations centers. The real-time interactive nature of these data-link systems and the integration of the aircraft avionics into a worldwide network are forcing aircraft test agencies to acquire access to this capability. Aircraft flighttesting must address both the specific aircraft avionics test requirements and the system-of-systems aspects of data-link applications. This paper describes the factors driving changes in the worldwide CNS/ATM system and identifies specific proposed or implemented changes. Various flight-test requirements, both civil and military, of the proposed changes are enumerated. Particular attention is paid to the DoDs GATM certification requirements. Finally, we present the Air Traffic Control Communications Test Facility and Avionics System Test (ACTFAST) program and explain its capabilities. Rationale for ACTFAST component parts is included along with a brief outline of how the capabilities represented by each component part are used during flight test to acquire the necessary information to meet civil and DoD aircraft certification requirements.
    • CODED OFDM FOR AERONAUTICAL TELEMETRY

      Rice, Michael; Welling, Kenneth; Brigham Young University; Motorola ISSPD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Three Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) mapped COFDM systems demonstrating a continuum of complexity levels are simulated over an evolving three ray model of the multipath fading channel with parameters interpolated from actual channel sounding experiments. The first COFDM system uses coherent QPSK and convolutional coding with interleaving in frequency, channel equalization and soft decision decoding; the second uses convolutional coding with interleaving in frequency, Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) and soft decision decoding; the third system uses a quaternary BCH code with DPSK mapping and Error and Erasure Decoding (EED). All three systems are shown to be able to provide reliable data communication during frequency selective fade events. Simulations demonstrate QPSK mapped COFDM with reasonable complexity performs well in a multipath frequency selective fading environment under parameters typically encountered in aeronautical telemetry.
    • REAL-TIME SPECTRALLY EFFICIENT TARGET IMAGING

      McNamee, Stuart; Rheaume, Larry; Shnitser, P.; Agurok, I.; Sandomirsky, S.; Avakian, A.; Air Force Flight Test Center; Physical Optics Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      To enhance the visibility of remote objects under test at Air Force testing facilities in adverse weather conditions, the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards AFB, California, contracted with Physical Optics Corporation’s (POC) Applied Technology Division, Torrance CA, to investigate a realtime spectrally enhanced imaging prototype system. When installed on an optical target tracker, this system will automatically adjust its spectral transmission in such a way that the intensity of the background illumination will be reduced significantly while providing minimum reduction of the light reflected from a detected target. A laboratory prototype of this system was developed under a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase I contract. The prototype consists of the optical part that will be attached to the large tracker lens and to a portable computer. The key element of this system is an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) that is capable of quickly varying the shape of its spectral transmission curve in the entire visible range under computer control. The developed system automatically analyzes the spectral signatures of the background and of the selected object of interest. It calculates a spectrally matched filter for the background suppression and target contrast enhancement. This filtered data then goes directly into the optical channel with the minimal computer image processing. The resulting image with the enhanced target contrast can be displayed in real time on a common computer monitor and can be recorded by a VCR. The performance of the laboratory prototype demonstrated enhancement of the visibility of objects immersed in a scattering medium. Successful development of a working system will make flight testing of military equipment more informative and less expensive. It will reduce the dependence of the flight test program on the weather conditions and will allow for collecting more data by providing real-time images with enhanced target visibility.
    • TELEMETERING SYSTEM FOR THE UA SATELLITE

      Schooley, Larry C.; Hammond, C.; Beauvarlet, D.; Kipple, A.; Condit, R.; Firestone, T.; Ling, V.; Morris, G.; Powers, D.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This student paper was produced as part of the team design competition in the University of Arizona course ECE 485, Radiowaves and Telemetry. It presents a telemetering system proposed for UASat, a small satellite being designed for launch in the year 2004. The overall system architecture is described, including the transducers used by each subsystem, the command and telemetry packet formats, the antennas and modulation schemes, the link budget, and some hardware recommendations. A discussion of the data analysis is also included.
    • LOW-ELEVATION TRACKING TECHNOLOGY FOR TELEMETRY EQUIPMENT

      Xueping, Zhu; Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunication Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper analyzes the multi-path effects on telemetry equipment when it tracks the low-elevation flying target. Based on bias-axis mono-pulse technique, real time attenuation memory recursive Least-Squares Estimate as well as synthetic application of multiple source data, a comprehensive tracking method is proposed to eliminate the antenna shaking and reduce angle error caused by the multi-path effects. The method has been verified by field test. And the goal of smooth tracking of the low elevation target is eventually reached.
    • IMPROVEMENTS IN AUTOMATIC MODULATION RECOGNITION OF ASK AND FSK SIGNALS

