• Validation for Visually lossless Compression of Stereo Images

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Feng, Hsin-Chang; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper described the details of subjective validation for visually lossless compression of stereoscopic 3 dimensional (3D) images. The subjective testing method employed in this work is adapted from methods used previously for visually lossless compression of 2 dimensional (2D) images. Confidence intervals on the correct response rate obtained from the subjective validation of compressed stereo pairs provide reliable evidence to indicate that the compressed stereo pairs are visually lossless.
    • Tri-Band Ground Station Antenna for Earth Observation Satellites

      Baggett, Brian; Parekh, S.; Sinyard, David; Chandler, Brian; Morris, R.; ViaSat Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The need for increased downlink data rates and bandwidth for Earth Observation (EO) missions is driving mission planners to consider Ka-Band (25.5 to 27.0 GHz) downlinks to replace or augment the existing X-Band (8.025 to 8.400 GHz) services. Future ground stations will be required to support both bands as well as S-Band (2.0-2.3) GHz telemetry and command functions. This paper discusses the inherent tradeoffs in such a design, and proposes an implementation which permits simultaneous data reception in X-Band and Ka-Band, while providing TT&C functionality at S-Band. Analytical and measured data for the implementation are provided.
    • TSPI Radar Methodologies for Improved Positional Performance/Accuracy of C-Band Auto-tracking Telemetry

      Sternke, Barry; Ray, Matthew; BAE Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
    • Transitioning from NTSC to HD Digital Video Vol. 2

      Hightower, Paul; Instrumentation Technology Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In our first installment, analog and HD video terms were compared. It was shown that resolution is three-dimensional in HD. High HD data rates force the use of video compression in order to transport video. Compression compromises video detail and introduces latency. Latency affects the overlay of time critical measurements. It is therefore important to time stamp at the source. In this volume, the focus is on the key regions of the HD video frame and metadata. SMPTE specifications are the foundation on which MISB builds its use of metadata. It will be shown that only two KLV packets can hold all TSPI and calibration data with frame-by-frame updates. This capacity is new in HD. Metadata is permanently merged with images and the time that both were collected. We show how employing the KLV metadata packet can result in a single video record where picture taking are all in lockstep. Using KLV metadata enables one to record clean video while retaining the ability to place crosshairs and data during playback.
    • Low-Complexity Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms in Compressed Sensing

      Vasić, Bane; Marcellin, Michael W.; Declercq, David; Danjean, Ludovic; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In this paper we focus on two low-complexity iterative reconstruction algorithms in compressed sensing. These algorithms, called the approximate message-passing algorithm and the interval-passing algorithm, are suitable to recover sparse signals from a small set of measurements. Depending on the type of measurement matrix (sparse or random) used to acquire the samples of the signal, one or the other reconstruction algorithm can be used. We present the reconstruction results of these two reconstruction algorithms in terms of proportion of correct reconstructions in the noise free case. We also report in this paper possible practical applications of compressed sensing where the choice of the measurement matrix and the reconstruction algorithm are often governed by the constraint of the considered application.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) Space Environment Multispectral Imager

      Grubbs, Elmer; Pine, Gerald; Gustafson, Joshua; Kay, John; Pilar, Janelle; Rojas, Rafael; Sylvester, Lance; Trojahn, Rachel; NASA Johnson Space Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The RISA imaging team is tasked to research, develop, implement, and test a multispectral imaging system capable of supporting multiple NASA exploration objectives. This year's NASA team is responsible for characterizing the newly implemented liquid lens, implementing a charging circuit complete with rechargeable batteries and a solar panel array, and redesigning the already developed wireless data transmission system. The charging circuit will be fully designed by our electrical engineering team using Gallium Arsenide solar panels provided by AZUR SPACE Solar Power. The implementation of this solar panel array will enable the final system to be completely independent of any power consumption from the spacecraft. The wireless data transmission system will be redesigned to utilize a compression technique as opposed to entire-image compression, as the previous system had implemented. This edit, in conjunction with an interfacing bypass through hardwiring of the image sensor to the Gumstix COM, will drastically increase the data transmission rate. These modifications will therefore increase the rate at which NASA can send and receive data and/or the communication of rate of the camera commands through the designed GUI. As a result of new mission objectives and requirements associated with new age space vehicles, little physical capacity is available, especially compared to past NASA Space Shuttles. Employing a multi-purpose imaging system alleviates the need of manifesting multiple individual imagers by incorporating the numerous desired functions into one system. The final version of the imager, which is expected to be completed in follow-up work, is intended to be flight ready and will be used in the crew cabin, on the exterior of NASA vehicles, and on Lunar and other planetary surfaces. For this year's imager, the preliminary design review was broken down into four sections: the battery, the solar panel, the charging circuit, and wireless hardware. In each of these sections, multiple designs were considered, but the charging circuit and wireless system were decided to be custom designed by the team.
    • Smart Data Selection

