• "Big Data" Management and Security Application to Telemetry Data Products

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      "Big Data" [1] and the security challenge of managing "Big Data" is a hot topic in the IT world. The term "Big Data" is used to describe very large data sets that cannot be processed by traditional database applications in "tractable" periods of time. Securing data in a conventional database is challenge enough; securing data whose size may exceed hundreds of terabytes or even petabytes is even more daunting! As the size of telemetry product and telemetry post-processed product continues to grow, "Big Data" management techniques and the securing of that data may have ever increasing application in the telemetry realm. After reviewing "Big Data", "Big Data" security and management basics, potential application to telemetry post-processed product will be explored.
    • Dual-Band (S & C) Nested Concentric Cavity Conical Scanning RF Feed for Auto-Track Telemetry Systems

      Hoory, Yossi; Krepner, Itzik; Pein, Joe; Ganchrow, Ellie; Orbit Communications Ltd (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Recognizing the need for dual band tracking in missions where mobility and weight are crucial factors, Orbit Communications Ltd. has successfully designed and tested an S & C dual band, dual polarized feed with a total system bandwidth greater than 80%. The feed uses high RPM conical scan auto-track technology combined with two co-located concentric apertures that is able to achieve excellent tracking accuracy in a small volume that can efficiently feed small dishes, starting from 1.2 meter. This solution meets the needs of field deployment and tactical forces looking for compact and easy-to-assemble field telemetry. The outermost cavity operates at S-Band and the inner cavity at C-Band. The antenna is fed with orthogonally polarized inputs, enabling polarization diversity in all bands. The coaxial cavities provide nearly uniform feed beamwidths as well as coincident phase centers in both bands, which make it an optimal feed for a parabolic dish. The conical scan rotates at up to 3000 RPM, giving excellent tracking fidelity. The entire feed system has a low blocking diameter of just 18 cm (7") that make it possible to feed the entire range of parabolic dish diameters.
    • Optimal Location for a Mobile Base Station in a Complex Network

      Moazzami, Farzad; Dean, Richard; Astatke, Yacob; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The focus of this work is the development of a complete network architecture to enhance telemetry performance using a mobile base station (MBS). The present study proposes a means of enabling both the mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) and a cellular network to operate simultaneously within the same spectrum. In this paper the application of a modified k-means clustering to organize several hundred TAs in a complex network environment is presented. A mobile base station is added to the network to locate the congested area and support the network but positioning itself in the mixed network environment. A scenario with two base stations (one mobile and one stationary) is simulated and results are presented. It is observed that use of an additional mobile base station could greatly increase the quality of communication by providing uniform distribution of node traffic and interference across the clusters in a complex telemetry environment with several hundred TAs.
    • Packet Simulation of Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attack and Recovery

      Dean, Richard A.; Khanal, Sandarva; Lynton, Ciara; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks have been gaining popularity in recent years. Most research developed to defend against DDoS attacks have focused on analytical studies. However, because of the inherent nature of a DDoS attack and the scale of a network involved in the attack, analytical simulations are not always the best way to study DDoS attacks. Moreover, because DDoS attacks are considered illicit, performing real attacks to study their defense mechanisms is not an alternative. For this reason, using packet/network simulators, such as OPNET Modeler, is the best option for research purposes. Detection of an ongoing DDoS attack, as well as simulation of a defense mechanism against the attack, is beyond the scope of this paper. However, this paper includes design recommendations to simulate an effective defense strategy to mitigate DDoS attacks. Finally, this paper introduces network links failure during simulation in an attempt to demonstrate how the network recovers during and following an attack.
    • Network-Based Data Acquisition System for Flight Test

      Eccles, Lee H.; Malchodi, Larry; Wilhelm, Kenneth A.; Boeing Test & Evaluation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The Boeing Test and Evaluation flight test organization tests many airplanes each year. Most of these tests involve 50 to 100 parameters and one or two flights. Airplane certifications may require up to 250,000 parameters and last for months. For the last 20 years we have wanted a modular system that would allow us to use the minimum acquisition hardware required to do the job. At the same time we wanted to train the Instrumentation engineers for a single system. We have achieved both goals with a network-based data acquisition system. We solved the lack of determinism with Ethernet by time-tagging all data in the Data Acquisition Units (DAU) using IEEE Std 1588 Precision Time Protocol. The DAUs themselves are small modules which allow us to install just the DAUs that we need for a given program. This has allowed us to implement the full range of systems yet have all of them operate with the same hardware and software. This paper discusses the architecture that we implemented and our successes with this system.
    • A Predictive Model for Multi-Band Optical Tracking System (MBOTS) Performance

