• TENA Performance in a Telemetry Network System

      Saylor, Kase J.; Wood, Paul B.; Malatesta, William A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project conducted an assessment to determine how the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) would integrate into an iNET Telemetry Network System (TmNS), particularly across constrained environments on a resource constrained platform. Some of the key elements investigated were quality of service measures (throughput, latency, and reliability) in the face of projected characteristics of iNET Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) devices including size, weight, and power (SWAP), and processing capacity such as memory size and processor speed. This paper includes recommendations for both the iNET and TENA projects.
    • Networked Flight Test Instrumentation Data Recording Solutions

      Cranley, Nikki; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      An integral component of networked Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) and Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) is the networked Data Recorder. The high data rates achievable in networked data acquisition systems put increased demands on the recorder to support ever faster read and write rates. Key to the success of the networked recorder is the format in which the data is recorded. The data recording file format should be network-centric with a low processing overhead to support the recording demands. In this paper the popular file formats, Chapter 10 and the Packet CAPture (PCAP), that are used for recording networked FTI are analyzed and compared.
    • Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) - Information Security in a Multi-Service Program

      O'Neal, Steve; Lukins, Jeff; Hodack, David; TYBRIN Corporation; Dynetics, Inc.; Patuxent River Naval Air Station (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With increasing competition for communications capability on Department of Defense, DOD, test ranges, and mounting associated costs for sequential scheduling of test activities, DOD is investing in 21st century digital telemetry for test ranges. This upgrade, the first major overhaul in more than 30 years, promises utilization of common RF spectrum for multiple, simultaneous tests on a given test range. Implementing this capability while 1) assuring program test directors of test execution capability and 2) complying with information assurance (IA) requirements for all DOD Services is a significant, but not impossible, challenge. In this paper we present a path forward for implementation of Certification and Accreditation (C&A) requirements for multi- Service implementation of integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Initial Operational Capability (IOC).
    • Common Display System (CDS) at the NAVAIRWD Ranges

      Karr, Bill; Maxel, Matt; Watson, Errol; NAVAIRWD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The Common Display System (CDS) will provide all NAVAIRWD sites with a flexible Range real-time situational awareness and telemetry display/processing capability. CDS will have an extensible framework enabling all sites to quickly and conveniently develop Range unique plugins to accommodate new requirements or functionality not presently found in the applications common core plug-ins. Range unique plug-ins are separate and distinct from the application's common core engine.
    • Applying the iNET System Management Standard

      Grace, Thomas B.; Bertrand, Allison R.; Newton, Todd A.; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR); Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The System Management Standard Working Group (SMSWG) of the integrated Network- Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has developed a standard for the management of the Telemetry Network System (TmNS). The introduction of Internet Protocol (IP) networks on test ranges has created the potential for greater flexibility and improved usability in the telemetry environment. This paper will discuss how to apply the TmNS System Management Standard to best take advantage of the new networking paradigm. Some of the benefits include the ability to monitor or change resource allocations (such as data subscriptions and network routes), detect fault conditions, or change configuration during any phase of a test. An example of a common test scenario will illustrate one example of how the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) commands, queries, and events included in the System Management Standard may be used to extend the capabilities of the TmNS. The discussion topics will include discovering devices, monitoring status variables, receiving device events, performing configuration, and performing control from the TmNS Management Information Base (MIB). This scenario gives guidance to ranges and test conductors in selecting and using System Management capabilities.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA)

      Grubbs, Elmer; Marcellin, Michael; Lichtsinn, Wade; McKelvy, Evan; Myrick, Adam; Quihuis, Dominic; Williamson, Jamie; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      NASA's Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) project has the goal of producing a single robust and space-efficient imaging system. This paper will show the progress of the current RISA project iteration, tasked with implementing a Inter-Integrated Circuit (I²C) communications controller on a radiation hardened Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), characterizing a liquid lens optical system, and adding a radiation hardened temperature sensor. The optical design focuses on small liquid lenses that can vary focal length with no moving parts. The chosen designs will allow this camera system to meet critical mission objectives and provide reliable service to NASA's astronauts.
    • Design and Implementation of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for Small Diameter Ballistic Applications

      Bukowski, Edward F.; Brown, T. Gordon; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The US Army Research Laboratory currently uses a variety of ballistic diagnostic systems for gathering aerodynamic information pertaining to gun launched munitions. Sensors are a vital component of each of these diagnostic systems. Since multiple sensors are commonly used, they are often configured into a sensor suite or inertial measurement unit (IMU). In order to gather information on smaller diameter projectiles, a small diameter IMU was designed using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors and components. This IMU was first designed with a 21.6mm diameter and then later reintegrated into a 17.5mm diameter unit. The IMU provides up to ten sensor data channels which can be used to make in-flight projectile motion measurements. These measurements are then used in the determination of the projectile's aerodynamics. It has been successfully flight tested on a variety of projectiles. It has been used in conjunction with an on-board recorder (OBR) to take measurements on 40mm and 25mm projectiles. It has also been used in a telemetry based system on-board a flare stabilized 25mm projectile. This paper covers the design of the IMU and gives examples of various sensor data.
    • Isually Lossless Coding for Color Aerial Images Using PEG

