• A Predictive Model for Multi-Band Optical Tracking System (MBOTS) Performance

      Horii, M. Michael; Photo-Sonics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In the wake of sequestration, Test and Evaluation (T&E) groups across the U.S. are quickly learning to make do with less. For Department of Defense ranges and test facility bases in particular, the timing of sequestration could not be worse. Aging optical tracking systems are in dire need of replacement. What's more, the increasingly challenging missions of today require advanced technology, flexibility, and agility to support an ever-widening spectrum of scenarios, including short-range (0 − 5 km) imaging of launch events, long-range (50 km+) imaging of debris fields, directed energy testing, high-speed tracking, and look-down coverage of ground test scenarios, to name just a few. There is a pressing need for optical tracking systems that can be operated on a limited budget with minimal resources, staff, and maintenance, while simultaneously increasing throughput and data quality. Here we present a mathematical error model to predict system performance. We compare model predictions to site-acceptance test results collected from a pair of multi-band optical tracking systems (MBOTS) fielded at White Sands Missile Range. A radar serves as a point of reference to gauge system results. The calibration data and the triangulation solutions obtained during testing provide a characterization of system performance. The results suggest that the optical tracking system error model adequately predicts system performance, thereby supporting pre-mission analysis and conserving scarce resources for innovation and development of robust solutions. Along the way, we illustrate some methods of time-space-position information (TSPI) data analysis, define metrics for assessing system accuracy, and enumerate error sources impacting measurements. We conclude by describing technical challenges ahead and identifying a path forward.
    • Calibration of High Dimensional Compressive Sensing Systems: A Case Study in Compressive Hyperspectral Imaging

      Gehm, Michael; Poon, Phillip; Dunlop, Matthew; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Compressive Sensing (CS) is a set of techniques that can faithfully acquire a signal from sub- Nyquist measurements, provided the class of signals have certain broadly-applicable properties. Reconstruction (or exploitation) of the signal from these sub-Nyquist measurements requires a forward model - knowledge of how the system maps signals to measurements. In high-dimensional CS systems, determination of this forward model via direct measurement of the system response to the complete set of impulse functions is impractical. In this paper, we will discuss the development of a parameterized forward model for the Adaptive, Feature-Specific Spectral Imaging Classifier (AFSSI-C), an experimental compressive spectral image classifier. This parameterized forward model drastically reduces the number of calibration measurements.
    • TENA Implementation at Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) Paper

      Wigent, Mark; McKinley, Robert A.; SAIC; TRAX International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      PMRF provides a volume of space, which may include any combination of below-surface, surface, above-surface environments to safely test, gather data, and monitor in real time, the performance of systems being developed. This paper discusses how TENA implementation in range instrumentation; including radar, optics, video, GPS, and telemetry systems; will enhance data acquisition and distribution of systems under test. While details of this implementation plan are specific to PMRF, this approach can serve as a blueprint for TENA implementation at other ranges throughout the DoD.
    • Network-Based Data Acquisition System for Flight Test

      Eccles, Lee H.; Malchodi, Larry; Wilhelm, Kenneth A.; Boeing Test & Evaluation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The Boeing Test and Evaluation flight test organization tests many airplanes each year. Most of these tests involve 50 to 100 parameters and one or two flights. Airplane certifications may require up to 250,000 parameters and last for months. For the last 20 years we have wanted a modular system that would allow us to use the minimum acquisition hardware required to do the job. At the same time we wanted to train the Instrumentation engineers for a single system. We have achieved both goals with a network-based data acquisition system. We solved the lack of determinism with Ethernet by time-tagging all data in the Data Acquisition Units (DAU) using IEEE Std 1588 Precision Time Protocol. The DAUs themselves are small modules which allow us to install just the DAUs that we need for a given program. This has allowed us to implement the full range of systems yet have all of them operate with the same hardware and software. This paper discusses the architecture that we implemented and our successes with this system.
    • Machine Vision and Autonomous Integration Into an Unmanned Aircraft System

      Dianics, James; Fasel, Hermann F.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Van Horne, Chris; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The University of Arizona's Aerial Robotics Club (ARC) sponsors the development of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) able to compete in the annual Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) Seafarer Chapter Student Unmanned Aerial Systems competition. Modern programming frameworks are utilized to develop a robust distributed imagery and telemetry pipeline as a backend for a mission operator user interface. This paper discusses the design changes made for the 2013 AUVSI competition including integrating low-latency first-person view, updates to the distributed task backend, and incremental and asynchronous updates the operator's user interface for real-time data analysis.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) Space Environment Multispectral Imager