      Wigent, Shannon; Mazzario, Andrea; Laulima Systems; Kauai Software Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The fundamental precept presented in the iNET Concept of Operations, v. 2007.1 is that new telemetry technologies must be created to enable a more flexible approach to testing that includes on-demand access to information acquired on the test article and the ability to reconfigure the telemetry stream definition. Significant advances have been made in this area but one approach that has not yet been addressed is a concept introduced early within the iNET CONOPS document, that "The dominant inherent nature of TM in DoD testing is sampled time-history data from an ultimately analog world, (which) is not going to change drastically regardless of how data is transmitted to ground. A factor that could change that fact most is the degree to which answers instead of data are obtained on board the test vehicle." Ultimately, the most effective way of dealing with the exponentially growing gap between the quantities of data generated onboard the test article and the rate at which it is transmitted to ground is to generate answers on board the test article. The Test Resource Management Center (TRMC) Test and Evaluation (T&E) Science and Technology (S&T) Spectrum Efficient Test (SET) Program is sponsoring development of the Smart Data Selection (SDS) system which provides a capability to continually monitor measured data and then select which parameters, or which combination of parameters, to send to ground in a given time interval, based on what is actually happening with the system under test. This paper will describe the SDS system architecture and the specialized algorithms developed to analyze and determine which data to transmit from the test article to the ground. This paper will also describe the training methods which allow the SDS system to "learn" which behaviors are "normal" and which are "abnormal". Finally, this paper will provide analysis results to substantiate the savings in bandwidth, simplified pre-test setup, and increased operator awareness. The benefits of this work, in terms of efficient use of spectrum to support T&E are substantial, and they could be leveraged by any DoD ranges that execute aeronautical and precision-guided munitions testing.
    • "Big Data" Management and Security Application to Telemetry Data Products

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      "Big Data" [1] and the security challenge of managing "Big Data" is a hot topic in the IT world. The term "Big Data" is used to describe very large data sets that cannot be processed by traditional database applications in "tractable" periods of time. Securing data in a conventional database is challenge enough; securing data whose size may exceed hundreds of terabytes or even petabytes is even more daunting! As the size of telemetry product and telemetry post-processed product continues to grow, "Big Data" management techniques and the securing of that data may have ever increasing application in the telemetry realm. After reviewing "Big Data", "Big Data" security and management basics, potential application to telemetry post-processed product will be explored.
    • Theory and Development of a Dynamic HITL Autotrack Evaluation System

      King, Nathan; Davis, Steve; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Telemetry ground antenna tracking performance evaluation and measurement was previously performed by evaluating only the antenna drive system. The integrated nature of software controlled antenna systems has prompted a need to evaluate the entire tracking antenna system, as a whole. Particularly, the ability of an antenna to remain "locked" on a dynamic target must be able to be evaluated and quantified. This paper presents one method for evaluating the tracking ability of a telemetry antenna system and discusses a likely set of metrics to be used as figures of merit for antenna system tracking performance.
    • Development of a Digital Potentiometer Circuit for Digital Compensation of Frequency and Temperature Variations of Kvco to Provide Reprogramming of the Transmitter RF Center Frequency in the Field