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Kim, Yookyung; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper describes a psychophysical experiment to measure visibility thresholds (VT) for quantization distortion in JPEG2000 and an associated quantization algorithm for visually lossless coding of color aerial images. The visibility thresholds are obtained from a quantization distortion model based on the statistical characteristics of wavelet coefficients and the deadzone quantizer of JPEG2000, and the resulting visibility thresholds are presented for the luminance component (Y) and two chrominance components (Cb and Cr). Using the thresholds, we have achieved visually lossless coding for 24-bit color aerial images at an average bitrate of 4.17 bits/pixels, which is approximately 30% of the bitrate required for numerically lossless coding.
    • A System-Level Description of a SOQPSK-TG Demodulator for FEC Applications

      Perrins, Erik; Rea, Gino; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper we present a system-level description of a demodulator for shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying, telemetry group version (SOQPSK-TG) for use in forward error correction (FEC) applications. We describe the system in block-diagram form and provide implementation details for data sequence detection, symbol timing synchronization, carrier phase synchronization, and block recovery. This decision-directed demodulator is based on maximum likelihood principles, and is efficiently implemented by the soft output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA). We also provide results of the demodulator's performance in the additive white Gaussian noise channel, based on the observed bit error rate at different signal-to-noise ratio levels.
    • Frequency Agile Transceiver for Advanced Vehicle Data Links

      Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Macias, Filiberto; Cornelius, Harold; NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range; Hi-Val-U Consulting (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Emerging and next-generation test instrumentation increasingly relies on network communication to manage complex and dynamic test scenarios, particularly for uninhabited autonomous systems. Adapting wireless communication infrastructure to accommodate challenging testing needs can benefit from reconfigurable radio technology. Frequency agility is one characteristic of reconfigurable radios that to date has seen only limited progress toward programmability. This paper overviews an ongoing project to validate a promising chipset that performs conversion of RF signals directly into digital data for the wireless receiver and, for the transmitter, converts digital data into RF signals. The Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver (SCMT) enables four transmitters and four receivers in a single unit, programmable for any frequency band between 1 MHz and 6 GHz.
    • The Design of a Video Acquisition System for JSF

      Vu, Doug; Roach, John; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics; Telectronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The F-35 program, known as the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF), is the largest DOD program ever awarded. There are three F-35 variations, each intended to meet the specific needs of the Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and Allies. The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter represents the newest advanced military aircraft to make use of Fibre Channel as its primary avionics information transport network. In addition to its use for carrying tactical information systems data, the Fibre Channel network will also transport the real-time digital video used in the cockpit; primarily the pilot's helmet mounted display (HMD) and the high-resolution configurable panoramic cockpit display (PCD). In addition to the fighter's instrumentation configuration for orange wire and avionics data, the aircraft will carry a separate instrumentation package to allow for both the recording and telemetry of either high-resolution Fibre Channel digital video or standard resolution analog video inputs during flight tests. This multiplexer is designed to record cockpit video and audio data, while supporting an option for the test engineer to select up to three out of eight video and audio inputs for real-time telemetry to the ground. This paper describes the architecture of this system, along with the techniques used to reduce the 5 MBps Fibre Channel digital video to a bandwidth acceptable for telemetry.
    • Terahertz Spectroscopy for Medical Instrumentation Development

      Li, W.; Singh, R. S.; Suen, J. Y.; Taylor, Z. D.; Culjat, M. O.; Grundfest, W. S.; Brown, E. R.; Lee, H.; University of California, Santa Barbara; University of California, Los Angeles (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Recent development of sources and detectors in the THz regime (300 GHz to 3 THz) has enabled the precise measurement of material properties, including complex refractive indexes and loss tangents. Using our developed THz spectrometer, new data, in particular, of biological tissues has been used to develop potential THz medical imaging applications. In this paper, an overview of a 0.1-3 THz, with sub-GHz resolution spectroscopy system is presented that has been designed in particular to measure biological samples and provide data that will used to determine initial viability of THz medical imaging applications.
    • Temporal, Spectral, and Spatial Treat Simulation Using a Towed Airborne Plume Simulator (TAPS)

      Taylor, Rick; Redmond, Neal; Balding, Jeff; Science Applications International Corporation; Center for Countermeasures (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Efforts are underway to develop Infrared countermeasure (IRCM) systems to defend aircraft against IR guided surface-to-air (SAM) and air-to-air (AAM) missiles. One such system is the Large Aircraft Infrared Counter Measure (LAIRCM) which employs temporal, spatial, and spectral missile warning techniques. There is no current technique however, for installed system flight testing of such countermeasures in a realistic temporal, spatial, and spectral environment. This paper is an introduction to the Towed Airborne Plume Simulator (TAPS), a system designed to address this test shortfall. The TAPS operational concept is described as well as techniques for simulating missile signatures.
    • Convolutional Versus LDPC and Turbo Codes on the Rayleigh Fading Channel

