Zareba, Grzegorz; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This article presents a measurement system based on the RS-485 interface. The presented system is an alternative solution for distributed measurement systems, which cannot be built using IEEE-488 interface due to distance limitation between elements of the system. The RS-485 interface is a base for communication between measurement instruments and uses a Master-Slave protocol to exchange data between them. One dedicated master device, usually a PC, controls all slave devices connected to the interface. To control measurement devices SCPI language is used. This solution simplifies communication between measurement devices and allows utilizing the HP-VEE environment to control any SCPI devices connected to the RS-485 network.

      Moon, Todd K.; Peel, Christian B.; Budge, Scott; Utah State University; Brigham Young University, Provo (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Very fast tree-structured vector quantization employs scalar quantization decisions at each level, but chooses the dimension on which to quantize based on the coordinate direction of maximum variance. Because the quantization is scalar, searches are no more complex than scalar quantization - providing significant improvement in complexity over full-searched or even tree-structured vector quantization - but the method preserves the shape and memory advantages of conventional vector quantization. However, the space filling advantage of VQ is forfeited, since each Voronoi cell is a rectangular cuboid.

      Mirchandani, Chandru; Ghuman, Parminder; Lockheed-Martin Space Operations; National Aeronautical Space Administration (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The development of unique solutions to telemetry processing using the latest technologies is often fraught with the uncertainty of the system working correctly within the schedule for operational support. This uncertainty can be reduced considerably by analyzing the performance of the system during the development and incremental test stage. This paper describes a method by which the analysis may be carried out during development so that the system will have the capability in the required time for mission support. This paper will show how different system models lend themselves to the requirements, and how the analyses identifies areas of high risk. The paper will also describe a case study whereby these three alternatives to telemetry processing have been used and could have been analyzed so that they would have met the requirements in a timely manner.

      Harris, Dan; NAWC/WD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
    • Enhanced Flight Termination System Study Overview and Status

      Cronk, Steven G.; Tobin, Maria A.; Sakahara, Robert D.; Edwards Air Force Base; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The Range Commanders Council (RCC) Range Safety Group (RSG) is conducting a study into the next generation of ground-based flight termination technology, known as the Enhanced Flight Termination System (EFTS) study. The study was initiated by the RCC in April 2000 and scheduled to be complete in March 2002. The Government is performing the study with support from contractors and academia. In addition to the RSG, the Telemetry Group, Frequency Management Group, Telecommunications and Timing Group of the RCC support the study. Additionally, the National Security Agency is providing key support along with vendors who design, build, and test range safety systems. This paper will describe the background, goals, and current status of the study.
    • Automating Telemetry Tracking Systems Operational Tests

      Pedroza, Moises; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Automating Telemetry Tracking Systems Operational Readiness Tests is a concept that was introduced at White Sands Missile Range in the early 1980’s. The idea was to determine the condition of a Telemetry Tracking System in a reliable manner in a short time as possible. A series of RF and Servo Tests designed to determine the condition of a Telemetry Tracking System was implemented using HP BASIC. The latest personal computers are faster and have more storage capacity plus the capability to be programmed in higher level languages such as C/C++ and LabView. This technology makes it easier to automate system tests. Many of these tests need to be conducted just prior to supporting a mission. Some tests are required to be performed on mobile systems after moving the system from one location to another, especially if the move was over long distances and rugged terrain. Tests such as G/T are conducted before each mission because it yields accurate information on the Figure of Merit, or, System Sensitivity. Noise Figure Measurements are more difficult to perform to determine the System Sensitivity since modern RF Subsystems have pre-amplifiers with Noise Figures of less than 1.0 dB. The “down-sizing” of personnel increases the possibility of failure in mission support scenarios due to the many critical readiness tests needed to assess the Telemetry Tracking Systems. Also, conventional test methods can be time consuming and are subject to human error. This paper describes four critical tests that have been automated to improve reliability of the test data and decrease the amount of time required to conduct the tests. The “C/C++” language was used to write the automation programs. More tests will be automated later.
    • Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Systems Integration at the Air Force Flight Test Center

