• Adaptive Feature-Specific Spectral Imaging Classifier (AFSSI-C)

      Gehm, Michael; Dunlop, Matthew; Poon, Phillip; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The AFSSI-C is a spectral imager that generates spectral classification directly, in fewer measurements than are required by traditional systems that measure the spectral datacube (which is later interpreted to make material classification). By utilizing adaptive features to constantly update conditional probabilities for the different hypotheses, the AFSSI-C avoids the overhead of directly measuring every element in the spectral datacube. The system architecture, feature design methodology, simulation results, and preliminary experimental results are given.
    • Analysis of a Systems Engineering Based Approach to the University Rover Challenge

      Kosbar, Kurt; Jetter, Joshua; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The University Rover Challenge is a competition to build a scaled down version of a next-generation Mars rover. This paper describes the comprehensive systems engineering based approached used by the Missouri S&T Mars Rover Design Team. This student run, interdisciplinary team of approximately 50 students followed a comprehensive systems-engineering based approach to the conceptualization, design, implementation, test and evaluation of the project. This has allowed students to leverage their discipline specific expertise, while simultaneously facilitating the cross-disciplinary communication which is essential to the successful completion of the project. The team's performance in the competition will provide metrics to analyze the efficacy of this organization and approach.
    • Analysis of Communication Rates in the Proximity of Near-Earth Asteroids

      Nelson, Evan; Creusere, Charles D.; Critz, Thomas; Butcher, Eric; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In this paper we analyze fundamental local-area communication issues related to proximity operations around near-earth asteroids. We are motivated by NASA's plan to send robotic spacecraft to numerous such asteroids in the coming years in preparation for an eventual manned mission. We consider here the case where multiple probes are deposited on the surface of an asteroid and must communicate the data they collect to each other and to earth by using the orbiting `mothership' as a relay. With respect to this scenario, we statistically analyze the ability of surface probes in various locations to communicate with the mothership as well as their abilities to network with one another. For the purposes of this analysis, we assume the simplest possible communications scenario: a surface probe can communicate with the mothership only when it has an unobstructed line of sight. At the frequencies of interest here, line of sight is a necessary condition but it is obviously not sufficient - the end-to-end link margins of our communications system must be high enough to support the desired/required data rates. The work presented in this paper extends our previous research in which we only analyzed the visibility of the locations on the surface of the asteroid. Here, we consider how visibility affects the required communications bandwidth and buffer sizes for both surface-to-spacecraft and surface-to-surface scenarios.
    • An Application of Sync Time Division Multiplexing in Telemetry System

      Lu, Chun; Yan, Yihong; Song, Jian; Beijing Zoweetech Ltd.; China Flight Test Establishment (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      High speed real-time data transportation is most important for telemetry systems, especially for large-scale distributed systems. This paper introduces a STDM (Sync Time Division Multiplexing) network structure for data transportation between devices in telemetry systems. The data in these systems is transported through virtual channels between devices. In addition, a proper frame format is designed based on PCM format to meet the needs of synchronization and real-time transportation in large-scale distributed telemetry systems.
    • ARTM CPM Receiver/Demodulator Performance: An Update

      Temple, Kip; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Since the waveform was first developed by the Advanced Range Telemetry Program (ARTM) and adopted by the Range Commanders Council Telemetry Group (RCC/TG), receiver/demodulators for the ARTM Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) waveform have undergone continued development by several hardware vendors to boost performance in terms of phase noise, detection performance, and resynchronization time. These same results were initially presented at the International Telemetry Conference (ITC) 2003 when hardware first became available supporting this waveform, at the time called ARTM Tier II. This paper reexamines the current state of the art performance of ARTM CPM receiver/demodulators available in the marketplace today.
    • Automatic Modulation Recognition for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Frogget, Jacob; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper applies the Bianchi-Loubaton-Sirven technique to classification algorithm capable of distinguishing between PCM/FM and SOQPSK-TG. A happy byproduct of the classification algorithm is a reasonably accurate estimate of the bit rate. The classifier is based on the observation that CPM with an integer modulation index contains harmonics at multiples of the symbol rate. The algorithm is based on the CPM representations of PCM/FM and SOQPSK-TG and leverages the property that applying a g-order nonlinearity to any CPM creates a new CPM with modulation index g times the original modulation index. No prior knowledge of the data is assumed. The technique is applied to distinguish between PCM/FM and SOQPSK-TG. Simulation results show that the classifier works essentially error-free for signal-to-noise ratios above 20 dB and for sufficiently high resolution in the search algorithms required by the maximizations.
    • Autotracking Antenna Modulation Methodology