      Oder, Stephen; St. Gelais, Robert; Caron, Peter; Bajgot, Douglas; Cobham Electronic Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Cobham Electronic Systems, Inc. has developed a digital potentiometer circuit to allow for digital compensation of frequency and temperature variations in the VCO/PLL frequency control loop of a telemetry transmitter. The ability to reprogram the RF center frequency of a telemetry transmitter is a useful feature and is required on many telemetry programs. When setting the frequency modulation deviation (FM Modulation Index) of a telemetry transmitter, the exact setting will change with RF center frequency due to the variation of the transfer function of the VCO (Kvco). Typically, a resistor divider is used to set the frequency modulation deviation level by setting the output data signal amplitude. However, since Kvco varies with respect to RF center frequency, a method of adjusting frequency modulation deviation for each frequency setting is required. The shunt resistor in the resistor divider is replaced with a digital potentiometer to provide the necessary adjustment, using the on-board microprocessor to store a look-up table of settings versus frequency. A key feature of the digital potentiometer circuit is a method to increase the frequency bandwidth of the potentiometer. Digital potentiometers typically have frequency bandwidths measured in kiloHertz to MegaHertz, which limits their use in setting the frequency modulation deviation of high data rate telemetry transmitters. The circuit consists of a 256 position digital potentiometer and several resistors that are used to adjust the slope of the resistance vs. digital code curve and to translate the curve up and down along the Y-Axis. Adding external resistors to the digital potentiometer helps to increase the frequency bandwidth of the digital potentiometer. The selection of the maximum resistance range of the digital potentiometer is also important, as the potentiometer bandwidth is greater when a small portion of the total resistance is used. This paper will explore various methods of increasing the effective bandwidth of a digital potentiometer, with the goal of making them suitable for use in dynamically setting the frequency modulation deviation via digital control.
    • Spread Spectrum Signal Detection from Compressive Measurements

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Goodman, Nathan A.; Bilgin, Ali; Lui, Feng; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Spread Spectrum (SS) techniques are methods used to deliberately spread the spectrum of transmitted signals in communication systems. The increased bandwidth makes detection of these signals challenging for non-cooperative receivers. In this paper, we investigate detection of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) signals from compressive measurements. The theoretical and simulated performances of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional methods.
    • Future of Flash

      Budd, Chris; SMART High Reliability Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Solid-State Drives (SSDs) are an enabling technology for data recorders. SSDs can survive where Hard-Disk Drives (HDDs) cannot. SSDs deliver better performance with lower power consumption than HDDs. However, the end of Single-Level Cell (SLC) NAND flash may be near; Multi-Level Cell (MLC) NAND flash soon may be the only choice for industrial applications. System designers have two distinct concerns before implementing SSDs: 1. Cost: MLC NAND flash makes SSDs as affordable as HDDs 2. Endurance: SSDs are reliable and endurance assured with today's controller technology SSDs are leading the charge in transforming data storage in several applications, telemetry included.
    • Circular-Mode Synthetic Aperture Subsurface Imaging with MIMO FMCW Microwave Array System

      Radzicki, Vincent R.; Lee, Hua; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper describes the analysis and development of microwave subsurface synthetic-aperture imaging in the circular-scan mode with a four-antenna FMCW MIMO radar system. The objective is to improve the localization and correspondence capability of the imaging operation.
    • Collar-Integrated Small Mammal GPS Tracker

      Marcellin, Michael; Melde, Kathleen; Kundu, Ina; Rice, Sean; Klug, Kevin; Chen, Hao; Marquez, Elizabeth; Zhong, Yizhou; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      A position beaconing system for tracking small mammals, such as the Golden Lion Tamarin, was developed and tested. GPS acquires location of the animal. The system utilizes a VHF radio transmitter tuned to 144.390 MHz, which is located in the amateur radio band. APRS was selected as the protocol for position, transmission, and recovery. This allows users to benefit from any existing APRS enabled devices. The beacon was designed by attempting to optimize operational longevity and minimize size. Consequently, the system is implemented on a single board and enclosed for protection. As the system must be comfortable for the mammal, it was manufactured from lightweight components and enclosed in a plastic housing. To attach the case to the mammal, it is connected to a flexible, zig-zag, wearable antenna, which functions as a collar.
    • combined Modulation and Error Correction Decoder for TDMR Using Generalized Belief Propagation

      Vasić, Bane; Khatami, Mehrdad; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Constrained codes also known as modulation codes are a key component in the digital magnetic recording systems. The constrained codes forbid particular input data patterns which lead to some of the dominant error events or higher media noise. In data recording systems, a concatenated approach toward the constrained code and error-correcting code (ECC) is typically used and the decoding is done independently. In this paper, we show the improvement in combining the decoding of the constrained code and the ECC using generalized belief propagation (GBP) algorithm. We consider the performance of a combined modulation constraints and the ECC on a binary symmetric channel (BSC). We show that combining demodulation and decoding results in a superior performance compared to concatenated schemes. Furthermore, we compute the capacity of the joint ECC and modulation codes for 1-D and 2-D constraints.
    • Considerations for IP-Based Range Architectures