      Briggs, James R.; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The aeronautical telemetry frequency spectrum is continually shrinking. More and more government frequencies are being sold to telecommunications companies. To make matters worse, more complicated weapons systems are spurring the demand for higher data rates. The telemetry infrastructure is struggling to meet these demands as the equipment continues to age and is, in some cases, no longer supported by the manufacturer. The loss of portions of the aeronautical frequency spectrum has had significant effects at Edwards. Increasing scheduling conflicts and mission cancellations are rapidly becoming a fact of life. This paper describes the scope of the Advanced Range Telemetry Integration and Support (ARTM I&S) program as it begins to integrate ARTM-developed products into the existing telemetry infrastructure at the Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC). This paper will discuss the infrastructure upgrades required in order to continue supporting test and evaluation missions. Numerous challenges will be addressed including the shrinking aeronautical frequency spectrum, aging telemetry infrastructure, and the demand for higher data rates. Possible solutions will be discussed to address the growing spectrum encroachment issue.

      Reid, Robert; Naval Undersea Warfare Center Division Newport (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Undersea warfare (USW) was perceived as a large-area, deep-water operation in the past therefore Fleet USW training ranges were designed to meet these requirements. Currently the bigger threat is the likelihood of regional conflict throughout the world by aggressive nations in littoral waters. The U.S. Navy must stand ready to respond to these regional conflicts when national interests are threatened. Consequently, naval forces must train to operate in the littoral environments where such regional conflicts are likely to occur. The West Cost Shallow Water Undersea Warfare Training Range (WC SWUWTR) is being developed to provide this training.

      Schneider, Dennis; Colangelo, Ronald; U. S. Army Simulation, Training and Instrumentation Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The Hardened Subminiature Telemetry and Sensor System (HSTSS) is a model program; executing Department of Defense (DoD) initiatives, such as Acquisition Reform, Industry Partnering, and the use of Integrated Product Teams (IPT). The HSTSS is partnering because the unique expertise needed for the high g instrumentation system is spread across industry and the Government. The approaches used to reduce risk in the development of instrumentation systems will be described. Also technical strategies will be addressed. In this paper a discussion about the affect that the IPT process has had on HSTSS to make the program successful. This paper will describe the strategy used to leverage existing technologies, processes, and to market the components that has been developed. The information presented here will address how partnering and the use of commercial technology will reduce the program costs as well as the unit cost. The importance of working together within the Services and sharing funds and technology to accomplish more with less will be addressed. This paper will address how we are delivering a low cost, miniature, high-g (100,000 g’s), and modular instrumentation system. This instrumentation is to be used for indirect fire and direct fire projectiles and small missiles. The building blocks for this instrumentation system include batteries, transmitter, pulse code modulation (PCM) encoders, and a variety of sensors (pressure, spin rate, etc.). Instrumentation requirement for HSTSS is to collect data from launch to impact.

      Long, Marjorie de Lande; Long, Ian de Lande; Calzolari, Gian Paolo; I B + M A de Lande Long Software + Consultancy; European Space Agency (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is defining a CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) capable of use between systems of multiple endpoints. A number of prototype CFDP implementations have been developed and some interoperability tests performed over UDP links. This paper reports on a study of CFDP running over more realistic packet telecommand and packet telemetry links. An integrated test system was constructed by adapting existing commercial and prototype software. This was used to study a number of scenarios which are likely to be important in early operational use of CFDP in space. This approach has been found to be useful both for testing a protocol during its development and specification and for verifying the impact of new approaches to Space Missions.

      Baek, Won-Seok; Lee, Daniel C.; University of Southern California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      We study the reliable (acknowledged) operation (i.e., ARQ scheme) of CFDP (CCSDS File Delivery Protocol) over single-hop space link. We focus on the immediate NAK mode, as specified in [1], under the assumption that PDU error events of forward and backward channels are statistically independent. We point out the problem of duplicated retransmissions due to the long propagation delay and analyze throughput efficiency. We also present modeling and analysis of the average time taken for the delivery of a file with an arbitrary size, which are more rigorous than currently available heuristics.

