• Identification and Tracking Application of Self-Configuring Sensor Networks from Off-the-Shelf Parts

      Marcellin, Michael; Xin, Hao; Wood, Kevin; Stephens, Michael Zack; Moore, Michael; Hane, Thurston; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With the cost of microprocessor systems dropping steadily, sensor networks are becoming more and more viable for replacing traditional "dumb" sensors. This presents a host of advantages to the system collecting data, and allows for unprecedented system flexibility. In parallel to these developments, RFID "tagging" has come a long way and has also entered the realm of affordable sensor solutions. The merger of these ideas enables transient, modular, and reconfigurable asset identification and tracking systems. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of implementing such a network with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for real world applications. Specifically, we create a drop-in system for managing documents and records in a medical triage center, based on identifying assets and personnel by means of RFID. A self-reconfiguring sensor network provides the foundation, allows for the system to be deployed in minutes, both on a battlefield or in a hospital, and once deployed, the hospital beds may move around freely. The advantages of this platform will be discussed alongside the unique requirements that are introduced in this type of project.
    • Analysis and Suppression of Power Supply Noise for Airborne Telemetering Transmitter

      Song, Peng; Wu, Qing; Yang, Lu-yu; North China University of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      During the program researching on airborne telemetering transmitter of a certain remote telemetry system, small size and a variety of voltage on board are design difficulties. Due to the above important factors, the performance of power supply makes a big affect to the parameters of BPSK modulated signal, especially the EVM (Error Vector Magnitude). The author analyzes the cause of power supply noise and puts forward some suggestions to damp the noise. With these methods, the EVM of modulated signal is improved. Finally, we can conclude the related principles about the suppression of power supply noise.
    • The Software Decommutation Model (SDM)

      Creel, Larry; Engler, Richard; Alexis Telemetry, Incorporated; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      It is well known that current PCM telemetry formats are outstripping the capability of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Telemetry Systems to implement the corresponding data conversions required to process them. Two complementary approaches are needed for solving this problem: one is to put end users into direct touch with the information stored in telemetry streams; and the other is to convert telemetry applications into this new way of doing things. It is less known that a single technology, software decommutation, provides a practical foundation for both approaches. This document explains why this is so. While developing this software decommutation theme, a very sharp line must be drawn between a software decommutation approach and the COTS telemetry systems solution so that the label "software decommutation" will not be used in misleading ways. The key to drawing this line is SDM's (Software Decommutation Model) ability to: * Extract bits from the raw telemetry stream into 64-bit parameter "containers" in a platform independent ("big endian" or "little endian") manner. * Process algorithms in an algorithm chain on telemetry parameter data to support the desired formatting (i.e. engineering unit conversion). * Easily integrate "special" processing of non-IRIG 106 telemetry data as required (i.e. multiple embedded streams, mode changes, embedded packetized data, etc.). * Independently interface to user-developed data displays locally or via a network connection. *Note: The SDM cannot process a PCM stream directly; to do its job, a databridge is required that provides telemetry data as frame aligned IP packets via a network port.
    • Performance of an OFDM-Based DVB-T System and its FPGA Implementation

      Yang, Luyu; Song, Peng; Song, Qingping; North China University of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a new technique for data transmission. Conforming to the final draft of OFDM-based DVB-T (ETSI EN 300 744 V1.6.1), which is intended for digital terrestrial television broadcasting, a DVB-T baseband system is designed. The system performance is simulated in MATLAB using Simulink. Then it is implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with the help of System Generator software. The result shows that OFDM is robust against multipath effect and convenient for implementation as well, thus owning a quite promising future.
    • Collaborative Environment Learning: The Key to Localization of Soldiers in Urban Environments

      Moafipoor, Shahram; Bock, Lydia; Fayman, Jeffrey A.; Mader, Gerry; Strong, Michael; Geodetics Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Several navigation technologies exist, which can facilitate the generation of Time Space Positioning Information (TSPI) in urban environments. These include GPS, image-based localization, radio-based localization and dead reckoning. This paper first presents a basic overview of these techniques including advantages and limitations of each. We present an approach to localization in urban environments, based on environment learning and collaborative navigation using multiple homogeneous and non-homogeneous localization technologies, fused to form a multi-sensor system.
    • Performance Analysis of Reentry TDOA Positioning System

