• The Iterative Path to Credibility and Acceptance of IADS® Analyses

      Bretz, John C.; Symvionics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Often, when IADS is new to a particular group of flight test professionals, the subject of credibility comes up. Companies that produce, test and certify aircraft usually possess established tools and methods for monitoring and analyzing flight test data. It can be difficult to justify augmenting or replacing a proven set of tools with a new, more efficient set without rigorous scrutiny of the new toolset's capability, ease of use and accuracy of output. This natural, repeated challenge to the credibility of IADS' analysis algorithms can lead to improved algorithms and also enhance the understanding of their purpose. Users have made a large contribution to these algorithms by questioning the analytical results of IADS. IADS Developers have also challenged their own algorithms to improve the product. This paper documents some of these challenges to the accuracy of IADS mathematics and the background research and user input that went into correcting and refining them.
    • Automatic Modulation Recognition for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Frogget, Jacob; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper applies the Bianchi-Loubaton-Sirven technique to classification algorithm capable of distinguishing between PCM/FM and SOQPSK-TG. A happy byproduct of the classification algorithm is a reasonably accurate estimate of the bit rate. The classifier is based on the observation that CPM with an integer modulation index contains harmonics at multiples of the symbol rate. The algorithm is based on the CPM representations of PCM/FM and SOQPSK-TG and leverages the property that applying a g-order nonlinearity to any CPM creates a new CPM with modulation index g times the original modulation index. No prior knowledge of the data is assumed. The technique is applied to distinguish between PCM/FM and SOQPSK-TG. Simulation results show that the classifier works essentially error-free for signal-to-noise ratios above 20 dB and for sufficiently high resolution in the search algorithms required by the maximizations.
    • Using Image Processing and Pattern Recognition in Images from Head-Up Display

      Guarino de Vasconcelos, Luiz Eduardo; Kusomoto, André Yoshimi; Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensaios em Voo (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Images frames have always been used as information source for the Flight Test Campaigns (FTC). During the flight tests, the images displayed on the Head-Up Display (HUD) could be stored for later analysis. HUD images presents aircraft data provided by its avionics system. For a simplified Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI), where data accuracy is not a big issue, HUD images could become the primary information source. However in this case data analysis is executed manually, frame by frame for information extraction (e.g. Aircraft position parameters: Latitude; Longitude and Altitude). In approximately one hour of flight test about 36,000 frames are generated using standard-definition television format, therefore data extraction becomes complex, time consuming and prone to failures. To improve efficiency and effectiveness for this FTC, the Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV - Flight Test and Research Institute) with Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA - Aeronautical Technology Institute) developed an image processing application with pattern recognition using the correlation process to extract information from different positions on the images of the HUD. Preliminary test and evaluation carried out by 2012 using HUD images of the jet fighter EMBRAER A1. The test results demonstrate satisfactory performance for this tool.
    • Noncoherent Demodulation with Viterbi Decoding for Partial Response Continuous Phase Modulation

      Xingwen, Ding; Yumin, Zhong; Hongyu, Chang; Ming, Chen; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      With the characteristics of constant envelope and continuous phase, Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) signal has higher spectrum efficiency and power efficiency than other modulation forms. A noncoherent demodulation with Viterbi decoding for partial response CPM signals is proposed. Simulation results indicate that the demodulation performance of proper partial response CPM is better than the traditional PCM-FM, which is a typical modulation of full response CPM. And higher spectral efficiency is also obtained by partial response CPM.
    • TSPI Radar Methodologies for Improved Positional Performance/Accuracy of C-Band Auto-tracking Telemetry

      Sternke, Barry; Ray, Matthew; BAE Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
    • Theory and Development of a Dynamic HITL Autotrack Evaluation System

      King, Nathan; Davis, Steve; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Telemetry ground antenna tracking performance evaluation and measurement was previously performed by evaluating only the antenna drive system. The integrated nature of software controlled antenna systems has prompted a need to evaluate the entire tracking antenna system, as a whole. Particularly, the ability of an antenna to remain "locked" on a dynamic target must be able to be evaluated and quantified. This paper presents one method for evaluating the tracking ability of a telemetry antenna system and discusses a likely set of metrics to be used as figures of merit for antenna system tracking performance.
    • Spread Spectrum Signal Detection from Compressive Measurements

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Goodman, Nathan A.; Bilgin, Ali; Lui, Feng; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Spread Spectrum (SS) techniques are methods used to deliberately spread the spectrum of transmitted signals in communication systems. The increased bandwidth makes detection of these signals challenging for non-cooperative receivers. In this paper, we investigate detection of Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) signals from compressive measurements. The theoretical and simulated performances of the proposed methods are compared to those of the conventional methods.
    • Using Chapter 10 User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Streaming and Ethernet Technologies to Support Ground-Based Aircraft Testing

