• HIGH ALPHABET FLIGHT TERMINATION SYSTEM

      Hunter, Richard E., Jr.; CMC ELECTRONICS-CINCINNATI (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This paper proposes a modification of the high alphabet method of data transmission over an RF carrier. The system maps eleven characters into three tones. The three tones are Frequency Modulated onto an RF carrier. The 165 unique characters can be utilized for data transmission. The advantages of this system are: 1. Longer duration data words which have narrow bandwidth yielding a high signal to noise ratio. 2. Digital Signal Processing can be utilized to reconstruct characters from the tri-tone encoding. 3. The system will be less susceptible to external interference than normal Frequency Shift Keying system. The majority of the three tone burst would have to masked in order to loose a data word.
    • FILTERING CONSIDERATIONS WHEN TELEMETERING SHOCK AND VIBRATION DATA

      Walter, Patrick L.; Endevco; Texas Christian University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The accurate measurement of shock and vibration data via flight telemetry is necessary to validate structural models, indicate off-nominal system performance, and/or generate environmental qualification criteria for airborne systems. Digital telemetry systems require anti-aliasing filters designed into them. If not properly selected and located, these filters can distort recorded time histories and modify their spectral content. This paper provides filter design guidance to optimize the quality of recorded flight structural dynamics data. It is based on the anticipated end use of the data. Examples of filtered shock data are included.
    • DATA ACQUISITION AND THE ALIASING PHENOMENON

      Claflin, Ray, III; Claflin, Ray, III; CLAFLIN ASSOCIATES (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      In current practice sensor data is digitized and input into computers, displays, and recorders. To try to reduce the volume of digitized data, our original hypothesis was that by selecting a subset of digital values from an over-sampled signal, we could improve signal identification and improve perhaps Nyquist performance. Our investigations did not lead to significant improvements but did clarify our thinking regarding the usage of digitized data.
    • A SMALL SATELLITE FOR MEASURING ATMOSPHERIC WATER CONTENT; PART I, DOWNLINK AND COMMAND SYSTEMS

      Schooley, L. C.; Cramer, J.; Biggs, B.; Contapay, J.; Iskandar, A.; Mahan, A.; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This student paper was produced as part of the team design competition in the University of Arizona course ECE 485, Radiowaves and Telemetry. It describes a telemetering system design recommendation for a small satellite capable of conducting scientific research regarding atmospheric water content. This paper focuses on the subsystems required to send the scientific data and monitored operational conditions from the satellite to, and commands to the satellite from, a ground station. A companion paper (Hittle, et. al.) focuses on the cross-link subsystem required to make the scientific measurements and on the power generation and distribution subsystem for the satellite.
    • SATELLITE GROUND OPERATIONS AUTOMATION – LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE APPROACHES

      Catena, John; Frank, Lou; Saylor, Rick; Weikel, Craig; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc.; Computer Sciences Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Reducing spacecraft ground system operations costs are a major goal in all missions. The Fast Auroral Snapshot (FAST) flight operations team at the NASA/Goddard Spacecraft Flight Center developed in-house scripts and procedures to automate monitoring of critical spacecraft functions. The initial staffing profile of 16x7 was reduced first to 8x5 and then to “lights out”. Operations functions became an offline review of system performance and the generation of future science plans for subsequent upload to the spacecraft. Lessons learned will be applied to the challenging Triana mission, where 24x7 contact with the spacecraft will be necessary at all times.
    • ADVANCE PRACTICAL CHANNEL SIMULATORS FOR LEO SATELLITE CHANNELS WITH SELECTIVE FADING AND DOPPLER SHIFTS

      Haghdad, Mehdi; Feher, Kamilo; University of California Davis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Dynamic hardware and software schemes for trajectory based simulation of LEO satellite channel are presented and evaluated. The simulation models are based on the practical LEO satellite channels and change dynamically with the trajectory using the latitude and longitude of the LEO satellite as input. The hardware simulator is consisted of a trajectory based selective fade generator, a trajectory based Doppler shifter, trajectory based time shadowing simulator and a standard channel for addition of noise, ACI and CCI. A FQPSK modulated signal is passed through a trajectory based dynamic fade generator and the spectrum is distorted. Then the resulting signal is exposed to a trajectory based dynamic Doppler Shifter, simulating the passage of the satellite overhead. Then the proper AWGN, ACI or CCI is added to the signal. At the final stage the signal is passed through a trajectory based time Shadowing simulator. The software simulator is a dynamic real time simulator written in MatLab and its structure is similar to the hardware simulator.
    • TT&C SYSTEM FOR NASDA NEW GROUND NETWORK

