• International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 36 (2000)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10
    • DEVELOPMENT OF THE VHF AIR/GROUNG DATA LINK FOR CAAC

      Qing, Zhong; Qi-shan, Zhang; Xingjian, Huang; Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The VHF air/ground data link of CAAC is introduced in detail. This paper proposes a solution of VHF air/ground data link system, which exchanges downlink messages and uplink messages in data link information processing networks. The following topics are covered in this paper: components of VHF data link; data processing and design about VHF data link Gateway system; the application of VHF air/ground data link in airlines.
    • STUDY ON HIGH-RATE TELEMETRY DATA REAL-TIME PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

      Chun, Yang; Hongling, Yang; Jie, Zhou; Xinan Electronic Engineering Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Owing to rapid development of PC industry, personal computer has been surprisingly improved on reliability and speed and it has been applied to many fields, such as aerospace, satellite and telemetry applications. As we all known, two aspects decide how fast the PC-based data acquisition can be reached. One aspect is CPU processing and the other is I/O bandwidth. Indeed, the first aspect has changed increasingly insignificant because the frequency of CPU has exceeded 700MHz which can satisfy fully the need of high rate data processing. So I/O bandwidth is the only key factor of the high rate PC-based data acquisition and we must adopt efficient data buffer techniques to satisfy the demand of telemetry data entry. This paper presents a buffered data channel which use memory mapping, EPLD and Dual-Port SRAM techniques. The operation platform of this design is WINDOWS95/98 and the software includes device driver and real-time processing routines.
    • TESTS AND EVALUATIONS OF ADAPTIVE FEHER EQUALIZERS FOR A LARGE CLASS OF SYSTEMS, INCLUDING FQPSK

      Gao, Wei; Wang, Shih-Ho; Feher, Kamilo; University of California; Digcom, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Design and performance evaluation of a low-complexity equalizer for recently standardized spectral efficient Feher patented quadrature phase shift keying (FQPSK) system [1] over multipath fading channel is presented. The implementation based on a Feher patented equalizer (FE) [1] is of a structure with three branches, which are individually used to compensate for a moving fade notch with different locations. These branches are switched by the control signal that is generated based on pseudo-error on-line detection technique. It is demonstrated that for typical aeronautical telemetry RF frequency selective fading channels, having delay spreads in 20 – 200 ns range, the adaptive FE reduces the number of statistical outages by more than 60% without the need for training bits and without increasing the receiver synchronization time.
    • JTDMS: AN OBJECT ORIENTED APPROACH TO TELEMETRY ATTRIBUTES MANAGEMENT

      Morgan, Jon; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper presents an overview of the telemetry attributes management system used to support the Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing System (ADAPS) at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC). The Joint Test Data Management System is an object-oriented system used to store telemetry attributes. JTDMS accepts telemetry attributes in a variety of formats and provides setup files for the ADAPS system.
    • AN XML VOCABULARY FOR TMATS

      Downing, Bob; SYMVIONICS, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      XML is a simple, powerful way to agree on data transfers between organizations, applications and/or computer systems. XML was originally developed to separate data content definition from the display of data on a web page. XML is based on a subset of the Standardized General Markup Language (SGML), which means XML uses a tag-based syntax similar to Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML). Whereas HTML uses fixed tags to display data, XML uses custom designed tags to describe data. XML provides a simple, standard, portable, and flexible way to transfer data between applications. This could provide a useful way to transfer telemetry attributes data between customers and systems. Currently, there is not a significant amount of support for the use of the Telemetry Attributes Transfer Standard (TMATS). Telemetry vendors still use their own formats, customers maintain their own databases, and support facilities/ranges promote the use of their own implementations. TMATS was supposed to define a common ground to transfer data definitions, but the tools to TMATS have not come about. TMATS is a well defined, structured specification that maps into XML extremely well. Even though XML is a fairly new technology, there are already many tools available to support XML parsing with more becoming available. This makes XML an excellent choice to supplement TMATS for the interchange of telemetry attribute information. This paper provides an initial attempt at defining the language and structure for an XML vocabulary of TMATS.
    • HIGH BANDWIDTH PORTABLE TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS USE OF xDSL TECHNOLOGY IN MILITARY AND INDUSTRIAL TELEMETRIC APPLICATIONS

      Umansky, Alec; Defence Communications Industry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper introduces new telemetry equipment based on Digital Subscriber Loop DSL technology (high speed transmission over copper cables) for military and industrial applications. A brief xDSL technology overview is followed with introduction of the new ‘P3’ product. A number of new applications for remote data transmission are presented and further highlighted in the Australian Army report detailing their recent equipment operational deployments.
    • FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS IN A TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Hicks, William T.; L3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper discusses the conversion of an existing telemetry system to the use of fiber optic communications. The change was implemented to provide expanded capabilities of existing capital assets with a minimum of investment. The paper reviews the design constraints and options considered for a specific flight test program. The different options, such as fiber type, connector type, wavelength, bit rate, and encoding method, are compared and discussed as to their applicability, reliability, and cost effectiveness in a telemetry environment. The paper discusses the solution selected and the capabilities of the final design, as compared to the initial system.
    • IMPROVEMENTS IN AUTOMATIC MODULATION RECOGNITION OF ASK AND FSK SIGNALS