      Horii, M. Michael; Photo-Sonics, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In the wake of sequestration, Test and Evaluation (T&E) groups across the U.S. are quickly learning to make do with less. For Department of Defense ranges and test facility bases in particular, the timing of sequestration could not be worse. Aging optical tracking systems are in dire need of replacement. What's more, the increasingly challenging missions of today require advanced technology, flexibility, and agility to support an ever-widening spectrum of scenarios, including short-range (0 − 5 km) imaging of launch events, long-range (50 km+) imaging of debris fields, directed energy testing, high-speed tracking, and look-down coverage of ground test scenarios, to name just a few. There is a pressing need for optical tracking systems that can be operated on a limited budget with minimal resources, staff, and maintenance, while simultaneously increasing throughput and data quality. Here we present a mathematical error model to predict system performance. We compare model predictions to site-acceptance test results collected from a pair of multi-band optical tracking systems (MBOTS) fielded at White Sands Missile Range. A radar serves as a point of reference to gauge system results. The calibration data and the triangulation solutions obtained during testing provide a characterization of system performance. The results suggest that the optical tracking system error model adequately predicts system performance, thereby supporting pre-mission analysis and conserving scarce resources for innovation and development of robust solutions. Along the way, we illustrate some methods of time-space-position information (TSPI) data analysis, define metrics for assessing system accuracy, and enumerate error sources impacting measurements. We conclude by describing technical challenges ahead and identifying a path forward.
    • Calibration of High Dimensional Compressive Sensing Systems: A Case Study in Compressive Hyperspectral Imaging

      Gehm, Michael; Poon, Phillip; Dunlop, Matthew; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Compressive Sensing (CS) is a set of techniques that can faithfully acquire a signal from sub- Nyquist measurements, provided the class of signals have certain broadly-applicable properties. Reconstruction (or exploitation) of the signal from these sub-Nyquist measurements requires a forward model - knowledge of how the system maps signals to measurements. In high-dimensional CS systems, determination of this forward model via direct measurement of the system response to the complete set of impulse functions is impractical. In this paper, we will discuss the development of a parameterized forward model for the Adaptive, Feature-Specific Spectral Imaging Classifier (AFSSI-C), an experimental compressive spectral image classifier. This parameterized forward model drastically reduces the number of calibration measurements.
    • Writing a Validator for TMATS

      Kelly, Bryan; Tyndall Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Applications that use TMATS benefit from the ability to presume that the TMATS data is well constructed. This need is met by a TMATS validator. Some classified systems need source code rather than an executable to avoid expensive testing before being allowed in. An Open Source Validator is proposed, presented and made available to the public. Major points and difficulties are discussed. The source is available in a Visual Studio 2008 project here: www.bkelly.ws/irig/validator.html A bulletin board for TMATS / Chapter 10 discussion is here: http://www.bkelly.ws/irig_106/
    • Machine Vision and Autonomous Integration Into an Unmanned Aircraft System

      Dianics, James; Fasel, Hermann F.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Van Horne, Chris; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The University of Arizona's Aerial Robotics Club (ARC) sponsors the development of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) able to compete in the annual Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (AUVSI) Seafarer Chapter Student Unmanned Aerial Systems competition. Modern programming frameworks are utilized to develop a robust distributed imagery and telemetry pipeline as a backend for a mission operator user interface. This paper discusses the design changes made for the 2013 AUVSI competition including integrating low-latency first-person view, updates to the distributed task backend, and incremental and asynchronous updates the operator's user interface for real-time data analysis.
    • Synchronization of SOQPSK-TG in Burst-Mode Transmissions

      Hosseini, Ehsan; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In this paper, we present a maximum likelihood synchronization algorithm which jointly estimates frequency offset, symbol timing and carrier phase for shaped-offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK) signals. We have considered a burst-mode transmission scenario in which a known training sequence is embedded in the beginning of each burst for the purpose of data-aided (DA) synchronization in a feedforward structure. The proposed algorithm first estimates the frequency offset independently from other parameters. The estimated frequency is then used to derive the symbol timing which is followed by the carrier phase estimation. The mean-squared error (MSE) of the proposed algorithm is computed via simulations. The results show that the proposed algorithm performs near the theoretical Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) as low as 0 dB.
    • Digital Predistortion of Power Amplifier Non-Linearity Applied to CCSDS/DVB-S2 Satellite Telemetry