      Ryan, William E.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Jagiello, Kristin; Cooper, Charlie; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      We consider the performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, turbo codes and convolutional codes over the binary-input AWGN channel with flat Rayleigh fading. LDPC and turbo codes are capacity-approaching codes for long codewords. For short and medium codewords we seek to determine if they still outperform the industry-standard memory-6, rate-1/2 convolutional code. For a fixed SNR, the probability of error for the codes of interest are plotted as a function of codelength. We find that for very short codewords, the convolutional code performs best.
    • A Wireless Telemetry System to Monitor Gait in Patients with Lower-Limb Amputation

      Fan, Richard E.; Wottawa, Christopher R.; Wyatt, Marilynn P.; Sander, Todd C.; Culjat, Martin O.; Culjat, Martin O.; Center for Advanced Surgical and Interventional Technology (CASIT); UCLA; Naval Medical Center San Diego; Naval Health Research Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Even after rehabilitation, patients with lower-limb amputation may continue to exhibit suboptimal gait. A wireless telemetry system, featuring force sensors, accelerometers, control electronics and a Bluetooth transmission module was developed to measure plantar pressure information and remotely monitor patient mobility. Plantar pressure characterization studies were performed to determine the optimal sensor placement. Finally, the wireless telemetry system was integrated with a previously developed haptic feedback system in order to allow remote monitoring of patient mobility during haptic system validation trials.
    • Sensing with Terahertz Radiation: Applications and Challenges

      Suen, J. Y.; Singh, R. S.; Li, W.; Taylor, Z. D.; Culjat, M. O.; Tewari, P.; Grundfest, W. S.; Brown, E. R.; Lee, H.; University of California, Santa Barbara; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The field of Terahertz (THz) radiation, electromagnetic energy, between 0.3 to 3 THz, has seen intense interest recently, because it combines some of the best properties of IR along with those of RF. For example, THz radiation can penetrate fabrics with less attenuation than IR, while its short wavelength maintains comparable imaging capabilities. We discuss major challenges in the field: designing systems and applications which fully exploit the unique properties of THz radiation. To illustrate, we present our reflective, radar-inspired THz imaging system and results, centered on biomedical burn imaging and skin hydration, and discuss challenges and ongoing research.
    • Towards a Low Complexity Implementation of a Multi-H CPM Demodulator

      Guéguen, Arnaud; Auvray, David; Zodiac Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Multi-h Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) is a promising waveform for aeronautical telemetry because it is a compact spectrally efficient constant amplitude modulation. It has been selected as the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) tier II waveform owing to these qualities. However, it is also a complicated waveform that has the reputation of suffering from complex demodulation processing and high sensitivity to transmission impairments and in particular synchronization aspects. In this paper we review a set of complexity reduction techniques that intend to bring this waveform into the domain of operational telemetry waveform, by allowing low complexity hardware implementation without sacrificing performance or robustness. Most techniques are adjustments of recent literature results, concerning both demodulation and synchronization. Computer simulation of a receiver implementing theses techniques shows negligible performance loss compared to optimal coherent demodulation with perfect synchronization. Hardware implementation confirms that nearly optimal performance can be achieved with hardware resource currently available in middle range FPGAs.
    • Implementation of the Viterbi Algorithm Using Functional Programming Languages

      Perrins, Erik; Gill, Andy; Bull, Tristan; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper, we present an implementation of the Viterbi algorithm using the functional programming language Haskell. We begin with a description of the functional implementation of the algorithm. Included are aspects of functional programming that must be considered when implementing the Viterbi algorithm as well as properties of Haskell that can be used to simplify or optimize the algorithm. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the Viterbi algorithm implemented in Haskell.
    • Obtaining an ATO for an iNET Operational Demonstration

      Hodack, David; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project was launched to foster network enhanced instrumentation and telemetry. The program is currently implementing an operational demonstration. That will involve installing and using a network enhanced instrumentation system on a helicopter. This demonstration will be used as a learning exercise for the implementation of network technologies. This paper will give a brief description of the operational demonstration. Then it will explore the need for an Authority to Operate (ATO) and describe how one was obtained.
    • Using Generic Telemetry Prognostic Algorithms for Launch Vehicle and Spacecraft Independent Failure Analysis Service

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Current equipment and vehicle failure analysis practices use diagnostic technology developed over the past 100 years of designing and manufacturing electrical and mechanical equipment to identify root cause of equipment failure requiring expertise with the equipment under analysis. If the equipment that failed had telemetry embedded, prognostic algorithms can be used to identify the deterministic behavior in completely normal appearing data from fully functional equipment used for identifying which equipment will fail within 1 year of use, can also identify when the presence of deterministic behavior was initiated for any equipment failure.