• Accountable Security Architectures for Protecting Telemetry Data

      Kalibjian, Jeffrey R.; CounterSign Software, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Today there are many security solutions available which can facilitate both protection and sharing of telemetry data. While the technologies behind these solutions are maturing [1] [2] [3], most products lack a consistent and coherent paradigm for enforcing who is able to access the secured data, what is done with it, and insuring it can be recovered if the person who secured it is disabled.

      Law, Eugene; NAWCWD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This paper will present measured data in an adjacent channel interference (ACI) environment for both filtered continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK) and Feher’s patented quadrature phase shift keying (FQPSK-B) [1]. The quantity measured was bit error probability (BEP) versus signal energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio (E(b)/N(o)). The interferers were either CPFSK or FQPSK-B signals. The results presented in this paper will be for bit rates of 5 Mb/s, one interferer 20 dB larger than desired signal, various channel spacings, and two different telemetry receivers. The ACI test effort will collect data sets at several bit rates and with one and two interferers. The results will be useful to system designers and range operators as they attempt to maximize the number of Mb/s that can be simultaneously transmitted in the telemetry bands.

      Haghdad, Mehdi; Feher, Kamilo; University of California Davis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Dynamic hardware and software schemes for trajectory based simulation of LEO satellite channel are presented and evaluated. The simulation models are based on the practical LEO satellite channels and change dynamically with the trajectory using the latitude and longitude of the LEO satellite as input. The hardware simulator is consisted of a trajectory based selective fade generator, a trajectory based Doppler shifter, trajectory based time shadowing simulator and a standard channel for addition of noise, ACI and CCI. A FQPSK modulated signal is passed through a trajectory based dynamic fade generator and the spectrum is distorted. Then the resulting signal is exposed to a trajectory based dynamic Doppler Shifter, simulating the passage of the satellite overhead. Then the proper AWGN, ACI or CCI is added to the signal. At the final stage the signal is passed through a trajectory based time Shadowing simulator. The software simulator is a dynamic real time simulator written in MatLab and its structure is similar to the hardware simulator.
    • Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Systems Integration at the Air Force Flight Test Center

      Briggs, James R.; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The aeronautical telemetry frequency spectrum is continually shrinking. More and more government frequencies are being sold to telecommunications companies. To make matters worse, more complicated weapons systems are spurring the demand for higher data rates. The telemetry infrastructure is struggling to meet these demands as the equipment continues to age and is, in some cases, no longer supported by the manufacturer. The loss of portions of the aeronautical frequency spectrum has had significant effects at Edwards. Increasing scheduling conflicts and mission cancellations are rapidly becoming a fact of life. This paper describes the scope of the Advanced Range Telemetry Integration and Support (ARTM I&S) program as it begins to integrate ARTM-developed products into the existing telemetry infrastructure at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC). This paper will discuss the infrastructure upgrades required in order to continue supporting test and evaluation missions. Numerous challenges will be addressed including the shrinking aeronautical frequency spectrum, aging telemetry infrastructure, and the demand for higher data rates. Possible solutions will be discussed to address the growing spectrum encroachment issue.

      Chandran, Henry; Navtel Systems SA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Traditional communication hardware has focused on modular architectures. Now, with the incoming high speed DSP and FPGAs a shift from traditional modular architecture to reconfigurable architecture has taken place. The nature of this architecture allows to optimize various telemetry applications in a single platform. This paper describes a reconfigurable multi channel communication system.

      Hill, Terrance J.; Nova Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Shaped Offset QPSK (SOQPSK) has been shown to be nearly identical in performance to Feher-patented FQPSK, which is the Advanced Range Telemetry (ATRM) program's Tier I waveform. Multi-h CPM has been selected as the ARTM Tier II waveform, because it offers 50% better spectral efficiency than the Tier I waveform. Both the Tier I and Tier II waveforms must operate in a multipath channel in order to meet the range community's telemetry requirements. This paper presents an analytical and experimental characterization of SOQPSK and Multi-h CPM in the presence of multipath. Quantitative results are presented which demonstrate the relative robustness of the ARTM Tier I and Tier II waveforms, in channels representative of a typical range environment.

      Ozkan, Siragan; Zimmerman, Bryan; Williams, Mike; DeShong, Monica; Avtec Systems, Inc.; Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      A traditional Front-end Processor (FEP) with local RAID storage can limit the operational throughput of a high-rate telemetry ground station. The Front-end processor must perform pass processing (frame synchronization, decoding, routing, and storage), post-pass processing (level-zero processing), and tape archiving. A typical fifteen minute high-rate satellite pass can produce data files of 10 to 20 GB. The FEP may require up to 2 hours to perform the post-pass processing and tape archiving functions for these size files. During this time, it is not available to support real-time pass operations. Honeywell faced this problem in the design of the data management system for the DataLynx ä* ground stations. Avtec Systems, Inc. and Honeywell worked together to develop a data management system that utilizes a Storage Area Network (SAN) in conjunction with multiple High-speed Front-end Processors (HSFEP) for Pass Processing (PFEP), multiple HSFEPs for Post-pass Processing (PPFEP), and a dedicated Tape Archive server. A SAN consists of a high-capacity, high-bandwidth shared RAID that is connected to multiple nodes using 1 Gbps Fibre Channel interfaces. All of the HSFEPs as well as the Tape Archive server have direct access to the shared RAID via a Fibre Channel network. The SAN supports simultaneous read/write transfers between the nodes at aggregate rates up to 120 Mbytes/sec. With the Storage Area Network approach, the High-Speed Front-end Processors can quickly transfer the data captured during a pass to the shared RAID for post-processing and tape archiving so that they are available to support another satellite pass. This paper will discuss the architecture of the Storage Area Network and how it optimizes ground station data management in a high-rate environment.