      Diehl, Michael; Kuipers, Steven; Swain, Jason; Wilcox, Tab; U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      During a recent U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) ground test, an unexpected change in test location resulted in the implementation of an innovative ad hoc network solution to complete the planned test matrix. The original plan was to use an aircraft ground test facility; however, safety requirements resulted in the aircraft being placed 50 meters away from the facility. This distance was too great to use the existing connections; consequently, data collection and analysis were adversely affected until this time expedient solution was implemented.
    • Field Programmable Gate Array Application for Decoding IRIG-B Time Code

      Brown, Jarrod P.; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      A field programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to decode Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) time code for a PC-based Time-Space-Position Information (TSPI) acquisition. The FPGA architecture can latch time via an external event trigger or a programmable periodic internal event. By syncing time with an external IRIG Group Type B (IRIG-B) signal and using an 8 megahertz (MHz) internal clock, captured time has 125 nanosecond (ns) precision. A Range Instrumentation Control System (RICS) application utilizing the FPGA design to capture IRIG time is presented and test results show matching time accuracy when compared to commercial IRIG time capture hardware components.
    • Low-Complexity Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms in Compressed Sensing

      Vasić, Bane; Marcellin, Michael W.; Declercq, David; Danjean, Ludovic; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In this paper we focus on two low-complexity iterative reconstruction algorithms in compressed sensing. These algorithms, called the approximate message-passing algorithm and the interval-passing algorithm, are suitable to recover sparse signals from a small set of measurements. Depending on the type of measurement matrix (sparse or random) used to acquire the samples of the signal, one or the other reconstruction algorithm can be used. We present the reconstruction results of these two reconstruction algorithms in terms of proportion of correct reconstructions in the noise free case. We also report in this paper possible practical applications of compressed sensing where the choice of the measurement matrix and the reconstruction algorithm are often governed by the constraint of the considered application.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) Space Environment Multispectral Imager

      Grubbs, Elmer; Pine, Gerald; Gustafson, Joshua; Kay, John; Pilar, Janelle; Rojas, Rafael; Sylvester, Lance; Trojahn, Rachel; NASA Johnson Space Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The RISA imaging team is tasked to research, develop, implement, and test a multispectral imaging system capable of supporting multiple NASA exploration objectives. This year's NASA team is responsible for characterizing the newly implemented liquid lens, implementing a charging circuit complete with rechargeable batteries and a solar panel array, and redesigning the already developed wireless data transmission system. The charging circuit will be fully designed by our electrical engineering team using Gallium Arsenide solar panels provided by AZUR SPACE Solar Power. The implementation of this solar panel array will enable the final system to be completely independent of any power consumption from the spacecraft. The wireless data transmission system will be redesigned to utilize a compression technique as opposed to entire-image compression, as the previous system had implemented. This edit, in conjunction with an interfacing bypass through hardwiring of the image sensor to the Gumstix COM, will drastically increase the data transmission rate. These modifications will therefore increase the rate at which NASA can send and receive data and/or the communication of rate of the camera commands through the designed GUI. As a result of new mission objectives and requirements associated with new age space vehicles, little physical capacity is available, especially compared to past NASA Space Shuttles. Employing a multi-purpose imaging system alleviates the need of manifesting multiple individual imagers by incorporating the numerous desired functions into one system. The final version of the imager, which is expected to be completed in follow-up work, is intended to be flight ready and will be used in the crew cabin, on the exterior of NASA vehicles, and on Lunar and other planetary surfaces. For this year's imager, the preliminary design review was broken down into four sections: the battery, the solar panel, the charging circuit, and wireless hardware. In each of these sections, multiple designs were considered, but the charging circuit and wireless system were decided to be custom designed by the team.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 49 (2013)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10
    • Validation for Visually lossless Compression of Stereo Images

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Feng, Hsin-Chang; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper described the details of subjective validation for visually lossless compression of stereoscopic 3 dimensional (3D) images. The subjective testing method employed in this work is adapted from methods used previously for visually lossless compression of 2 dimensional (2D) images. Confidence intervals on the correct response rate obtained from the subjective validation of compressed stereo pairs provide reliable evidence to indicate that the compressed stereo pairs are visually lossless.
    • Network-Based Data Acquisition System for Flight Test

      Eccles, Lee H.; Malchodi, Larry; Wilhelm, Kenneth A.; Boeing Test & Evaluation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The Boeing Test and Evaluation flight test organization tests many airplanes each year. Most of these tests involve 50 to 100 parameters and one or two flights. Airplane certifications may require up to 250,000 parameters and last for months. For the last 20 years we have wanted a modular system that would allow us to use the minimum acquisition hardware required to do the job. At the same time we wanted to train the Instrumentation engineers for a single system. We have achieved both goals with a network-based data acquisition system. We solved the lack of determinism with Ethernet by time-tagging all data in the Data Acquisition Units (DAU) using IEEE Std 1588 Precision Time Protocol. The DAUs themselves are small modules which allow us to install just the DAUs that we need for a given program. This has allowed us to implement the full range of systems yet have all of them operate with the same hardware and software. This paper discusses the architecture that we implemented and our successes with this system.
    • Design and Semi-Autonomous Control of a 6-Axis Robotic Arm Used in a Remote Sensing Application