      Guérin, Alexandre; Lesthievent, Guy; Millerioux, Jean-Pierre; Sombrin, Jacques; Giraud, Xavier; Bellocq, Philippe; Midan, Emmanuel; Oster, Jacques; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES); NOLIPLA; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The CNES (French Space Agency) has studied memoryless predistortion techniques for power amplifier nonlinearity of satellite payload telemetry. These techniques are applied to high order modulations taken from the DVB-S2 standard and the associated CCSDS blue book. An easy-to-implement calibration method was also developed. The predistortion was implemented at two times the symbol rate after Square Root Raised Cosine shaping on a breadboard model of a 16APSK modulator associated to a Solid State Power Amplifier. It allows to reduce the amplifier back-off and thus to increase the power added efficiency for an equivalent signal quality.
    • TENA Implementation at Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) Paper

      Wigent, Mark; McKinley, Robert A.; SAIC; TRAX International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      PMRF provides a volume of space, which may include any combination of below-surface, surface, above-surface environments to safely test, gather data, and monitor in real time, the performance of systems being developed. This paper discusses how TENA implementation in range instrumentation; including radar, optics, video, GPS, and telemetry systems; will enhance data acquisition and distribution of systems under test. While details of this implementation plan are specific to PMRF, this approach can serve as a blueprint for TENA implementation at other ranges throughout the DoD.
    • Circular-Mode Synthetic Aperture Subsurface Imaging with MIMO FMCW Microwave Array System

      Radzicki, Vincent R.; Lee, Hua; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper describes the analysis and development of microwave subsurface synthetic-aperture imaging in the circular-scan mode with a four-antenna FMCW MIMO radar system. The objective is to improve the localization and correspondence capability of the imaging operation.
    • combined Modulation and Error Correction Decoder for TDMR Using Generalized Belief Propagation

      Vasić, Bane; Khatami, Mehrdad; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Constrained codes also known as modulation codes are a key component in the digital magnetic recording systems. The constrained codes forbid particular input data patterns which lead to some of the dominant error events or higher media noise. In data recording systems, a concatenated approach toward the constrained code and error-correcting code (ECC) is typically used and the decoding is done independently. In this paper, we show the improvement in combining the decoding of the constrained code and the ECC using generalized belief propagation (GBP) algorithm. We consider the performance of a combined modulation constraints and the ECC on a binary symmetric channel (BSC). We show that combining demodulation and decoding results in a superior performance compared to concatenated schemes. Furthermore, we compute the capacity of the joint ECC and modulation codes for 1-D and 2-D constraints.
    • Automatic Modulation Recognition for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Frogget, Jacob; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper applies the Bianchi-Loubaton-Sirven technique to classification algorithm capable of distinguishing between PCM/FM and SOQPSK-TG. A happy byproduct of the classification algorithm is a reasonably accurate estimate of the bit rate. The classifier is based on the observation that CPM with an integer modulation index contains harmonics at multiples of the symbol rate. The algorithm is based on the CPM representations of PCM/FM and SOQPSK-TG and leverages the property that applying a g-order nonlinearity to any CPM creates a new CPM with modulation index g times the original modulation index. No prior knowledge of the data is assumed. The technique is applied to distinguish between PCM/FM and SOQPSK-TG. Simulation results show that the classifier works essentially error-free for signal-to-noise ratios above 20 dB and for sufficiently high resolution in the search algorithms required by the maximizations.
    • Transitioning from NTSC to HD Digital Video Vol. 2

      Hightower, Paul; Instrumentation Technology Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In our first installment, analog and HD video terms were compared. It was shown that resolution is three-dimensional in HD. High HD data rates force the use of video compression in order to transport video. Compression compromises video detail and introduces latency. Latency affects the overlay of time critical measurements. It is therefore important to time stamp at the source. In this volume, the focus is on the key regions of the HD video frame and metadata. SMPTE specifications are the foundation on which MISB builds its use of metadata. It will be shown that only two KLV packets can hold all TSPI and calibration data with frame-by-frame updates. This capacity is new in HD. Metadata is permanently merged with images and the time that both were collected. We show how employing the KLV metadata packet can result in a single video record where picture taking are all in lockstep. Using KLV metadata enables one to record clean video while retaining the ability to place crosshairs and data during playback.
    • Validation for Visually lossless Compression of Stereo Images