      Grubbs, Elmer; Pine, Gerald; Gustafson, Joshua; Kay, John; Pilar, Janelle; Rojas, Rafael; Sylvester, Lance; Trojahn, Rachel; NASA Johnson Space Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The RISA imaging team is tasked to research, develop, implement, and test a multispectral imaging system capable of supporting multiple NASA exploration objectives. This year's NASA team is responsible for characterizing the newly implemented liquid lens, implementing a charging circuit complete with rechargeable batteries and a solar panel array, and redesigning the already developed wireless data transmission system. The charging circuit will be fully designed by our electrical engineering team using Gallium Arsenide solar panels provided by AZUR SPACE Solar Power. The implementation of this solar panel array will enable the final system to be completely independent of any power consumption from the spacecraft. The wireless data transmission system will be redesigned to utilize a compression technique as opposed to entire-image compression, as the previous system had implemented. This edit, in conjunction with an interfacing bypass through hardwiring of the image sensor to the Gumstix COM, will drastically increase the data transmission rate. These modifications will therefore increase the rate at which NASA can send and receive data and/or the communication of rate of the camera commands through the designed GUI. As a result of new mission objectives and requirements associated with new age space vehicles, little physical capacity is available, especially compared to past NASA Space Shuttles. Employing a multi-purpose imaging system alleviates the need of manifesting multiple individual imagers by incorporating the numerous desired functions into one system. The final version of the imager, which is expected to be completed in follow-up work, is intended to be flight ready and will be used in the crew cabin, on the exterior of NASA vehicles, and on Lunar and other planetary surfaces. For this year's imager, the preliminary design review was broken down into four sections: the battery, the solar panel, the charging circuit, and wireless hardware. In each of these sections, multiple designs were considered, but the charging circuit and wireless system were decided to be custom designed by the team.
    • "Big Data" Management and Security Application to Telemetry Data Products

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      "Big Data" [1] and the security challenge of managing "Big Data" is a hot topic in the IT world. The term "Big Data" is used to describe very large data sets that cannot be processed by traditional database applications in "tractable" periods of time. Securing data in a conventional database is challenge enough; securing data whose size may exceed hundreds of terabytes or even petabytes is even more daunting! As the size of telemetry product and telemetry post-processed product continues to grow, "Big Data" management techniques and the securing of that data may have ever increasing application in the telemetry realm. After reviewing "Big Data", "Big Data" security and management basics, potential application to telemetry post-processed product will be explored.
    • Design of an Autonomous Robot for Indoor Navigation

      Kosbar, Kurt; McConnell, Michael; Chionuma, Daniel; Wright, Jordan; Brandt, Jordan; Zhe, Liu; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of an autonomous robot to navigate indoors to a specified target using an inexpensive commercial off the shelf USB camera and processor running an imbedded Linux system. The robot identifies waypoints to aid in navigation, which in our case consists of a series of quick response (QR) codes. Using a 1080p USB camera, the robot could successfully identify waypoints at a distance of over 4 meters, and navigate at a rate of 50 cm/sec.
    • Direction of Arrival Estimation Improvement for Closely Spaced Electrically Small Antenna Array

      Xin, Hao; Yu, Xiaoju; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In this paper, a new technique utilizing a scatterer of high dielectric constant in between electrically small antennas to achieve good Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation performance is demonstrated. The phase information of the received signal at the antennas is utilized for direction estimation. The impact of the property of the scatterer on the directional sensitivity and the output signal to noise ratio (SNR) level are studied. Finally the DOA estimation accuracy is analyzed with the proposed technique under the consumption of white Gaussian noise environment.
    • Near Field Wireless Power Transmission

      Xin, Hao; Marcellin, Michael; Sanders, Ivar; Althawab, Meshal; Eberhard, Jared; Hernandez, Alan; Manos, John; Patel, Aniket; Tavour, Alex; von Oppenfeld, Christian; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      A prototype wireless power transfer system using the near field to transfer energy between resonantly tuned coils, in order to charge a cell phone or other small electronic device. The system uses resonance to ensure maximum wireless power transfer efficiency between the two coils, and gain greater flexibility in distance between the two coils. The frequency of power transfer is in the unregulated 6.78MHz ISM band. The system is monitored and controlled by an Arduino, and shuts off power when the system does not detect a load.
    • Spread Spectrum Signal Detection from Compressive Measurements