      Lewis, Ray; ViaSat Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The tracking modulation index (Km) is a key performance parameter for any autotracking antenna and should especially be considered for classically difficult targets such as missiles and/or fast moving aircraft. Antenna subsystems are typically characterized by their gain to temperature ratio (G/T) to optimize receive data bit error rates (BER) for distant targets. One important parameter often overlooked for telemetry autotracking antennas is a graded value for the available tracking modulation index (Km) that is common in radar autotracking applications. Tracking modulation performance is a major contributor for minimizing the antenna pointing error during an autotrack mission. Autotracking radar antenna specifications typically include tracking modulation as a major design parameter, many receive-only autotrack antennas used for telemetry applications do not consider this important parameter for the intended tracking mission which may result in poor autotracking performance. This paper investigates the effects of tracking modulation levels on system pointing errors for various classes of feed topologies.
    • The BCT-302 1553 Test Bus Card

      Natale, Louis; Wierzbicki, Craig; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics; Telectronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The desire to control an LRU and/or MIL-STD 1760 store via an independent 1553 stream on current weapon platforms created the need for the development of the BCT-302 1553 Test Bus Card. This solution solves the issues of integration without the need to perform an aircraft OFP change. The BCT- 302 is a customized MIL-STD-1553 card for use in Teletronics Technology Corporation, (TTC), Airborne Instrumentation Multiplexer (AIM) and High-Speed Avionics Data Acquisition Unit (HSAVDAU) products. The BCT-302 card consists of two redundant MIL-STD-1553 ports. Each port is independently configurable by the AIM/HSAVDAU host processor to function as a Bus Controller (BC), Remote Terminal (RT) or Bus Monitor (BM). The system is capable of cherry picking parameters from any 1553 bus and retransmitting assembled messages to a weapon and/or an LRU in a 1553 format. This paper describes the design requirements of the BCT card and how those requirements were met during an AIM-9X launch on an F-22.
    • "Big Data" Management and Security Application to Telemetry Data Products

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      "Big Data" [1] and the security challenge of managing "Big Data" is a hot topic in the IT world. The term "Big Data" is used to describe very large data sets that cannot be processed by traditional database applications in "tractable" periods of time. Securing data in a conventional database is challenge enough; securing data whose size may exceed hundreds of terabytes or even petabytes is even more daunting! As the size of telemetry product and telemetry post-processed product continues to grow, "Big Data" management techniques and the securing of that data may have ever increasing application in the telemetry realm. After reviewing "Big Data", "Big Data" security and management basics, potential application to telemetry post-processed product will be explored.
    • C-Band Missile Telemetry Test Project

      Kujiraoka, Scott; Fielder, Russell; Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      The physics associated with transmitting and receiving a telemetry signal at a frequency greater than an octave above the current operating band is such that an end-to-end evaluation of the complete data link system (both the transmit and receive side) is required. In 2012, Airborne Instrumentation Systems Division (AISD), Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division (NAWCWD) was sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) to develop a couple of short-range air-to-air missile platforms that use a specially-designed warhead-replaceable telemetry section incorporating three data links: (1) an S-band link to transmit Time- Space-Position Information (TSPI), (2) an C-band link, and (3) an additional S-band link where the latter two are transmitting the same pseudo-random bit sequence at the same effective radiated power level. Flight testing will consist of a series of captive tests conducted over land and water. The tests will be performed under a variety of conditions to induce potential issues caused by multipath, atmospheric ducting, fast-slewing of the tracking antenna, and large propagation losses. Flight testing will culminate with the live-fire of a missile over a military land range. This paper describes the continuing efforts of this test program from these series of flight tests, thus quantifying the performance of C-band telemetry data transmission as compared to the S-band.
    • Calibration of High Dimensional Compressive Sensing Systems: A Case Study in Compressive Hyperspectral Imaging