      Kovach, Bob; Superior Access Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In the past several years there has been a good amount of effort expended in migrating telemetry streams to IP-based infrastructure, especially in the area of ground-based transport. This has yielded a number of benefits, from leveraging the properties of IP transport to enable multicast transport, to the integration of the wide number of COTS equipment that also is IP-based, such as digital video encoder/decoders into range networks. This paper will provide a model for identifying areas to accelerate the integration of IP-based assets into the range infrastructure at the application level. In particular the integration of metadata between the telemetry and video application interfaces will be explored.
    • Variable Rate OFDM Performance on Aeronautical Channels

      Moazzami, Farzad; Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Dean, Richard; Elrais, Mostafa; Mengiste, Betelhem; Guatam, Bibek; Damiba, Eugene; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper shows the design and testing of a test bed at Morgan State University as part of the development of a Link Dependent Adaptive Radio (LDAR). It shows the integration of variable rate QAM/OFDM modulation and a variable rate Punctured Convolutional Coder. It also shows a dynamic aeronautical channel simulator developed to capture the dynamics of these channels. Performance results are show for combinations of modulation, coding and channel variations that provide motivation for the potential of the LDAR system.
    • Evaluation of CMA+AMA Equalization for SOQPSK Modulation in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Moazzami, Farzad; KoneDossongui, Serge; Opasina, Oladotun; Umuolo, Henry; Betelle, Habtamu; Thang, Solomon; Shrestha, Robin; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Multipath interference continues to be the dominant cause of telemetry link outages in low-elevation angle reception scenarios. The most reliable and universally applicable solution to this problem is in the form of equalization. Previous work in this area has considered the Constant modulus algorithm (CMA) equalizer operating in a blind adaptive mode. To the extent that knowledge of the multipath channel improves the performance of CMA and related equalizers and permits the use of other equalization techniques, data aided equalizers are of interest. Channel knowledge is obtained by comparing the received samples with the samples corresponding to a known bit pattern (called a pilot block) periodically inserted in the telemetry data stream. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the performance of a modified CMA equalization algorithm, which has the property of automatically resolving the phase of the QPSK modulated symbol, and to determine its suitability for use with SOQPSK-TG by taking into account the capability of exploiting the presence of a periodically inserted pilot block. As an initial effort in that direction, this paper provides simulation results of the error performance of the blind linear combination of CMA and alphabet matched algorithm (AMA) equalizer as compared to that of pilot assisted equalization with SOQPSK modulation over aeronautical channel.
    • Design and Development of a Digital Signal Processing System that Responds Automatically to an Audio Trigger Event

      Borah, Deva K.; Chavez, Rudy; Favela, Frank; Ontiveros, Adrian; Smith, Matthew; Wallace, Matthew; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper presents the development of a signal processing system that responds automatically to an audio trigger event. The audio trigger event, for example, can be a gun shot, and the system's response is to fire back at the source. The proposed system uses microcontrollers to digitally process audio signals coming from the audio trigger. Once the event is detected, the location of that source relative to the base location is estimated and retaliatory measures are automatically activated by the system. In our study, gunshot sounds are replaced by recorded audio tones and the retaliatory mechanism consists of a Nerf dart being fired toward the sound source. Sound localization is achieved via time stamping the digitized microphone signals. With an array of microphones, angular components as well as radial components can be determined. Servo motors are used to control the turret type mechanism for firing back Nerf darts to the source. The project has potentials for both lethal and non-lethal responses to a firearm discharge. The work is based on a 2013 senior undergraduate capstone project.
    • A Discussion About a Distributed DAU Standard

      Eccles, Lee H.; Ellerbrock, Philip J.; Boeing Test & Evaluation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Modern aircraft are both bigger in some dimensions and smaller in others than previous generations of aircraft. With earlier airplanes we were able to centrally locate a data acquisition system and bring wires from all of the transducers to a central location. With more recent airplanes two factors have combined to make this impossible. First, each new program requires more transducers and thus more cables: it is no longer possible to bring that many wires to a single location. The other problem is that airplane wings and control surfaces have become thinner leaving less room for cables. To date we have been able to get around the problem by using physically small Data Acquisition Units (DAUs) that are distributed around the aircraft. However, it is now reaching the point where the space available in the airplane to run wires is becoming so limited that we need to use DAUs that have a small number of channels as well. What is being proposed is that the test community develop or adopt a standard that will allow systems to be built that look to the higher level elements of the system as a single DAU but in reality are composed of several small nodes that are distributed around the airplane and connected by some communications medium.