Rumford, George J.; Vuong, Minh; Bachinsky, Stephen T.; Powell, Edward T.; U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range; U.S. Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command; Science Applications International Corporation; Science Applications International Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Foundation Initiative 2010 (FI 2010) is a joint interoperability initiative of the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation. The vision of FI 2010 is to enable interoperability among ranges, facilities, and simulations in a timely and cost-efficient manner and to foster reuse of range assets and future range system developments. To achieve this vision, FI 2010 is developing and validating a common architecture with a common range object model, a core set of tools, inter-range communication capabilities, interfaces to existing range assets, interfaces to weapon systems, and recommended procedures for conducting synthetic test events and training exercises. During FY 01, the project is developing the second Test and Training ENabling Architecture (TENA) Middleware Prototype as a basis for range communication. FI 2010 will advance a simulation-based acquisition or a ‘distributed engineering plant’ methodology to streamline weapon system acquisition. Benefits from the FI 2010 products include cost effective replacement of customized data links, enhanced exchange of mission data, organic TENA-compliant capabilities at test sites to be leveraged for future test events, and instrumentation system reuse. Through FI 2010, future inter-range operations, instrumentation development, and range capability sustainment will cost less and incur less risk.

      Self, Lance; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Visitors to web pages are, in most cases, restricted to viewing information the page designer has anticipated they will be interested in viewing. Many times this is adequate, but there are instances where the visitor wants the information they view to be based on selections they choose. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicles Directorate anticipates selected customers will have a need to view very large data sets that vary from the satellite payload to the satellite state of health1, and will require controlling what they view in an “ad hoc” manner. In response, AFRL is using Java Server Pages developed within the data center to bring interactive and dynamic web page content to these customers.
    • A Technical Study on Microwave FM Locked in Phase of Telemetry Transmitters

      Banghua, Zhou; Shiwei, Xiao; Xinan Electronic Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This paper describes techniques on the microwave FM locked in phase of transmitters in the reentry telemetry system. A few scheme configurations on the microwave FM locked in phase, its circuit characteristics and applications are analyzed. Research results show that the two-point injection microwave FM locked in phase is suitable for the telemetry system, which code rate is higher, band of wide, and modulation response very well.

      Zareba, Grzegorz; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This article presents a measurement system based on the RS-485 interface. The presented system is an alternative solution for distributed measurement systems, which cannot be built using IEEE-488 interface due to distance limitation between elements of the system. The RS-485 interface is a base for communication between measurement instruments and uses a Master-Slave protocol to exchange data between them. One dedicated master device, usually a PC, controls all slave devices connected to the interface. To control measurement devices SCPI language is used. This solution simplifies communication between measurement devices and allows utilizing the HP-VEE environment to control any SCPI devices connected to the RS-485 network.
    • Data Collection Via Aircraft Powerlines

      Berard, Alfredo; Boolos, Tim; 46 TW/TSI; TRW (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Advances in physical layer interface technologies have led to the ability to establish a virtual IP network over powerlines. Raw data packet transport speeds of over 10 Mbits/s have been achieved. The powerline is a dynamically changing electromagnetic environment completely unlike the stable, steady state environment of coaxial cables or twisted wire pairs. A special interface technique called adaptive Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is used to overcome the rapid and dynamic changes in transfer function and noise floor of the powerline. This paper describes the technique being used to implement a fast data collection network over aircraft powerlines that is being developed by the 46th Test Wing at Eglin Air Force Base under the CENTS Program.

      Schooley, L. C.; Hittle, K.; Braga, A.; Ackerman, R.; Afouni, F.; Khalid, H.; Coleman, J.; Keena, T.; Page, A.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This student paper was produced as part of the team design competition in the University of Arizona course ECE 485, Radiowaves and Telemetry. It describes a telemetering system design recommendation for a small satellite capable of conducting scientific research regarding atmospheric water content. This paper focuses on the cross-link subsystem required to make the scientific measurements and on the power generation and distribution subsystem for the satellite. A companion paper (Cramer, et. al.) focuses on the subsystems required to send the scientific data and monitored operational conditions from the satellite to, and commands to the satellite from, a ground station. The central objective is to validate a new technique for precisely measuring water vapor profiles of clouds throughout the troposphere. This method involves the detection of 4 SHF tones sent out from the International Space Station (ISS), providing high-resolution amplitude and phase delay data.