      Baek, Won-Seok; Lee, Daniel C.; University of Southern California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      In CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), four acknowledged modes essentially have an identical protocol for initializing and closing a file delivery. In this protocol, the system occasionally run into a state in which Sender has closed the transaction and Receiver has not closed the transaction. In this paper, we point out the danger of such state being prolonged. Such a state can be prolonged due to link occultation, extremely long propagation delay, or implementation caused by common misinterpretation of the protocol specification. We provide two failure scenarios, which occur in such a state. Then, we discuss ways of preventing such failures.

      Nemesure, Gregg; Safigan, Brian; Avtec Systems, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      CCSDS recommendations initially addressed the communication link between spacecraft and ground station. Space Link Extension (SLE) is a set of CCSDS recommended standards for extending the link to control centers, allowing distributed access to space link telecommand and telemetry services. The recommendations encompass the specification of both services and access methods. This paper discusses an implementation of SLE that will be used to provide Forward CLTU service to the upcoming INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) mission.

      Sinclair, Robert; Jones, Charles H.; Nonvolatile Electronics, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Current legacy acquisition systems such as the Advanced Airborne Test Instrumentation System (AATIS) are custom-built to each individual application with unique sensors and data modules. Replacing, adding, or subtracting sensors requires the system to be removed from service for days, weeks, or even months. This is a result of having to route special wires to each sensor and reprogramming the system with sensor information, calibration data, etc. AR sensor information must be contained in the main system since these systems do not have intelligence at the sensor level. If sensors were to contain information in their own IEEE 1451-compliant transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS), the main system would no longer have to be reprogrammed with this information. This information could then be obtained directly from the sensors when they are inserted into the system. A plug-n-play capability is being added to the system with the development of a standard interface to the system control unit (SCU). This interface, called a Multi-Network Capable Applications Processor (Multi-NCAP), will interface IEEE 1451-compliant smart transducer interface modules (STIMs) to the SCU in the AATIS as well as other legacy systems. With this development, maintenance and new configuration times for the AATIS and other legacy systems will be significantly reduced.

      Grace, Thomas; Naval Air Systems Team (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The US Government originally funded the development of the Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS) to address industry-wide compatibility, maintenance, and commonality issues. Although initially targeted for US Department of Defense (DoD) programs, CAIS is also being used throughout the world in many commercial applications. This paper provides a fresh look at the evolution of the CAIS concept starting with some historical background of the CAIS Program, an overview of the CAIS System Architecture and recent trends in the use of “Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS)” products and technology.
    • Progress in Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) Avionics System Test at the Air Force Flight Test Center

      Switzer, Earl R.; Fleishans, Amy D.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This paper presents a progress report on Global Air Traffic Management (GATM) avionic system test activities at the Air Force Flight Test Center. In many parts of the world today the continuing growth of commercial air traffic is running up against limits brought on by overuse of aviation resources. Air corridors in Europe and on transoceanic air routes are operating at maximum capacity. Civil Aviation Authorities (CAAs) are working these challenges on two levels—near-term incremental improvements and long-term visionary changes. Each country has a CAA; ours being the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). Near-term solutions focus on better utilization of resources such as air space and frequency spectrum and improved performance of air traffic control facilities. Long-term visionary changes, such as free flight, could fundamentally change the current civil aviation business process model. CAA policies and standards are driving near-term improvements and migration toward long-term objectives. This initiative is referred as Communication Navigation Surveillance/Air Traffic Management (CNS/ATM). Implementation of the U.S. military’s vision, Global Reach/Global Power, requires the ability to rapidly deploy armed forces to major regional conflicts anywhere in the world, and to sustain these forces for as long as it takes to resolve these conflicts. To achieve this goal and accomplish rapid deployments while at the same time minimizing costs, the Air Force has adopted a solution that makes extensive use of CNS/ATM. The Air Force calls its initiative Global Air Traffic Management (GATM). Air Force aircraft equipped with GATM avionics will be able to use CNS/ATM capabilities such as reduced vertical separation minimum (RVSM), 8.33 kHz data links, automatic dependent surveillance - broadcast (ADS-B), and global communication networks. These capabilities make possible improved flight safety, lower fuel costs, and quicker turn times. The Air Force Flight Test Center supports the GATM initiative by providing Air Traffic Control (ATC) Communications Test Facilities and Avionic System Test (ACTFAST) capabilities to support aircraft modification programs.