      Gehm, Michael; Poon, Phillip; Dunlop, Matthew; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Compressive Sensing (CS) is a set of techniques that can faithfully acquire a signal from sub- Nyquist measurements, provided the class of signals have certain broadly-applicable properties. Reconstruction (or exploitation) of the signal from these sub-Nyquist measurements requires a forward model - knowledge of how the system maps signals to measurements. In high-dimensional CS systems, determination of this forward model via direct measurement of the system response to the complete set of impulse functions is impractical. In this paper, we will discuss the development of a parameterized forward model for the Adaptive, Feature-Specific Spectral Imaging Classifier (AFSSI-C), an experimental compressive spectral image classifier. This parameterized forward model drastically reduces the number of calibration measurements.
    • Channel Based Sampling in a Network Based Data Acquisition System

      Sulewski, Joseph; Dehmelt, Chris; L-3 Communications Telemetry East (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Over the last few years, PCM based data acquisition systems have become known as "Traditional PCM" systems. This terminology modification is a sign of the evolution of the next generation of telemetry/data acquisition systems based on network topologies. This has come about due to users clamoring for functionality that has not been available in the traditional systems, such as supporting increased data rates, providing access to onboard archived data, supporting on-the-fly reconfiguration, and simplifying data distribution and delivery. The iNET standard is using standard network technology to improve device interoperability and data acquisition. To minimize impact on existing data acquisition system devices, the initial effort of this approach has included the transmission of "Traditional" fixed PCM frames within a network message based structure. This approach, however, squanders network bandwidth, as a PCM frame includes all samples of all channels, and requires significant processing power for even simple tasks. Delivering on the promise of a more flexible transmission method requires a change in how data is acquired in the data acquisition devices. The iNET standard defines such a packet based transport system, which supports channel based packet formats besides "Traditional PCM" to efficiently deliver data products. This paper will provide background on the benefits of these methods and an overview of methods by which these formats can be implemented.
    • Circular-Mode Synthetic Aperture Subsurface Imaging with MIMO FMCW Microwave Array System

      Radzicki, Vincent R.; Lee, Hua; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper describes the analysis and development of microwave subsurface synthetic-aperture imaging in the circular-scan mode with a four-antenna FMCW MIMO radar system. The objective is to improve the localization and correspondence capability of the imaging operation.
    • Collar-Integrated Small Mammal GPS Tracker

      Marcellin, Michael; Melde, Kathleen; Kundu, Ina; Rice, Sean; Klug, Kevin; Chen, Hao; Marquez, Elizabeth; Zhong, Yizhou; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      A position beaconing system for tracking small mammals, such as the Golden Lion Tamarin, was developed and tested. GPS acquires location of the animal. The system utilizes a VHF radio transmitter tuned to 144.390 MHz, which is located in the amateur radio band. APRS was selected as the protocol for position, transmission, and recovery. This allows users to benefit from any existing APRS enabled devices. The beacon was designed by attempting to optimize operational longevity and minimize size. Consequently, the system is implemented on a single board and enclosed for protection. As the system must be comfortable for the mammal, it was manufactured from lightweight components and enclosed in a plastic housing. To attach the case to the mammal, it is connected to a flexible, zig-zag, wearable antenna, which functions as a collar.
    • combined Modulation and Error Correction Decoder for TDMR Using Generalized Belief Propagation

      Vasić, Bane; Khatami, Mehrdad; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Constrained codes also known as modulation codes are a key component in the digital magnetic recording systems. The constrained codes forbid particular input data patterns which lead to some of the dominant error events or higher media noise. In data recording systems, a concatenated approach toward the constrained code and error-correcting code (ECC) is typically used and the decoding is done independently. In this paper, we show the improvement in combining the decoding of the constrained code and the ECC using generalized belief propagation (GBP) algorithm. We consider the performance of a combined modulation constraints and the ECC on a binary symmetric channel (BSC). We show that combining demodulation and decoding results in a superior performance compared to concatenated schemes. Furthermore, we compute the capacity of the joint ECC and modulation codes for 1-D and 2-D constraints.
    • Considerations for IP-Based Range Architectures

      Kovach, Bob; Superior Access Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      In the past several years there has been a good amount of effort expended in migrating telemetry streams to IP-based infrastructure, especially in the area of ground-based transport. This has yielded a number of benefits, from leveraging the properties of IP transport to enable multicast transport, to the integration of the wide number of COTS equipment that also is IP-based, such as digital video encoder/decoders into range networks. This paper will provide a model for identifying areas to accelerate the integration of IP-based assets into the range infrastructure at the application level. In particular the integration of metadata between the telemetry and video application interfaces will be explored.
    • Design and Development of a Digital Signal Processing System that Responds Automatically to an Audio Trigger Event