      Schooley, L. C.; Cramer, J.; Biggs, B.; Contapay, J.; Iskandar, A.; Mahan, A.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This student paper was produced as part of the team design competition in the University of Arizona course ECE 485, Radiowaves and Telemetry. It describes a telemetering system design recommendation for a small satellite capable of conducting scientific research regarding atmospheric water content. This paper focuses on the subsystems required to send the scientific data and monitored operational conditions from the satellite to, and commands to the satellite from, a ground station. A companion paper (Hittle, et. al.) focuses on the cross-link subsystem required to make the scientific measurements and on the power generation and distribution subsystem for the satellite.
    • Multi-Gbps 16-QAM All-Digital Parallel Receiver

      Gray, Andrew; Ghuman, Parminder; Hoy, Scott; California Institute of Technology; National Aeronautics Space Adminstration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Due to rapidly increasing downlink data rates between spacecraft and ground stations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed an all-digital variable data rate receiver. The majority of the receiver is implemented on a single complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that is capable of processing data rates in excess of 300 mega-symbols per second or 600 mega-bits per second (Mbps) using quadrature phase-shift keyed (QPSK) modulation [1-5]. Developed jointly by the Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the high rate digital demodulator (HRDD) ASIC uses parallel processing algorithms, which combined we call the advanced parallel receiver architecture (APRX), to perform the necessary functions of a satellite communications receiver. An overview of the next generation of the advanced parallel receiver architecture (APRX) is presented here, including a new parallel adaptive equalizer currently being implemented. The next generation receiver implementing this architecture will process in excess of 600 Megasymbols per second; the ASIC will process in excess of 1.2 Gbps using quadrature amplitude modulation (QPSK) and 2.4 Gbps using 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The majority of the functions of the receiver are performed in the next generation high rate digital demodulator ASIC. A key property of such high data rate wireless communications systems is the use bandwidth efficient modulations often achieved through the use of sophisticated pulseshaping. The next generation ASIC, like the current generation ASIC, is designed to have programmable matched filters. The detection/matched filter bank in the ASIC should be programmed to “match” the received pulse-shape. This is particularly important for good biterror- rate performance in systems employing higher order modulations, such as 16-QAM employing partial-response pulse-shaping spanning many symbols. Such bandwidth efficient pulse-shaping methods require many coefficients in the matched filter; this creates increased computation and complexity in the receiver. Often such ideal receivers are not practical or possible to implement, and sub-optimal detection filtering techniques must be used. We will demonstrate that the use of a sub-optimum or truncated matched filter in some systems introduces severe intersymbol interference (ISI) distortion that results in poor BER results. However, we demonstrate for a specific pulse-shaped 16-QAM that if the demodulated baseband symbols are processed with a relatively simple equalizer very good performance may be achieved. The overall system complexity of such a system may be much lower than implementing the true matched filter [6]. Finally we present an overview of the next generation advanced parallel receiver (APRX) capable of demodulating such pulse-shaped 16-QAM that includes a novel parallel adaptive equalizer.
    • Automating Telemetry Tracking Systems Operational Tests

      Pedroza, Moises; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Automating Telemetry Tracking Systems Operational Readiness Tests is a concept that was introduced at White Sands Missile Range in the early 1980’s. The idea was to determine the condition of a Telemetry Tracking System in a reliable manner in a short time as possible. A series of RF and Servo Tests designed to determine the condition of a Telemetry Tracking System was implemented using HP BASIC. The latest personal computers are faster and have more storage capacity plus the capability to be programmed in higher level languages such as C/C++ and LabView. This technology makes it easier to automate system tests. Many of these tests need to be conducted just prior to supporting a mission. Some tests are required to be performed on mobile systems after moving the system from one location to another, especially if the move was over long distances and rugged terrain. Tests such as G/T are conducted before each mission because it yields accurate information on the Figure of Merit, or, System Sensitivity. Noise Figure Measurements are more difficult to perform to determine the System Sensitivity since modern RF Subsystems have pre-amplifiers with Noise Figures of less than 1.0 dB. The “down-sizing” of personnel increases the possibility of failure in mission support scenarios due to the many critical readiness tests needed to assess the Telemetry Tracking Systems. Also, conventional test methods can be time consuming and are subject to human error. This paper describes four critical tests that have been automated to improve reliability of the test data and decrease the amount of time required to conduct the tests. The “C/C++” language was used to write the automation programs. More tests will be automated later.