      Sinclair, Robert; Jones, Charles H.; Nonvolatile Electronics, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Current legacy acquisition systems such as the Advanced Airborne Test Instrumentation System (AATIS) are custom-built to each individual application with unique sensors and data modules. Replacing, adding, or subtracting sensors requires the system to be removed from service for days, weeks, or even months. This is a result of having to route special wires to each sensor and reprogramming the system with sensor information, calibration data, etc. AR sensor information must be contained in the main system since these systems do not have intelligence at the sensor level. If sensors were to contain information in their own IEEE 1451-compliant transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS), the main system would no longer have to be reprogrammed with this information. This information could then be obtained directly from the sensors when they are inserted into the system. A plug-n-play capability is being added to the system with the development of a standard interface to the system control unit (SCU). This interface, called a Multi-Network Capable Applications Processor (Multi-NCAP), will interface IEEE 1451-compliant smart transducer interface modules (STIMs) to the SCU in the AATIS as well as other legacy systems. With this development, maintenance and new configuration times for the AATIS and other legacy systems will be significantly reduced.

      Self, Lance; Kirtland Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Visitors to web pages are, in most cases, restricted to viewing information the page designer has anticipated they will be interested in viewing. Many times this is adequate, but there are instances where the visitor wants the information they view to be based on selections they choose. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Space Vehicles Directorate anticipates selected customers will have a need to view very large data sets that vary from the satellite payload to the satellite state of health1, and will require controlling what they view in an “ad hoc” manner. In response, AFRL is using Java Server Pages developed within the data center to bring interactive and dynamic web page content to these customers.

      Cerna, Peter J.; Klein, Pamela R.; Mullett, Joy; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; United Space Alliance; Hernandez Engineering, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The technicalities of sharing telemetry bandwidth have been addressed in design and specification for the builders of the International Space Station. But success in sharing bandwidth comes from building relationships, documenting guidelines, negotiating, understanding human nature, peer review and willingness to participate in an evolving process. The station, 240 miles above Earth, moves through space at 17,000 mph, has its mass added to by humans and machines, regularly docks with visiting spacecraft, has year-round residents, and communicates with space agencies around the globe. Each new module -- with associated computers, multiplexers, and communications buses -- creates additional telemetry demands.
    • Auto-tracking antenna pattern effects on multipath channel model at test range

      Sung-hoon, Jang; Sung-hee, Han; Heung-bum, Kim; Agency for Defense Development (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Telemetry propagation channel is modeled to predict PCM/FM telemetry receiving signal level at APG(Anheung Proving Ground), ADD(Agency for Defense Development). Channel model is composed of direct wave and reflected wave in sea surface, so-called 2-ray model. Our 2-ray model includes transmitting antenna radiation pattern, auto-tracking antenna radiation pattern, sea surface reflection coefficient and phase depending on incident angle. Vertical and horizontal polarized receiving signal strength is obtained from pre-calculated flight trajectory of transmitter. Calculated results are compared with measured data in real flight test. 2-ray channel model can predict almost identical receiving signal level and calculate starting point of multi-path fading effect. Using these results, receiving system can be moved to more proper position before flight test.

      Heywood, James K.; Tybrin, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Software and techniques are described for testing the Advanced Data Acquisition and Processing System (ADAPS), the primary flight test telemetry system used at Edwards AFB, California. The software described acts as an additional simulation capability and moves the simulation definition process into a realm where data is formed by means of a high-order language. The potential for creation of more sophisticated simulated test data is thus enabled. Extension of the techniques described in this paper to applications other than testing is discussed.
    • Automating Telemetry Tracking Systems Operational Tests

      Pedroza, Moises; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Automating Telemetry Tracking Systems Operational Readiness Tests is a concept that was introduced at White Sands Missile Range in the early 1980’s. The idea was to determine the condition of a Telemetry Tracking System in a reliable manner in a short time as possible. A series of RF and Servo Tests designed to determine the condition of a Telemetry Tracking System was implemented using HP BASIC. The latest personal computers are faster and have more storage capacity plus the capability to be programmed in higher level languages such as C/C++ and LabView. This technology makes it easier to automate system tests. Many of these tests need to be conducted just prior to supporting a mission. Some tests are required to be performed on mobile systems after moving the system from one location to another, especially if the move was over long distances and rugged terrain. Tests such as G/T are conducted before each mission because it yields accurate information on the Figure of Merit, or, System Sensitivity. Noise Figure Measurements are more difficult to perform to determine the System Sensitivity since modern RF Subsystems have pre-amplifiers with Noise Figures of less than 1.0 dB. The “down-sizing” of personnel increases the possibility of failure in mission support scenarios due to the many critical readiness tests needed to assess the Telemetry Tracking Systems. Also, conventional test methods can be time consuming and are subject to human error. This paper describes four critical tests that have been automated to improve reliability of the test data and decrease the amount of time required to conduct the tests. The “C/C++” language was used to write the automation programs. More tests will be automated later.