      Sarai, Hirohit; Izumi, Kazushige; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Sutton, Jerry; Meyers, Thomas; Willis, James; National Space Development Agency; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; L-3 Communications Telemetry & Instrumentation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      In response to a NASDA decision to upgrade their satellite ground network (GN) to provide worldwide coverage as well as interoperability with other agencies, MELCO has assembled remote ground stations that include the L-3 Communications Telemetry & Instrumentation (L-3 T&I) NETstar 20001 TT&C system. Software developed by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation (MELCO) controls a variety of COTS products in the remote stations, including the L-3 T&I system. L-3 T&I’s TT&C system provides modem services, high accuracy ranging, Doppler compensation, command verification, and CCSDS protocol processing for a wide range of LEO/MEO/GEO satellites.
    • NON-FEEDBACK HIGH SPEED ADAPTIVE EQUALIZERS FOR FQPSK AND OTHER SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY SYSTEMS FOR LEO SATELLITE TELEMETRY SYSTEMS

      Haghdad, Mehdi; Feher, Kamilo; University of California Davis; Digcom, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      A non-feedback adaptive equalizer based on Feher Equalizer (FE) is presented and its performance is evaluated. By artificially adding notch/notches to the corrupted spectrum resulted from selectively faded LEO environments, an artificial symmetry is created and as a result the BER/BLER is improved. The location and the depth of artificial additive notches are based on the shape of the spectrum of the corrupted signal. By measuring the power in narrow bands around certain frequencies the existence of notches around those frequencies are predicted. Based on this information notches with proper depths are added to the main spectrum which results in more symmetry in the spectrum. The selection process of artificial notch/notches are based on the shape of the signal spectrum, which means that this equalizer unlike most conventional equalizer does not need any feedback. The nonfeedback nature of this equalizer improves the adaptation time over that of alternative equalizers The results presented in this paper are based on both MatLab simulations and laboratory hardware measurements.
    • IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFORMANCE RESULTS FOR TRELLIS DETECTION OF SOQPSK

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Shaped Offset QPSK (SOQPSK), as proposed and analyzed by Terrance Hill, is a family of constant envelope waveforms that is non-proprietary and exhibits excellent spectral containment and detection efficiency. Results using a conventional coherent OQPSK demodulator without any special pulse shaping to recover the SOQPSK signal have been previously presented. This paper describes a trellis detector for SOQPSK-A and SOQPSK-B that provides superior detection performance, as compared to a traditional OQPSK detector, by accounting for the pulse shaping. Analytical error performance bounds, implementation of the trellis demodulator, and computer simulation results are presented.
    • EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FOR MULTI-SYMBOL DETECTION OF PCM/FM

      Geoghegan, Mark; Nova Engineering Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      It has been previously shown, through computer simulations, that a multiple symbol detector can provide substantial gains in detection efficiency (nearly 3 dB) over traditional PCM/FM detectors. This is accomplished by performing correlations over multiple symbol intervals to take advantage of the memory inherent in the continuous phase PCM/FM signal. This paper presents measured hardware results, from a prototype developed for the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Project, that substantiate the previously published performance and sensitivity predictions. Furthermore, this work confirms the feasibility of applying this technology to high-speed commercial and military telemetry applications.
    • BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT MODULATION SCHEMES FOR FUTURE TT&C APPLICATIONS

      Nguyen, Tien M.; Nguyen, Hung H.; Yoh, James; Sklar, Dean J.; Eng, Thomas; The Aerospace Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This paper presents initial results of an investigation on bandwidth efficient waveforms for telemetry, tracking and commands (TT&C). Included in the investigation are waveforms that are currently being considered by the International Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) for standards, advanced waveforms and others that have the potential to become future standards. The goal of this investigation is to recommend a suite of bandwidth efficient modulation schemes for further investigation. This suite of modulation scheme should be suitable for various TT&C applications with data rates ranging from a few hundreds Bit Per Second (bps) to a few hundreds Mega bps (Mbps). First, the philosophy of waveform evaluation is described. The description includes a list of waveform attributes leading to quantitative and qualitative figures of merit for bandwidth efficient waveforms. Then quantitative results for the two most important waveform attributes (bandwidth efficiency and bit error rate performance) are presented. These results will be used by a follow-on study to significantly reduce the number of candidate waveforms, so that all attributes can be more thoroughly evaluated.
    • BANDWIDTH EFFICIENT CONCATENATED CODES FOR EARTH OBSERVATION TELEMETRY