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Feng, Hsin-Chang; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper described the details of subjective validation for visually lossless compression of stereoscopic 3 dimensional (3D) images. The subjective testing method employed in this work is adapted from methods used previously for visually lossless compression of 2 dimensional (2D) images. Confidence intervals on the correct response rate obtained from the subjective validation of compressed stereo pairs provide reliable evidence to indicate that the compressed stereo pairs are visually lossless.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) Space Environment Multispectral Imager

      Grubbs, Elmer; Pine, Gerald; Gustafson, Joshua; Kay, John; Pilar, Janelle; Rojas, Rafael; Sylvester, Lance; Trojahn, Rachel; NASA Johnson Space Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The RISA imaging team is tasked to research, develop, implement, and test a multispectral imaging system capable of supporting multiple NASA exploration objectives. This year's NASA team is responsible for characterizing the newly implemented liquid lens, implementing a charging circuit complete with rechargeable batteries and a solar panel array, and redesigning the already developed wireless data transmission system. The charging circuit will be fully designed by our electrical engineering team using Gallium Arsenide solar panels provided by AZUR SPACE Solar Power. The implementation of this solar panel array will enable the final system to be completely independent of any power consumption from the spacecraft. The wireless data transmission system will be redesigned to utilize a compression technique as opposed to entire-image compression, as the previous system had implemented. This edit, in conjunction with an interfacing bypass through hardwiring of the image sensor to the Gumstix COM, will drastically increase the data transmission rate. These modifications will therefore increase the rate at which NASA can send and receive data and/or the communication of rate of the camera commands through the designed GUI. As a result of new mission objectives and requirements associated with new age space vehicles, little physical capacity is available, especially compared to past NASA Space Shuttles. Employing a multi-purpose imaging system alleviates the need of manifesting multiple individual imagers by incorporating the numerous desired functions into one system. The final version of the imager, which is expected to be completed in follow-up work, is intended to be flight ready and will be used in the crew cabin, on the exterior of NASA vehicles, and on Lunar and other planetary surfaces. For this year's imager, the preliminary design review was broken down into four sections: the battery, the solar panel, the charging circuit, and wireless hardware. In each of these sections, multiple designs were considered, but the charging circuit and wireless system were decided to be custom designed by the team.
    • Collar-Integrated Small Mammal GPS Tracker

      Marcellin, Michael; Melde, Kathleen; Kundu, Ina; Rice, Sean; Klug, Kevin; Chen, Hao; Marquez, Elizabeth; Zhong, Yizhou; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      A position beaconing system for tracking small mammals, such as the Golden Lion Tamarin, was developed and tested. GPS acquires location of the animal. The system utilizes a VHF radio transmitter tuned to 144.390 MHz, which is located in the amateur radio band. APRS was selected as the protocol for position, transmission, and recovery. This allows users to benefit from any existing APRS enabled devices. The beacon was designed by attempting to optimize operational longevity and minimize size. Consequently, the system is implemented on a single board and enclosed for protection. As the system must be comfortable for the mammal, it was manufactured from lightweight components and enclosed in a plastic housing. To attach the case to the mammal, it is connected to a flexible, zig-zag, wearable antenna, which functions as a collar.
    • A Discussion About a Distributed DAU Standard

      Eccles, Lee H.; Ellerbrock, Philip J.; Boeing Test & Evaluation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Modern aircraft are both bigger in some dimensions and smaller in others than previous generations of aircraft. With earlier airplanes we were able to centrally locate a data acquisition system and bring wires from all of the transducers to a central location. With more recent airplanes two factors have combined to make this impossible. First, each new program requires more transducers and thus more cables: it is no longer possible to bring that many wires to a single location. The other problem is that airplane wings and control surfaces have become thinner leaving less room for cables. To date we have been able to get around the problem by using physically small Data Acquisition Units (DAUs) that are distributed around the aircraft. However, it is now reaching the point where the space available in the airplane to run wires is becoming so limited that we need to use DAUs that have a small number of channels as well. What is being proposed is that the test community develop or adopt a standard that will allow systems to be built that look to the higher level elements of the system as a single DAU but in reality are composed of several small nodes that are distributed around the airplane and connected by some communications medium.