      Long, Marjorie de Lande; Long, Ian de Lande; Calzolari, Gian Paolo; I B + M A de Lande Long Software + Consultancy; European Space Agency (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is defining a CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) capable of use between systems of multiple endpoints. A number of prototype CFDP implementations have been developed and some interoperability tests performed over UDP links. This paper reports on a study of CFDP running over more realistic packet telecommand and packet telemetry links. An integrated test system was constructed by adapting existing commercial and prototype software. This was used to study a number of scenarios which are likely to be important in early operational use of CFDP in space. This approach has been found to be useful both for testing a protocol during its development and specification and for verifying the impact of new approaches to Space Missions.
    • Auto-tracking antenna pattern effects on multipath channel model at test range

      Sung-hoon, Jang; Sung-hee, Han; Heung-bum, Kim; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Telemetry propagation channel is modeled to predict PCM/FM telemetry receiving signal level at APG(Anheung Proving Ground), ADD(Agency for Defense Development). Channel model is composed of direct wave and reflected wave in sea surface, so-called 2-ray model. Our 2-ray model includes transmitting antenna radiation pattern, auto-tracking antenna radiation pattern, sea surface reflection coefficient and phase depending on incident angle. Vertical and horizontal polarized receiving signal strength is obtained from pre-calculated flight trajectory of transmitter. Calculated results are compared with measured data in real flight test. 2-ray channel model can predict almost identical receiving signal level and calculate starting point of multi-path fading effect. Using these results, receiving system can be moved to more proper position before flight test.

      Reid, Robert; Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Undersea warfare (USW) was perceived as a large-area, deep-water operation in the past therefore Fleet USW training ranges were designed to meet these requirements. Currently the bigger threat is the likelihood of regional conflict throughout the world by aggressive nations in littoral waters. The U.S. Navy must stand ready to respond to these regional conflicts when national interests are threatened. Consequently, naval forces must train to operate in the littoral environments where such regional conflicts are likely to occur. The West Cost Shallow Water Undersea Warfare Training Range (WC SWUWTR) is being developed to provide this training.

      Sarai, Hirohit; Izumi, Kazushige; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Sutton, Jerry; Meyers, Thomas; Willis, James; National Space Development Agency; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; L-3 Communications Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      In response to a NASDA decision to upgrade their satellite ground network (GN) to provide worldwide coverage as well as interoperability with other agencies, MELCO has assembled remote ground stations that include the L-3 Communications Telemetry & Instrumentation (L-3 T&I) NETstar 20001 TT&C system. Software developed by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) controls a variety of COTS products in the remote stations, including the L-3 T&I system. L-3 T&I’s TT&C system provides modem services, high accuracy ranging, Doppler compensation, command verification, and CCSDS protocol processing for a wide range of LEO/MEO/GEO satellites.
    • Enhancement of Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Channels via Blind Equalization

      Ye, Zhong; Satorius, Edgar H.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Temple, Kip; California Institute of Technology; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The Joint Services Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Program at Edwards Air Force Base has been evaluating FQPSK-B for possible upgrades to the existing telemetry equipment. It has been found in the wideband channel sounding experiments sponsored by ARTM that the in-flight fading channel can be modeled as a 3-ray multipath channel[1]. Delay spread for a typical in-flight channel is in the order of 300 nanoseconds. Furthermore, the pre-flight channel is characterized by much more severe multipath, in which the delay spread is in the order of microseconds covering one or more symbols when the FQPSK-B transceiver operates at a rate of millions of symbols per second. This adverse channel condition inevitably causes tremendous distortion in the received signals due to severe inter-symbol interference (ISI) from the multipath. This paper provides an assessment of the potential ability of blind equalization to reduce the FQPSK-B system susceptibility to degradation caused by dynamic frequency selective fading in the aeronautical telemetry environment. In particular, a blind equalizer applique that can be inserted prior to the demodulator without knowledge of the received signal such as carrier frequency, symbol timing and sequence, etc, is proposed. Since it is desired that the equalizer applique operate independently of the carrier frequency and given that the modulation of interest is constant envelope (PCM-FM or FQPSKB), we have selected the constant modulus algorithm (CMA)[2] cost function for implementation. Extensive tests on both simulated and recorded FQPSK-B data transmitted over different ARTM channels have been conducted and the blind equalizer structure has shown substantial improvements, even on the difficult ARTM pre-flight channels. The CMA adapts the equalizer coefficients to minimize the deviation of the output envelope from an arbitrary constant level. This paper depicts the pre-flight and in-flight channel conditions using time and spectral domain measurement. It quantifies the benefit of the blind CMA tapped delay line equalizer. Due to the extensive signal processing requirements associated with the very high sampling rate (100 MHz) of the FQPSK-B system, hardware implementation complexity is very high. Complexity reduction issues regarding the implementation of the CMA using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) will also be presented.