      Simms, Dennis; Kosbar, Kurt; Garmin International; University of Missouri, Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      An algorithm for automatic modulation recognition of ASK, PSK and FSK was developed by Azzouz and Nandi. The algorithm has some serious problems at SNR of 10 dB and below. This paper describes a modification to the algorithm that significantly improves the performance for detection of ASK and FSK at moderate and low SNR.
    • IRIG FQPSK-B STANDARDIZATION PROGRESS REPORT

      Law, Eugene L.; NAWCWD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This paper will provide an overview of the process used to develop the bandwidth efficient modulation sections of the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) standard. The modulation method selected was Feher’s patented quadrature phase shift keying (FQPSK-B). The important characteristics of a bandwidth efficient modulation method for aeronautical telemetry will be presented first followed by a summary of the results of the research, laboratory test, and flight test efforts. Future plans will then be summarized followed by the FQPSK-B sections of the current IRIG Telemetry Standard (the standard is available online at: http://tecnet0.jcte.jcs.mil/RCC/oldoc.htm).
    • A POLARIZATION-AGILE RADIATION TECHNIQUE FOR TESTING TELEMETRY RECEIVING SITES AT WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE

      Vines, Roger; Shaw, Stephen; Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Telemetry receiving sites at missile test ranges almost always use polarization diversity to maximize the quality of the telemetry signals collected from missiles during developmental tests. If the sites are operating optimally, their sensitivity should be independent of received polarization. In this paper a technique to test the sensitivity of each receiving site is presented that involves radiating from a central location with selectable polarization and precise power level. Results of testing five telemetry sites are presented and compared with performance predicted through link analysis using site G/T and location information.
    • ANTENNA CONTROL FOR TT&C ANTENNA SYSTEMS

      Kaiser, Julius A.; Herold, Fredrick W.; Fredrick Herold and Associates, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      A thinned array sensor system develops error voltages for steering dish antennas from signals arriving over a broad range of angles, thereby eliminating need for a priori knowledge of signal location.
    • A MODULAR APPROACH TO LANDSAT 7 GROUND PROCESSING

      Mah, G. R.; Pater, R.; Alberts, K.; O’Brien, M.; Senden, T.; Raytheon (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Current Landsat 7 processing is based on a single-string, multifunction approach. A follow-on system has been designed that repartitions functions across multiple hardware platforms to provide increased flexibility and support for additional missions. Downlink bit stream acquisition has been moved to lower cost systems functioning as “capture appliances” with high-speed network interconnections to Level 0 processing on generic compute servers. This decouples serial data stream acquisition from the processing system to allow the addition or replacement of compute servers, without the reintegration of specialized high-speed capture hardware. Moreover, it also allows the easy integration of new systems and missions without extensive system redesign or additional software.
    • EVALUATION OF GPS RECEIVER PERFORMANCE UNDER HIGH DYNAMIC CONDITIONS

      Cunningham, James P.; Khoe, Paula K.; Hermann, Bruce R.; Evans, Alan G.; Merts, John H.; Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division; USAF Air Armament Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors have the potential to provide precise position, velocity, and timing information in high dynamic applications. Missile flight-testing is one such application where accurate relative positions are important. GPS instrumentation can provide the high accuracy while offering both significant cost savings and improved confidence in the test results when compared to existing methods. To date, the use of GPS in missile flight-testing has been limited due to a lack of demonstrated GPS receiver tracking capability in high dynamics. This paper evaluates several currently available GPS receivers for both their tracking capability and their measurement accuracy in high dynamic environments.
    • PROPULSIVE SMALL EXPENDABLE DEPLOYER SYSTEM (PROSEDS) MISSION AND TELEMETRY SYSTEM OVERVIEW

      Kennedy, Paul; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama will launch the Propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) space experiment in late 2000. ProSEDS will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system and will utilize a conducting wire tether to generate limited spacecraft power. This paper will provide an overview of the ProSEDS mission and will discuss the design, and test of the spacecraft telemetry system. The ProSEDS telemetry subsystem employs a combination of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) hardware and launch vehicle telemetry system components to minimize costs as well as power consumption. Several measures were used to aid the conservation of spacecraft power resources. First, the transmitter was modified to limit input power consumption to less that 20 watts while providing approximately two watts Radio Frequency (RF) output power. Secondly, the ProSEDS on board Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is being used to control input power to the transmitter in order to limit the telemetry operations to occasions when the spacecraft is in proximity to preprogrammed ground station locations.
    • AFFORDABLE, ALTERNATIVE TEST METHOD FOR MEETING CIVIL AVIATION REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMUM (RVSM) REQUIRMENTS ON MILITARY/COMMERCIAL AIRCRAFT