      Borah, Deva K.; Chavez, Rudy; Favela, Frank; Ontiveros, Adrian; Smith, Matthew; Wallace, Matthew; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper presents the development of a signal processing system that responds automatically to an audio trigger event. The audio trigger event, for example, can be a gun shot, and the system's response is to fire back at the source. The proposed system uses microcontrollers to digitally process audio signals coming from the audio trigger. Once the event is detected, the location of that source relative to the base location is estimated and retaliatory measures are automatically activated by the system. In our study, gunshot sounds are replaced by recorded audio tones and the retaliatory mechanism consists of a Nerf dart being fired toward the sound source. Sound localization is achieved via time stamping the digitized microphone signals. With an array of microphones, angular components as well as radial components can be determined. Servo motors are used to control the turret type mechanism for firing back Nerf darts to the source. The project has potentials for both lethal and non-lethal responses to a firearm discharge. The work is based on a 2013 senior undergraduate capstone project.
    • Design and Semi-Autonomous Control of a 6-Axis Robotic Arm Used in a Remote Sensing Application

      Kosbar, Kurt; Sullivan, John; Coffman, Amy; Roberds, Benjamin; Roberts, Jordan; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper describes the sensor and actuator package for a 6-axis articulated arm which is part of a robotic vehicle entered in the Mars Rover Challenge competition. The robot is intended to perform some of the same duties as a human, but be remotely controlled. It uses an articulated arm for many of these duties. Because of the large number of degrees of freedom, it would be tedious to control each joint individually. A system was developed to measure the state of each joint, transmit this information back to a base station, and semi-autonomously control the arm.
    • Design of an Autonomous Robot for Indoor Navigation

      Kosbar, Kurt; McConnell, Michael; Chionuma, Daniel; Wright, Jordan; Brandt, Jordan; Zhe, Liu; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      This paper describes the design and implementation of an autonomous robot to navigate indoors to a specified target using an inexpensive commercial off the shelf USB camera and processor running an imbedded Linux system. The robot identifies waypoints to aid in navigation, which in our case consists of a series of quick response (QR) codes. Using a 1080p USB camera, the robot could successfully identify waypoints at a distance of over 4 meters, and navigate at a rate of 50 cm/sec.
    • Development of a Digital Potentiometer Circuit for Digital Compensation of Frequency and Temperature Variations of Kvco to Provide Reprogramming of the Transmitter RF Center Frequency in the Field

      Oder, Stephen; St. Gelais, Robert; Caron, Peter; Bajgot, Douglas; Cobham Electronic Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2013-10)
      Cobham Electronic Systems, Inc. has developed a digital potentiometer circuit to allow for digital compensation of frequency and temperature variations in the VCO/PLL frequency control loop of a telemetry transmitter. The ability to reprogram the RF center frequency of a telemetry transmitter is a useful feature and is required on many telemetry programs. When setting the frequency modulation deviation (FM Modulation Index) of a telemetry transmitter, the exact setting will change with RF center frequency due to the variation of the transfer function of the VCO (Kvco). Typically, a resistor divider is used to set the frequency modulation deviation level by setting the output data signal amplitude. However, since Kvco varies with respect to RF center frequency, a method of adjusting frequency modulation deviation for each frequency setting is required. The shunt resistor in the resistor divider is replaced with a digital potentiometer to provide the necessary adjustment, using the on-board microprocessor to store a look-up table of settings versus frequency. A key feature of the digital potentiometer circuit is a method to increase the frequency bandwidth of the potentiometer. Digital potentiometers typically have frequency bandwidths measured in kiloHertz to MegaHertz, which limits their use in setting the frequency modulation deviation of high data rate telemetry transmitters. The circuit consists of a 256 position digital potentiometer and several resistors that are used to adjust the slope of the resistance vs. digital code curve and to translate the curve up and down along the Y-Axis. Adding external resistors to the digital potentiometer helps to increase the frequency bandwidth of the digital potentiometer. The selection of the maximum resistance range of the digital potentiometer is also important, as the potentiometer bandwidth is greater when a small portion of the total resistance is used. This paper will explore various methods of increasing the effective bandwidth of a digital potentiometer, with the goal of making them suitable for use in dynamically setting the frequency modulation deviation via digital control.