      Nan, Xie; Futang, Zhang; China Academy of Engineering Physics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In reentry measurement, we need to measure the track of reentry vehicle. For the speed of target is very high, it is difficult for traditional positioning system to capture and track the target. TDOA (time difference of arrival) positioning system is used in reentry measurement. The position of target is calculated by using time difference of arrival. This paper introduces the principle of reentry TDOA positioning system. The key technology is synchronization of ground stations' clocks. The implementation of clock synchronization using low-cost commercial GPS receiver is presented. The sources of errors in the existing telemetry system, corresponding precision and experimental results are presented. Some methods, which are used to improve the precision, are proposed at the end of this paper.
    • Using Generic Telemetry Prognostic Algorithms for Launch Vehicle and Spacecraft Independent Failure Analysis Service

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Current equipment and vehicle failure analysis practices use diagnostic technology developed over the past 100 years of designing and manufacturing electrical and mechanical equipment to identify root cause of equipment failure requiring expertise with the equipment under analysis. If the equipment that failed had telemetry embedded, prognostic algorithms can be used to identify the deterministic behavior in completely normal appearing data from fully functional equipment used for identifying which equipment will fail within 1 year of use, can also identify when the presence of deterministic behavior was initiated for any equipment failure.
    • iNET Deployment Process: A Case Study

      Faulstich, Raymond; Skelley, Daniel; Anderson, Brian; Computer Science Corporation; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Sponsored by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP), the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has created a proposed architecture for network enhancing aeronautical telemetry. Given the static nature of the current aeronautical telemetry architecture (it has not significantly changed in over 50 years), it is recognized that iNET must be carefully deployed to avoid test disruptions and safety issues. In support of a smooth transition to this new architecture, the Naval Air Warfare Division Aircraft (NAWCAD) conducted an extensive continuous process improvement project. This paper will describe the process, defined and launched by this study, to assure the safe deployment of iNET.
    • Design and Implementation of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for Small Diameter Ballistic Applications

      Bukowski, Edward F.; Brown, T. Gordon; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The US Army Research Laboratory currently uses a variety of ballistic diagnostic systems for gathering aerodynamic information pertaining to gun launched munitions. Sensors are a vital component of each of these diagnostic systems. Since multiple sensors are commonly used, they are often configured into a sensor suite or inertial measurement unit (IMU). In order to gather information on smaller diameter projectiles, a small diameter IMU was designed using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors and components. This IMU was first designed with a 21.6mm diameter and then later reintegrated into a 17.5mm diameter unit. The IMU provides up to ten sensor data channels which can be used to make in-flight projectile motion measurements. These measurements are then used in the determination of the projectile's aerodynamics. It has been successfully flight tested on a variety of projectiles. It has been used in conjunction with an on-board recorder (OBR) to take measurements on 40mm and 25mm projectiles. It has also been used in a telemetry based system on-board a flare stabilized 25mm projectile. This paper covers the design of the IMU and gives examples of various sensor data.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA)

      Grubbs, Elmer; Marcellin, Michael; Lichtsinn, Wade; McKelvy, Evan; Myrick, Adam; Quihuis, Dominic; Williamson, Jamie; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      NASA's Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) project has the goal of producing a single robust and space-efficient imaging system. This paper will show the progress of the current RISA project iteration, tasked with implementing a Inter-Integrated Circuit (I²C) communications controller on a radiation hardened Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), characterizing a liquid lens optical system, and adding a radiation hardened temperature sensor. The optical design focuses on small liquid lenses that can vary focal length with no moving parts. The chosen designs will allow this camera system to meet critical mission objectives and provide reliable service to NASA's astronauts.
    • Isually Lossless Coding for Color Aerial Images Using PEG