      Pratt, Robert L.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      A recent Air Traffic Management (ATM) initiative has reduced certain oceanic routes from a 2,000-foot vertical separation minimum to a 1,000-foot (300 m) separation minimum between flight levels of 29,000 feet and 41,000 feet. As a result of this initiative, an aircraft transitioning from the Continental United States (CONUS) to Europe or Asia will be required to have a validated, certified altimeter reporting system within the specified tolerances. The aging military airframes are not currently Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum (RVSM) certified. The impact on military deployment time to foreign theatres as well as high- fuel cost makes this a high-priority DoD issue. This paper describes the test and evaluation (T&E) challenge, viable solutions and test method for meeting the RVSM requirements in an approved, affordable, and least down-time (minimal aircraft modification) manner. The test method described herein utilizes a PACER aircraft in formation with the RVSM candidate aircraft. The RVSM is just one of the many Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) requirements which must be met for military aircraft to fly within premium airspace during overseas deployment. The commercial equivalent of GATM is Communications Navigation and Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM). Our focus will be on meeting the RVSM certification requirements as related to the test environment.
    • GPS RECEIVER SELECTION AND TESTING FOR LAUNCH AND ORBITAL VEHICLES

      Schrock, Ken; Freestone, Todd; Bell, Leon; National Aeronautics and Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      NASA Marshall Space Flight Center’s Bantam Robust Guidance Navigation & Control Project is investigating off the shelf navigation sensors that may be inexpensively combined into Kalman filters specifically tuned for launch and orbital vehicles. For this purpose, Marshall has purchased several GPS receivers and is evaluating them for these applications. The paper will discuss the receiver selection criteria and the test equipment used for evaluation. An overview of the analysis will be presented including the evaluation used to determine their success or failure. It will conclude with goals of the program and a recommendation for all GPS users.
    • TELEMETRY AND JUGGLING

      Jones, Charles H.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      One of the beauties of mathematics is its ability to demonstrate the relationship between apparently unrelated subjects. And this is not only an aesthetic attribute. The insight obtained by seeing relations where they are not obvious often leads to elegant solutions to difficult problems. This paper will demonstrate a mathematical relation between telemetry and juggling. Any given pulse code modulation (PCM) format can be mapped onto a juggling pattern. The Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) 106 Class I PCM formats are a subset of all juggling patterns while the Class II PCM formats are equivalent to the set of all juggling patterns (within some mathematically precise definitions). There are actually quite a few mathematical results regarding juggling patterns. This paper will also discuss how these topics relate to tessellations, bin packing, PCM format design, and dynamic spectrum allocation. One of the shortcomings of human nature is the tendency to get caught up in a particular topic or viewpoint. This is true of the telemetry community as well. It is hoped that this paper will increase the awareness that there are a variety of areas of theory outside of telemetry that may be applicable to the field.
    • A DISTRIBUTED, LOW-POWER TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR SOLAR RACE CAR APPLICATIONS

      Schooley, L. C.; Tuomey, E. S.; Velasquez, G.; Slade, S.; Bunker, K.; Reyes, E.; Yousefnejad, T.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      This student paper was produced as part of the team design competition in the University of Arizona course ECE 485, Radiowaves and Telemetry. It describes the design of a telemetry system for the University of Arizona’s Daedalus solar car. This is a distributed, low-power, telemetry-on-demand system that solves many of the problems typically encountered in this specialized telemetry application. The topology of the distributed microcontroller system is shown, as are optimal command and data packet structures. Also featured is a high-gain, low profile antenna system designed specifically for the solar car. Additionally, a customized chase car operator interface is illustrated.
    • COMPATIBILITY OF IRIG-106-00 STANDARDIZED FEHERPATENTED FQPSK WITH OTHER DATA LINKS AND WIDEBAND W-CDMA

      McCorduck, James A.; Feher, Kamilo; University of California, Davis; Entech Engineering; Digcom Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2000-10)
      The interoperability of Feher-patented Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (FQPSK) systems with future and legacy data links is discussed in this paper. In particular, the benefits of “forward” interoperability with 3G (3rd Generation) wireless systems such as WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) up to 40 Mchips/sec are highlighted. Other proposals of forward interoperability with future data links include an enhanced, ultra-bandwidth efficient FQPSK and 16-state FQAM (Feher’s Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) architectures. In addition, since FQPSK based systems have been proven in “dual use” systems and extensively tested and evaluated by the Department of Defense (DoD) and NASA, the analysis of “backward” interoperability with legacy data links such as GSM is also included in this paper.