      Kosbar, Kurt; Sullivan, John; Coffman, Amy; Roberds, Benjamin; Roberts, Jordan; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper describes the sensor and actuator package for a 6-axis articulated arm which is part of a robotic vehicle entered in the Mars Rover Challenge competition. The robot is intended to perform some of the same duties as a human, but be remotely controlled. It uses an articulated arm for many of these duties. Because of the large number of degrees of freedom, it would be tedious to control each joint individually. A system was developed to measure the state of each joint, transmit this information back to a base station, and semi-autonomously control the arm.
    • Transitioning from NTSC to HD Digital Video Vol. 2

      Hightower, Paul; Instrumentation Technology Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In our first installment, analog and HD video terms were compared. It was shown that resolution is three-dimensional in HD. High HD data rates force the use of video compression in order to transport video. Compression compromises video detail and introduces latency. Latency affects the overlay of time critical measurements. It is therefore important to time stamp at the source. In this volume, the focus is on the key regions of the HD video frame and metadata. SMPTE specifications are the foundation on which MISB builds its use of metadata. It will be shown that only two KLV packets can hold all TSPI and calibration data with frame-by-frame updates. This capacity is new in HD. Metadata is permanently merged with images and the time that both were collected. We show how employing the KLV metadata packet can result in a single video record where picture taking are all in lockstep. Using KLV metadata enables one to record clean video while retaining the ability to place crosshairs and data during playback.
    • Channel Based Sampling in a Network Based Data Acquisition System

      Sulewski, Joseph; Dehmelt, Chris; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Over the last few years, PCM based data acquisition systems have become known as "Traditional PCM" systems. This terminology modification is a sign of the evolution of the next generation of telemetry/data acquisition systems based on network topologies. This has come about due to users clamoring for functionality that has not been available in the traditional systems, such as supporting increased data rates, providing access to onboard archived data, supporting on-the-fly reconfiguration, and simplifying data distribution and delivery. The iNET standard is using standard network technology to improve device interoperability and data acquisition. To minimize impact on existing data acquisition system devices, the initial effort of this approach has included the transmission of "Traditional" fixed PCM frames within a network message based structure. This approach, however, squanders network bandwidth, as a PCM frame includes all samples of all channels, and requires significant processing power for even simple tasks. Delivering on the promise of a more flexible transmission method requires a change in how data is acquired in the data acquisition devices. The iNET standard defines such a packet based transport system, which supports channel based packet formats besides "Traditional PCM" to efficiently deliver data products. This paper will provide background on the benefits of these methods and an overview of methods by which these formats can be implemented.
    • Pulse Position Modulation using BICM-ID for FSO Channels

      Borah, Deva K.; Kumar, Kuldeep; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      We investigate pulse position modulation (PPM) and multipulse PPM (MPPM) for free space op- tical channels using bit interleaved coded modulation with iterative decoding. Data bits are first encoded by using a non recursive convolutional code and the coded bits after an interleaver are modulated before transmission. Iterative decoding is performed at the receiver. Optimized mapping is designed for MPPM. A genetic algorithm is used to find the optimized mapping for MPPM. Our simulation results show that a significant improvement in the error performance can be achieved by using optimized mapping and iterative decoding at the receiver.
    • New Monitoring Paradigms for Modern Avionics Buses

      Buckley, Dave; Curtiss-Wright Controls Avionics & Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In modern aircraft there is a proliferation of avionics buses. Some of these buses use industry wide standards such as ARINC 429 or AFDX while others are based on proprietary protocols. For many of the newer bus types there can be thousands of parameters on each bus. In a distributed data acquisition system the flight test engineer needs to record all of the data from each bus and monitor selected parameters in real time. There are numerous different approaches to acquiring, transmitting and recording data from avionics buses. In modern FTI there is also a proliferation of standards for recording and transmission including IRIG 106 Chapter 10, iNET and IENA. In this paper some common approaches to bus monitoring are compared and contrasted for popular buses such as ARINC 429, AFDX and Time Triggered Protocol. For each bus type the best approach is selected for reliable acquisition, speed of configuration, low latency telemetry and compact recording which is optimized for playback.
    • Optimising Networked Data Acquisition for Smaller Configurations

      Buckley, Dave; Curtiss-Wright Controls Avionics & Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Network switches are a critical component in any networked FTI data acquisition system in order to allow the forwarding of data from the DAU to the target destination devices such as the network recorder, PCM gateways, or ground station. Larger configurations require one or more switch boxes to handle aggregation, routing, filtering and synchronization via the IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol. However, for smaller configurations where space and weight restrictions are more stringent, a separate switch box may not be practical This paper discusses how all the essential features of an FTI network, such as flexible forwarding and filtering and IEEE 1588 synchronization, can be maintained without the need for the separate switch box thus making significant savings on weight and size and reducing cost.