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Kim, Yookyung; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper describes a psychophysical experiment to measure visibility thresholds (VT) for quantization distortion in JPEG2000 and an associated quantization algorithm for visually lossless coding of color aerial images. The visibility thresholds are obtained from a quantization distortion model based on the statistical characteristics of wavelet coefficients and the deadzone quantizer of JPEG2000, and the resulting visibility thresholds are presented for the luminance component (Y) and two chrominance components (Cb and Cr). Using the thresholds, we have achieved visually lossless coding for 24-bit color aerial images at an average bitrate of 4.17 bits/pixels, which is approximately 30% of the bitrate required for numerically lossless coding.
    • TENA Performance in a Telemetry Network System

      Saylor, Kase J.; Wood, Paul B.; Malatesta, William A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project conducted an assessment to determine how the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) would integrate into an iNET Telemetry Network System (TmNS), particularly across constrained environments on a resource constrained platform. Some of the key elements investigated were quality of service measures (throughput, latency, and reliability) in the face of projected characteristics of iNET Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) devices including size, weight, and power (SWAP), and processing capacity such as memory size and processor speed. This paper includes recommendations for both the iNET and TENA projects.
    • Applying the iNET System Management Standard

      Grace, Thomas B.; Bertrand, Allison R.; Newton, Todd A.; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR); Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The System Management Standard Working Group (SMSWG) of the integrated Network- Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has developed a standard for the management of the Telemetry Network System (TmNS). The introduction of Internet Protocol (IP) networks on test ranges has created the potential for greater flexibility and improved usability in the telemetry environment. This paper will discuss how to apply the TmNS System Management Standard to best take advantage of the new networking paradigm. Some of the benefits include the ability to monitor or change resource allocations (such as data subscriptions and network routes), detect fault conditions, or change configuration during any phase of a test. An example of a common test scenario will illustrate one example of how the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) commands, queries, and events included in the System Management Standard may be used to extend the capabilities of the TmNS. The discussion topics will include discovering devices, monitoring status variables, receiving device events, performing configuration, and performing control from the TmNS Management Information Base (MIB). This scenario gives guidance to ranges and test conductors in selecting and using System Management capabilities.
    • Common Display System (CDS) at the NAVAIRWD Ranges

      Karr, Bill; Maxel, Matt; Watson, Errol; NAVAIRWD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The Common Display System (CDS) will provide all NAVAIRWD sites with a flexible Range real-time situational awareness and telemetry display/processing capability. CDS will have an extensible framework enabling all sites to quickly and conveniently develop Range unique plugins to accommodate new requirements or functionality not presently found in the applications common core plug-ins. Range unique plug-ins are separate and distinct from the application's common core engine.
    • Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) - Information Security in a Multi-Service Program

      O'Neal, Steve; Lukins, Jeff; Hodack, David; TYBRIN Corporation; Dynetics, Inc.; Patuxent River Naval Air Station (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With increasing competition for communications capability on Department of Defense, DOD, test ranges, and mounting associated costs for sequential scheduling of test activities, DOD is investing in 21st century digital telemetry for test ranges. This upgrade, the first major overhaul in more than 30 years, promises utilization of common RF spectrum for multiple, simultaneous tests on a given test range. Implementing this capability while 1) assuring program test directors of test execution capability and 2) complying with information assurance (IA) requirements for all DOD Services is a significant, but not impossible, challenge. In this paper we present a path forward for implementation of Certification and Accreditation (C&A) requirements for multi- Service implementation of integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Initial Operational Capability (IOC).
    • Post Processing Data Analysis

      Irick, Nancy; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Once the test is complete, the job of the Data Analyst has begun. Files from the various acquisition systems are collected. It is the job of the analyst to put together these files in a readable format so the success or failure of the test can be attained. This paper will discuss the process of breaking down these files, comparing data from different systems, and methods of presenting the data.
    • Look Ma, No Hardware!