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Goodman, Nathan A.; Bilgin, Ali; Lui, Feng; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Spread Spectrum (SS) techniques are methods used to deliberately spread the spectrum of transmitted signals in communication systems. The increased bandwidth makes detection of these signals challenging for non-cooperative receivers. In this paper, we investigate detection of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) signals from compressive measurements. The theoretical and simulated performances of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional methods.
    • Full-Waveform LIDAR Recovery at Sub-Nyquist Rates

      Creusere, Charles D.; Castorena, Juan; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Third generation LIDAR full-waveform (FW) based systems collect 1D FW signals of the echoes generated by laser pulses of wide bandwidth reflected at the intercepted objects to construct depth profiles along each pulse path. By emitting a series of pulses towards a scene using a predefined scanning patter, a 3D image containing spatial-depth information can be constructed. Unfortunately, acquisition of a high number of wide bandwidth pulses is necessary to achieve high depth and spatial resolutions of the scene. This implies the collection of massive amounts of data which generate problems for the storage, processing and transmission of the FW signal set. In this research, we explore the recovery of individual continuous-time FW signals at sub-Nyquist rates. The key step to achieve this is to exploit the sparsity in FW signals. Doing this allows one to sub-sample and recover FW signals at rates much lower than that implied by Shannon's theorem. Here, we describe the theoretical framework supporting recovery and present the reader with examples using real LIDAR data.
    • Evaluation of CMA+AMA Equalization for SOQPSK Modulation in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Moazzami, Farzad; KoneDossongui, Serge; Opasina, Oladotun; Umuolo, Henry; Betelle, Habtamu; Thang, Solomon; Shrestha, Robin; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Multipath interference continues to be the dominant cause of telemetry link outages in low-elevation angle reception scenarios. The most reliable and universally applicable solution to this problem is in the form of equalization. Previous work in this area has considered the Constant modulus algorithm (CMA) equalizer operating in a blind adaptive mode. To the extent that knowledge of the multipath channel improves the performance of CMA and related equalizers and permits the use of other equalization techniques, data aided equalizers are of interest. Channel knowledge is obtained by comparing the received samples with the samples corresponding to a known bit pattern (called a pilot block) periodically inserted in the telemetry data stream. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a modified CMA equalization algorithm, which has the property of automatically resolving the phase of the QPSK modulated symbol, and to determine its suitability for use with SOQPSK-TG by taking into account the capability of exploiting the presence of a periodically inserted pilot block. As an initial effort in that direction, this paper provides simulation results of the error performance of the blind linear combination of CMA and alphabet matched algorithm (AMA) equalizer as compared to that of pilot assisted equalization with SOQPSK modulation over aeronautical channel.
    • Design and Development of a Digital Signal Processing System that Responds Automatically to an Audio Trigger Event

      Borah, Deva K.; Chavez, Rudy; Favela, Frank; Ontiveros, Adrian; Smith, Matthew; Wallace, Matthew; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper presents the development of a signal processing system that responds automatically to an audio trigger event. The audio trigger event, for example, can be a gun shot, and the system's response is to fire back at the source. The proposed system uses microcontrollers to digitally process audio signals coming from the audio trigger. Once the event is detected, the location of that source relative to the base location is estimated and retaliatory measures are automatically activated by the system. In our study, gunshot sounds are replaced by recorded audio tones and the retaliatory mechanism consists of a Nerf dart being fired toward the sound source. Sound localization is achieved via time stamping the digitized microphone signals. With an array of microphones, angular components as well as radial components can be determined. Servo motors are used to control the turret type mechanism for firing back Nerf darts to the source. The project has potentials for both lethal and non-lethal responses to a firearm discharge. The work is based on a 2013 senior undergraduate capstone project.
    • Remote Monitoring of Residential Energy Usage

      Kosbar, Kurt; Tramel, Nathan; Dill, Jacob; Almuqallad, Hussam; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      A substantial amount of the energy usage in developed countries is consumed by climate control of residential and commercial structures. Collecting information on the usage patterns of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems can allow a consumer to better understand the cost and effectiveness of these systems, and allow landlords and others to monitor their use. This paper describes a system which can easily be retrofitted onto legacy HVAC systems to monitor their activity, and then transmit the information over a wireless radio network for archiving and analysis
    • On-Board Wireless Data Acquisition System and Telemetry