      Powell, Dave; Scofield, Don; NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI), a Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) initiative, is developing advanced telemetry system components that can be used in an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI has made significant progress in the development of Global Positioning System (GPS) based Time-Space- Position Information (TSPI) tracking hardware, flight termination equipment and end-game vector scoring technology in low cost, modular packages that will allow world-wide test and training. The JAMI program is in full-scale development of advanced GPS technologies to reduce the cold start Time- To-First-Fix (TTFF) to less than 3 seconds. This paper discusses the progress of the program during the past year and the efforts planned for fiscal year 2001. Testing results of GPS receivers to levels of over 50 Gs and problems encountered in programming GPS simulator for missile flight profiles are discussed.

      Paulick, Mike; Thomas, Tim; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The Range Instrumentation and Control System (RICS) is a PC-based client/server application designed to collect time-space position information (TSPI) from remote radar test sites and distribute it in real-time across a wide area network (WAN). The system architecture is composed of two main parts - the Data Interface Adapter (or DIA, which runs under VxWorks and is implemented using C/C++) and the RICS console PC (which runs under Windows 2000 and is implemented in Java). CORBA is used to provide communication between the RICS console and DIA. This paper describes the design of the system, focusing primarily on the DIA software.

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      It has been previously shown, through computer simulations, that a multiple symbol detector can provide substantial gains in detection efficiency (nearly 3 dB) over traditional PCM/FM detectors. This is accomplished by performing correlations over multiple symbol intervals to take advantage of the memory inherent in the continuous phase PCM/FM signal. This paper presents measured hardware results, from a prototype developed for the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Project, that substantiate the previously published performance and sensitivity predictions. Furthermore, this work confirms the feasibility of applying this technology to high-speed commercial and military telemetry applications.

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Shaped Offset QPSK (SOQPSK), as proposed and analyzed by Terrance Hill, is a family of constant envelope waveforms that is non-proprietary and exhibits excellent spectral containment and detection efficiency. Results using a conventional coherent OQPSK demodulator without any special pulse shaping to recover the SOQPSK signal have been previously presented. This paper describes a trellis detector for SOQPSK-A and SOQPSK-B that provides superior detection performance, as compared to a traditional OQPSK detector, by accounting for the pulse shaping. Analytical error performance bounds, implementation of the trellis demodulator, and computer simulation results are presented.

      Haghdad, Mehdi; Feher, Kamilo; University of California Davis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Dynamic hardware and software schemes for trajectory based simulation of LEO satellite channel are presented and evaluated. The simulation models are based on the practical LEO satellite channels and change dynamically with the trajectory using the latitude and longitude of the LEO satellite as input. The hardware simulator is consisted of a trajectory based selective fade generator, a trajectory based Doppler shifter, trajectory based time shadowing simulator and a standard channel for addition of noise, ACI and CCI. A FQPSK modulated signal is passed through a trajectory based dynamic fade generator and the spectrum is distorted. Then the resulting signal is exposed to a trajectory based dynamic Doppler Shifter, simulating the passage of the satellite overhead. Then the proper AWGN, ACI or CCI is added to the signal. At the final stage the signal is passed through a trajectory based time Shadowing simulator. The software simulator is a dynamic real time simulator written in MatLab and its structure is similar to the hardware simulator.
    • IEEE P1451.3 A Developing Standard For Networked Transducers

      Eccles, Lee H.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The IEEE P1451.3 standard for networked transducers is designed to support applications in many industries but aerospace representatives have had a major say in what is included in the standard. The standard is written to allow multiple different transducers to exist on a single transmission line. This single transmission line may also carry power to the transducers. A bus is expected to have a single controller and many transducers. Individual transducers may be operated in several modes including a strict master-slave relationship or individual transducers may operate independently from the bus controller. In addition the bus controller can provide a clock to allow all transducers to operate synchronously or the clock can be ignored for asynchronous operation. The standard includes an extensible command set and Transducer Electronic Data Sheets (TEDS) that allows for full plug and play operation of the transducer. If a manufacturer chooses to leave out some of the features that allow for plug and play operation the standard allows for that as well. This paper provides an overview of the features of the standard as well as the types of system that can best utilize these features.