      Simms, Dennis; Kosbar, Kurt; Garmin International; University of Missouri, Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      An algorithm for automatic modulation recognition of ASK, PSK and FSK was developed by Azzouz and Nandi. The algorithm has some serious problems at SNR of 10 dB and below. This paper describes a modification to the algorithm that significantly improves the performance for detection of ASK and FSK at moderate and low SNR.
    • REMOTE ATMOSPHERIC VISIBILITY MONITORING RAVM

      McNamee, Stuart; Rheaume, Larry; Lutomirski, Richard; Edwards Air Force Base; LAZINT, LCC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Test ranges need advanced knowledge of visibility conditions to increase the robustness of the test data collection and evaluation process. For any given test, the ability to capture high-resolution performance data of aircraft using ground-based film theodolites and electro-optical imaging sensors is subject to uncertainties in imaging capability permitted by the intervening atmosphere. The Remote Atmospheric Visibility Monitoring (RAVM) project is being developed as a suite of three collocated optical sensors that measure the components of atmosphere-induced image degradation. When the component measurements are combined, a ‘transfer function’ is obtained that can project the quality of imaging data without an aircraft being present. The resulting predicted imagery provides valuable pre mission information that can be analyzed and reviewed before incurring expensive fieldtest operations. The RAVM project is a Phase II Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program that is developing an instrument for providing an atmospheric visibility measurement capability to support range scheduling and test operations. This advanced capability will monitor ‘effective visibility’ in the context of imaging extended targets, such as aircraft, and predicting the degrading effects of the atmosphere on imaging sensors operating in the visible and near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
    • TELEMETRY SYSTEMS DESIGN TO SUPPORT THE AUSTRALIAN DEFENSE FORCE AT THE EAST AUSTRALIA (JERVIS BAY RANGE) AND OTHER LAND OR OPEN OCEAN EXERCISE LOCATIONS

      Bennett, Wayne; Peterson, Dwight M.; Naval Warfare Assessment Station; Royal Australian Navy (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) Sonar and Ranges Group (S&RG) office has a requirement to provide a dual weapon capable Mobile Missile Telemetry Range (MMTR) and data analysis system to upgrade their Jervis Bay Range telemetry ground station for supporting at-sea testing of air and surface launched guided weapon, decoy, and target systems. This paper describes the design and development of the MMTR and data analysis system used to support the Jervis Bay Range and the acquisition strategy used to procure the system. Unique design features of the MMTR system include a dual use packaging scheme which permits the system to be transported to any suitable land based location or deployed as two independent shipboard telemetry receiving systems. In addition, the paper describes antenna, receiver, recording, matrix switching, processing, display, and communication subsystem components used within the MMTR system.
    • PHASE CENTER MEASUREMENTS FOR A WRAP-AROUND GPS ANTENNA

      Meyer, Steven J.; Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is being used as a sensor in telemetry systems to provide time, space and position information (TSPI) as well as end game or vector scoring. The accuracy of these measurements depends on precisely locating the phase center of the GPS antenna. A procedure has not currently been addressed by anyone to measure the phase center of a conformal wrap-around GPS antenna. This paper will discuss some techniques on determining the antenna phase center.
    • A DISTRIBUTED, LOW-POWER TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR SOLAR RACE CAR APPLICATIONS

      Schooley, L. C.; Tuomey, E. S.; Velasquez, G.; Slade, S.; Bunker, K.; Reyes, E.; Yousefnejad, T.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This student paper was produced as part of the team design competition in the University of Arizona course ECE 485, Radiowaves and Telemetry. It describes the design of a telemetry system for the University of Arizona’s Daedalus solar car. This is a distributed, low-power, telemetry-on-demand system that solves many of the problems typically encountered in this specialized telemetry application. The topology of the distributed microcontroller system is shown, as are optimal command and data packet structures. Also featured is a high-gain, low profile antenna system designed specifically for the solar car. Additionally, a customized chase car operator interface is illustrated.
    • FIBEROPTIC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM FOR IMPROVING RAMP TM RECEPTION

      Maurer, Ricky L.; Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The requirement for improved ramp telemetry data and video coverage has prompted the Telemetry Branch at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD) to install an L and S-Band Fiberoptic Transmission System linking multiple hangar locations to the Telemetry Data Center. This system uses Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) equipment and is capable of transmitting analog telemetry data and video from multiple sites to one location for processing and display. The system at NAWCAD has been in use since 1996 and is continually growing to accommodate additional requirements.