      Guadiana, Juan M.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Google Soft Decom and the number of hits will be tenfold over the same search last year. The migration of hardware functionality toward software is relentless. On the telemetry front, Data Bridges that take Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) signals and transform them to ubiquitous network packets make it all too easy. The need for expensive hardware such as the Decommutator (Decom), Frame Synchronizer, Digital Recorder, and Oscillograph Recorder (StripChart) will diminish sharply. Software Decom packages will feel the squeeze too, from homegrown Soft Decom software that is easier to maintain and has no licensing issues. This paper airs the dirty laundry associated with this hardware and software. Latencies and ugly temporal aberration that really plague an analyst. Also discussed is how a few packet/file formats eliminate the need for most of the hardware in a traditional telemetry data processing facility.
    • The Development and the Evaluation of a Quasi-Real Time Decision Aid Tool

      Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Lopes, Leonardo Mauricio de Faria; Walter, Fernando; Grupo Especial de Ensaios em Vôo; Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In an experimental flight test campaign, the usage of a real time Ground Telemetry System (GTS) provides mandatory support for three basic essential services: a) Safety storage of Flight Tests Instrumentation (FTI) data, in the occurrence of a critical aircraft failure; b) Monitoring of critical flight safety parameters to avoid the occurrence of accidents; and c) Monitoring of selected parameters that validates all tests points. At the operational side the test ranges typically works in two phases: a) In real time where the GTS crew performs test validation and test point selection with Telemetry data; and b) In post mission where the engineering crew performs data analysis and reduction with airborne recorded data. This process is time consuming because recorded data has to be downloaded, converted to Engineering Units (EU), sliced, filtered and processed. The main reason for the usage of this less efficient process relies in the fact that the real time Telemetry data is less reliable as compared to recorded data (i.e. it contains more noise and some dropouts). With the introduction of new technologies (i.e. i-NET) the telemetry link could be very reliable, so the GTS could perform data reduction analysis immediately after the receipt of all valid tests points, while the aircraft is still flying in a quasi-real time environment. To achieve this goal the Brazilian Flight Test Group (GEEV) along with EMBRAER and with the support of Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP) started the development of a series of Decision Aid Tools that performs data reduction analysis into the GTS in quasi-real time. This paper presents the development and the evaluation of a tool used in Air Data System Calibration Flight Tests Campaign. The application receives the Telemetry data over either a TCP/IP or a SCRAMnet Network, performs data analysis and test point validation in real time and when all points are gathered it performs the data reduction analysis and automatically creates HTML formatted tests reports. The tool evaluation was carried out with the instruction flights for the 2009 Brazilian Flight Test School (CEV). The results present a great efficiency gain for the overall Flight Test Campaign.
    • Towards a Low Complexity Implementation of a Multi-H CPM Demodulator

      Guéguen, Arnaud; Auvray, David; Zodiac Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Multi-h Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) is a promising waveform for aeronautical telemetry because it is a compact spectrally efficient constant amplitude modulation. It has been selected as the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) tier II waveform owing to these qualities. However, it is also a complicated waveform that has the reputation of suffering from complex demodulation processing and high sensitivity to transmission impairments and in particular synchronization aspects. In this paper we review a set of complexity reduction techniques that intend to bring this waveform into the domain of operational telemetry waveform, by allowing low complexity hardware implementation without sacrificing performance or robustness. Most techniques are adjustments of recent literature results, concerning both demodulation and synchronization. Computer simulation of a receiver implementing theses techniques shows negligible performance loss compared to optimal coherent demodulation with perfect synchronization. Hardware implementation confirms that nearly optimal performance can be achieved with hardware resource currently available in middle range FPGAs.
    • Implementation of the Viterbi Algorithm Using Functional Programming Languages

      Perrins, Erik; Gill, Andy; Bull, Tristan; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper, we present an implementation of the Viterbi algorithm using the functional programming language Haskell. We begin with a description of the functional implementation of the algorithm. Included are aspects of functional programming that must be considered when implementing the Viterbi algorithm as well as properties of Haskell that can be used to simplify or optimize the algorithm. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the Viterbi algorithm implemented in Haskell.