      Jasthi, Umakanth; Gorle, Bhaskar; Shayi, Y. Padma; Mai, C. Kiran; Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University; Cranfield University; VNRVJIET (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Most of today's aircraft used for the commercial transport of passengers or military aircraft still rely on simple technology such as cables, connectors and sensors to provide power, avionics data, control system, aircraft instrumentation etc. throughout the vehicle's life-cycle for flight monitoring and fault diagnosis. Despite a marked improvement in the quality and reliability of these components, they continue to be the main cause of failures due to corrosion, misuse, improper installation, etc, using-up endless man-hours to troubleshoot, repair and upgrade them. Wireless monitoring by telemetry of some of the critical systems has been in use for some time as a point to point data link designed to provide vital information, potentially improving the safety and efficiency of any flight. Aircraft manufacturers are now looking at the use of wireless networks to replace current data buses used for the transfer of data between avionics systems and their sensors as well as for the control of some of the surface actuators. Wireless networks used in this way could reduce the amount of cabling and its associated weight as well as simplify the re-routing of connections making upgradation less expensive and quicker, again a benefit to airlines. Despite many benefits there is a potentially serious security issue by means of an introduction of a backdoor into the system, meaning that before aircrafts become network-enabled, all the security issues must be identified in full and dealt with.
    • Pulse Position Modulation using BICM-ID for FSO Channels

      Borah, Deva K.; Kumar, Kuldeep; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      We investigate pulse position modulation (PPM) and multipulse PPM (MPPM) for free space op- tical channels using bit interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding. Data bits are first encoded by using a non recursive convolutional code and the coded bits after an interleaver are modulated before transmission. Iterative decoding is performed at the receiver. Optimized mapping is designed for MPPM. A genetic algorithm is used to find the optimized mapping for MPPM. Our simulation results show that a significant improvement in the error performance can be achieved by using optimized mapping and iterative decoding at the receiver.
    • Field Programmable Gate Array Application for Decoding IRIG-B Time Code

      Brown, Jarrod P.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      A field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to decode Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) time code for a PC-based Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI) acquisition. The FPGA architecture can latch time via an external event trigger or a programmable periodic internal event. By syncing time with an external IRIG Group Type B (IRIG-B) signal and using an 8 megahertz (MHz) internal clock, captured time has 125 nanosecond (ns) precision. A Range Instrumentation Control System (RICS) application utilizing the FPGA design to capture IRIG time is presented and test results show matching time accuracy when compared to commercial IRIG time capture hardware components.
    • Polarization Diversity in the Presence of Multipath Propagation

      Wagner, Grant; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The possibility of polarization diversity using left and right hand circular polarization (LHCP and RHCP) in the presence of multipath propagation is examined. We show that there are differences in the received signal for LHCP and RHCP for a number of realistic scenarios. Because multipath propagation can produce different LHCP and RCHP signals, there exists the possibility for diversity improvement involving the two polarizations.
    • Channel Based Sampling in a Network Based Data Acquisition System

      Sulewski, Joseph; Dehmelt, Chris; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Over the last few years, PCM based data acquisition systems have become known as "Traditional PCM" systems. This terminology modification is a sign of the evolution of the next generation of telemetry/data acquisition systems based on network topologies. This has come about due to users clamoring for functionality that has not been available in the traditional systems, such as supporting increased data rates, providing access to onboard archived data, supporting on-the-fly reconfiguration, and simplifying data distribution and delivery. The iNET standard is using standard network technology to improve device interoperability and data acquisition. To minimize impact on existing data acquisition system devices, the initial effort of this approach has included the transmission of "Traditional" fixed PCM frames within a network message based structure. This approach, however, squanders network bandwidth, as a PCM frame includes all samples of all channels, and requires significant processing power for even simple tasks. Delivering on the promise of a more flexible transmission method requires a change in how data is acquired in the data acquisition devices. The iNET standard defines such a packet based transport system, which supports channel based packet formats besides "Traditional PCM" to efficiently deliver data products. This paper will provide background on the benefits of these methods and an overview of methods by which these formats can be implemented.