      Grubinger, Michael; Strohmeier, Felix; University of Salzburg, Austria (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This paper presents the results of a feasibility study undertaken by the University of Salzburg (Austria), investigating the autonomous acquisition of environmental data in a global network. A suggested application which is used as the basis of this paper is a volcano monitoring system which would be able to track the activity of a volcano and act as a disaster warning system. The background Volcano observation data required for such a system is covered, before discussing the concepts for sensor data acquisition, storage and processing. A final analysis is then presented of the opportunities for the transmission by packet radio (both terrestrial and satellite).

      Calzolari, Gian Paolo; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco; Garello, Roberto; European Space Agency; Università di Ancona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Telemetry for Earth-Observation missions is characterized by very high data rates and stringent requirements. Channel codes both power and bandwidth efficient must be used to improve downlink performance and to achieve the very low values of error rates needed at the received side. In this paper, we review and analyzed three codes of possible interest for these applications: turbo codes, serial turbo codes and product codes. These schemes are evaluated and compared both by simulation and analytical techniques. A particular attention is devoted to complexity, a key issue for practical implementation at high data rates.

      Nguyen, Tien M.; Nguyen, Hung H.; Yoh, James; Sklar, Dean J.; Eng, Thomas; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This paper presents initial results of an investigation on bandwidth efficient waveforms for telemetry, tracking and commands (TT&C). Included in the investigation are waveforms that are currently being considered by the International Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) for standards, advanced waveforms and others that have the potential to become future standards. The goal of this investigation is to recommend a suite of bandwidth efficient modulation schemes for further investigation. This suite of modulation scheme should be suitable for various TT&C applications with data rates ranging from a few hundreds Bit Per Second (bps) to a few hundreds Mega bps (Mbps). First, the philosophy of waveform evaluation is described. The description includes a list of waveform attributes leading to quantitative and qualitative figures of merit for bandwidth efficient waveforms. Then quantitative results for the two most important waveform attributes (bandwidth efficiency and bit error rate performance) are presented. These results will be used by a follow-on study to significantly reduce the number of candidate waveforms, so that all attributes can be more thoroughly evaluated.

      Baek, Won-Seok; Lee, Daniel C.; University of Southern California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      In CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), four acknowledged modes essentially have an identical protocol for initializing and closing a file delivery. In this protocol, the system occasionally run into a state in which Sender has closed the transaction and Receiver has not closed the transaction. In this paper, we point out the danger of such state being prolonged. Such a state can be prolonged due to link occultation, extremely long propagation delay, or implementation caused by common misinterpretation of the protocol specification. We provide two failure scenarios, which occur in such a state. Then, we discuss ways of preventing such failures.

      Grace, Thomas; Naval Air Systems Team (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The US Government originally funded the development of the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) to address industry-wide compatibility, maintenance, and commonality issues. Although initially targeted for US Department of Defense (DoD) programs, CAIS is also being used throughout the world in many commercial applications. This paper provides a fresh look at the evolution of the CAIS concept starting with some historical background of the CAIS Program, an overview of the CAIS System Architecture and recent trends in the use of “Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS)” products and technology.
    • Common-Event Network Test-Instrumentation System (CENTS) Program Status Review

      Berard, Alfredo; Boolos, Tim; Klein, Lorin D.; TW/TSI; TRW (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The CENTS Program is a Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) effort conducted by the 46th Test Wing at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. This project uses advanced internetworking technology to collect data unobtrusively from multiple Line Replaceable Units (LRU's) within an aircraft without the expense of running new wiring. The data is transported to a master network controller using the existing aircraft powerlines at a raw data rate of over 10 Mbits/s. Sensors are integrated into the shells of the LRU's data bus connectors to minimize the number of aircraft modifications required for a test. CENTS began in January 2000 as an OSD CTEIP Sponsored Test Technology Development and Demonstration (TTD&D) project and is currently in Phase 2 of the effort. Phase 1 saw the successful demonstration of the use of MIL-STD-704 power busses to establish a virtual network for data transport. This paper reviews the current status and past achievements of the CENTS TTD&D program as well as describing some immediate potential pay- offs for the Test and Evaluation community in the near-term.

      Annamraju, Venu; Kosbar, Kurt; University of Missouri – Rolla (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This project investigates the feasibility of position detection in an office or industrial setting. The objective is to design a low-cost positioning system that uses the unlicensed 5.7 GHz ISM band, with centimeter accuracy and limited range. During the conceptual design phase of the system, indoor channel models will be investigated to determine which of a variety of architectures will be useful. For triangulating the position, an array of widely spaced stationary receivers and a mobile transmitter is proposed.