      Calzolari, Gian Paolo; Cancellieri, Giovanni; Chiaraluce, Franco; Garello, Roberto; European Space Agency; Università di Ancona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Telemetry for Earth-Observation missions is characterized by very high data rates and stringent requirements. Channel codes both power and bandwidth efficient must be used to improve downlink performance and to achieve the very low values of error rates needed at the received side. In this paper, we review and analyzed three codes of possible interest for these applications: turbo codes, serial turbo codes and product codes. These schemes are evaluated and compared both by simulation and analytical techniques. A particular attention is devoted to complexity, a key issue for practical implementation at high data rates.
    • WAVEFORM SIGNAL SHAPING USING WAVELET PARAMETERIZATIONS

      Moon, Todd K.; Noru, Krishna Kishor; Utah State University; Sun Microsystems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      We explore the idea of matching a scaling function - the basic building block of a wavelet function - to a desired spectrum. This would allow the scaling function to be used as the signal pulse for a digital communication system that is matched to the channel, avoiding problems such as energy loss or noise amplification due to spectral nulls. An unconstrained parameterization of the scaling function coefficients represents the scaling functions. This parameterization is adapted using gradient descent. Tests indicate that the adaptation is able to capture major features of a desired spectrum, including spectral nulls and major lobes.
    • SWITCHING TO THE FUTURE OF RANGE COMMUNICATIONS AT EDWARDS AFB

      Gribble, Simeon S.; Switzer, Earl R.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The Edwards Digital Switch (EDS) provides mission critical voice and time-spaceposition information (TSPI) communication switching capability to the Edwards Test Range. The present system has been in operation for about 10 years. The core of this system is based on widely used commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) time-slot interchange switches that were designed for a 40-year service life. The application layers of the system, comprising the command/control elements and the communications and user interfaces, were custom developed by the prime contractor to satisfy the performance requirements of the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC). Problems with the current system include difficulty in obtaining replacement items for equipment developed by the prime contractor and higher than expected failure rates for this equipment. Based on experience, the service life for the equipment developed by the prime contractor appears to be about 15 years. Another problem is that lower cost packet switches are taking market share from the more traditional time-slot interchange switches. This factor tends to accelerate the obsolescence of the existing COTS equipment. Solutions are being investigated to update or replace the EDS. One solution is to reuse the existing COTS core equipment and replace the present application layers, preferably with COTS. Another solution is to replace the entire system with COTS or vendormodified COTS hardware and software.
    • AUTONOMOUS ACQUISITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA IN A GLOBAL NETWORK ENVIRONMENT

      Grubinger, Michael; Strohmeier, Felix; University of Salzburg, Austria (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This paper presents the results of a feasibility study undertaken by the University of Salzburg (Austria), investigating the autonomous acquisition of environmental data in a global network. A suggested application which is used as the basis of this paper is a volcano monitoring system which would be able to track the activity of a volcano and act as a disaster warning system. The background Volcano observation data required for such a system is covered, before discussing the concepts for sensor data acquisition, storage and processing. A final analysis is then presented of the opportunities for the transmission by packet radio (both terrestrial and satellite).
    • A STATUS REPORT OF THE JOINT ADVANCED MISSILE INSTRUMENTATION PROGRAM AN OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE CENTRAL TEST AND EVALUATION INVESTMENT PROGRAM INITIATIVE

      Powell, Dave; Scofield, Don; NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI), a Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) initiative, is developing advanced telemetry system components that can be used in an integrated instrumentation package for tri-service small missile test and training applications. JAMI has made significant progress in the development of Global Positioning System (GPS) based Time-Space- Position Information (TSPI) tracking hardware, flight termination equipment and end-game vector scoring technology in low cost, modular packages that will allow world-wide test and training. The JAMI program is in full-scale development of advanced GPS technologies to reduce the cold start Time- To-First-Fix (TTFF) to less than 3 seconds. This paper discusses the progress of the program during the past year and the efforts planned for fiscal year 2001. Testing results of GPS receivers to levels of over 50 Gs and problems encountered in programming GPS simulator for missile flight profiles are discussed.
    • A MODULAR RANGE INTERFACE FOR ACQUISITION AND DISTRIBUTION OF TEST RANGE DATA