      Crawford, Kevin; Johnson, Martin; NASA (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continually looking for methods to reduce cost and schedule while keeping the quality of work high. MSFC is NASA’s lead center for space transportation and microgravity research. When supporting NASA’s programs several decisions concerning the avionics system must be made. Usually many trade studies must be conducted to determine the best ways to meet the customer’s requirements. When deciding the flight data system, one of the first trade studies normally conducted is the determination of the data bus architecture. The schedule, cost, reliability, and environments are some of the factors that are reviewed in the determination of the data bus architecture. Based on the studies, the data bus architecture could result in a proprietary data bus or a commercial data bus. The cost factor usually removes the proprietary data bus from consideration. The commercial data bus architecture’s range from Versa Module Euro card (VME) to Compact PCI to STD 32 to PC 104. If cost, schedule and size are prime factors, VME is usually not considered. If the prime factors are cost, schedule, and size then Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC 104 are the choices for the data bus architecture. MSFC’s center director has funded a study from his discretionary fund to determine an optimal low cost commercial data bus architecture. The goal of the study is to functionally and environmentally test Compact PCI, STD 32 and PC 104 data bus architectures. This paper will summarize the results of the data bus architecture study.
    • IEEE P1451.3 A Developing Standard For Networked Transducers

      Eccles, Lee H.; Boeing Commercial Airplane Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      The IEEE P1451.3 standard for networked transducers is designed to support applications in many industries but aerospace representatives have had a major say in what is included in the standard. The standard is written to allow multiple different transducers to exist on a single transmission line. This single transmission line may also carry power to the transducers. A bus is expected to have a single controller and many transducers. Individual transducers may be operated in several modes including a strict master-slave relationship or individual transducers may operate independently from the bus controller. In addition the bus controller can provide a clock to allow all transducers to operate synchronously or the clock can be ignored for asynchronous operation. The standard includes an extensible command set and Transducer Electronic Data Sheets (TEDS) that allows for full plug and play operation of the transducer. If a manufacturer chooses to leave out some of the features that allow for plug and play operation the standard allows for that as well. This paper provides an overview of the features of the standard as well as the types of system that can best utilize these features.
    • Test and Evaluation of Ultra High Spectral Efficient Feher Keying (FK)

      Lin, Jin-Song; Feher, Kamilo; University of California; DIGCOM, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      Performances of a subclass of a new spectral efficient modulation scheme, designated as Feher Keying [1], or FK, is evaluated. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) and Bit Error Rate (BER) characteristics of FK are presented. FK has ultra high spectral efficiency and satisfies the frequency mask for WLAN defined in FCC part 15, and it has a simple structure for high bit rate implementation.

      Law, Eugene; NAWCWD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2001-10)
      This paper will present measured data in an adjacent channel interference (ACI) environment for both filtered continuous phase frequency shift keying (CPFSK) and Feher’s patented quadrature phase shift keying (FQPSK-B) [1]. The quantity measured was bit error probability (BEP) versus signal energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio (E(b)/N(o)). The interferers were either CPFSK or FQPSK-B signals. The results presented in this paper will be for bit rates of 5 Mb/s, one interferer 20 dB larger than desired signal, various channel spacings, and two different telemetry receivers. The ACI test effort will collect data sets at several bit rates and with one and two interferers. The results will be useful to system designers and range operators as they attempt to maximize the number of Mb/s that can be simultaneously transmitted in the telemetry bands.