      Marler, Thomas M.; Cooper, Kelly; Lake, William F.; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      A flexible, modular method is needed to connect test range data systems to central real-time computer networks. This is achieved by the development of a real-time, networked, VME-based range interface system. Flexibility is achieved by a modular hardware and software design. The modular hardware consists of standard network interfaces, COTS VME interfaces, and a VME single board computer (with an onboard PCI bus). The modular software is implemented in C++ using the VxWorks real-time operating system. This paper describes the conceptual design and development of the Modular Range Interface (ModRI).
    • AN OBJECT-ORIENTED PC-BASED SYSTEM FOR TSPI COLLECTION AND DISTRIBUTION

      Paulick, Mike; Thomas, Tim; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The Range Instrumentation and Control System (RICS) is a PC-based client/server application designed to collect time-space position information (TSPI) from remote radar test sites and distribute it in real-time across a wide area network (WAN). The system architecture is composed of two main parts - the Data Interface Adapter (or DIA, which runs under VxWorks and is implemented using C/C++) and the RICS console PC (which runs under Windows 2000 and is implemented in Java). CORBA is used to provide communication between the RICS console and DIA. This paper describes the design of the system, focusing primarily on the DIA software.
    • FOUNDATION INITIATIVE 2010: THE FOUNDATION FOR RANGE INTEROPERABILITY

      Rumford, George J.; Vuong, Minh; Bachinsky, Stephen T.; Powell, Edward T.; U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range; U.S. Army Simulation, Training, and Instrumentation Command; Science Applications International Corporation; Science Applications International Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Foundation Initiative 2010 (FI 2010) is a joint interoperability initiative of the Director, Operational Test and Evaluation. The vision of FI 2010 is to enable interoperability among ranges, facilities, and simulations in a timely and cost-efficient manner and to foster reuse of range assets and future range system developments. To achieve this vision, FI 2010 is developing and validating a common architecture with a common range object model, a core set of tools, inter-range communication capabilities, interfaces to existing range assets, interfaces to weapon systems, and recommended procedures for conducting synthetic test events and training exercises. During FY 01, the project is developing the second Test and Training ENabling Architecture (TENA) Middleware Prototype as a basis for range communication. FI 2010 will advance a simulation-based acquisition or a ‘distributed engineering plant’ methodology to streamline weapon system acquisition. Benefits from the FI 2010 products include cost effective replacement of customized data links, enhanced exchange of mission data, organic TENA-compliant capabilities at test sites to be leveraged for future test events, and instrumentation system reuse. Through FI 2010, future inter-range operations, instrumentation development, and range capability sustainment will cost less and incur less risk.
    • APPLICATION OF A STORAGE AREA NETWORK IN A HIGHRATE TELEMETRY GROUND STATION

      Ozkan, Siragan; Zimmerman, Bryan; Williams, Mike; DeShong, Monica; Avtec Systems, Inc.; Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      A traditional Front-end Processor (FEP) with local RAID storage can limit the operational throughput of a high-rate telemetry ground station. The Front-end processor must perform pass processing (frame synchronization, decoding, routing, and storage), post-pass processing (level-zero processing), and tape archiving. A typical fifteen minute high-rate satellite pass can produce data files of 10 to 20 GB. The FEP may require up to 2 hours to perform the post-pass processing and tape archiving functions for these size files. During this time, it is not available to support real-time pass operations. Honeywell faced this problem in the design of the data management system for the DataLynx ä* ground stations. Avtec Systems, Inc. and Honeywell worked together to develop a data management system that utilizes a Storage Area Network (SAN) in conjunction with multiple High-speed Front-end Processors (HSFEP) for Pass Processing (PFEP), multiple HSFEPs for Post-pass Processing (PPFEP), and a dedicated Tape Archive server. A SAN consists of a high-capacity, high-bandwidth shared RAID that is connected to multiple nodes using 1 Gbps Fibre Channel interfaces. All of the HSFEPs as well as the Tape Archive server have direct access to the shared RAID via a Fibre Channel network. The SAN supports simultaneous read/write transfers between the nodes at aggregate rates up to 120 Mbytes/sec. With the Storage Area Network approach, the High-Speed Front-end Processors can quickly transfer the data captured during a pass to the shared RAID for post-processing and tape archiving so that they are available to support another satellite pass. This paper will discuss the architecture of the Storage Area Network and how it optimizes ground station data management in a high-rate environment.