• Metadata Description Language: The iNET Metadata Standard Language

      Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Cormier, Andrew R.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In order to help manage the complexity in designing and configuring network-based telemetry systems, and to promote interoperability between equipment from multiple vendors, the integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Metadata Standards Working Group (MDSWG) has developed a standard language for describing and configuring these systems. This paper will provide the community with an overview of Metadata Description Language (MDL), and describe how MDL can support the description of the requirements, design choices, and the configuration of devices that make up the Telemetry Network System (TmNS). MDL, an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) based language that describes a TmNS from various aspects, is embodied by an XML schema along with additional rules and constraints. Example MDL instance documents will be presented to illustrate how MDL can be used to capture requirements, describe the design, and configure the equipment that makes up a TmNS. Various scenarios for how MDL can be used will be discussed.
    • Augmenting Serial Streaming Telemetry with iNET Data Delivery

      Reinwald, Carl; CSC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Incorporating network-based telemetry components into a flight test article creates new types of network-based data flows between a test article and a telemetry ground station. The emerging integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Standard defines new, network-based data delivery protocols which can produce various network data flows. Augmenting existing Serial Streaming Telemetry (SST) data flows with these network-based data flows is crucial to enhancing current flight test capabilities. This paper briefly introduces the network protocols referenced in the iNET Standard and then identifies the various data flows generated by network-based components which comply with the iNET Standard. Several combinations of SST and TmNS data flows are presented and the enhanced telemetry capabilities provided by each combination are identified. Identifying time intervals of unused telemetry network bandwidth explicitly for reallocation to other test articles is also addressed.
    • A Programmable Dual Modulator Testbed for MIMO Applications

      Kosbar, Kurt; Seaber, John; Barkley, Jacob; Ngo, Tony; Poettgen, Adam; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems use multiple transmitters and receivers to increase the capacity and reliability of radio frequency communication links used in multipath and disruptive environments. This paper describes a recently designed hardware testbed that can be used as a modulator and transmitter for MIMO systems which use two transmitters. The testbed consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) that generates the I/Q baseband signals for the two transmitters. A wide variety of modulation and coding formats, up to data rates of 10 Mbps, can be implemented by reprogramming the FPGA. The dual I/Q outputs from the FPGA are then fed to a pair of quadrature modulators, which have programmable carrier frequencies from 1,025 to 2,450 MHz. The system is implemented on a single printed circuit board, and has dual RF outputs with programmable power levels up to 0 dBm.
    • A Method for Tracking the Accuracy of Channel Estimates in MIMO Receivers

      Kosbar, Kurt; Gupte, Abhishek; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Multiple input multiple output communication systems offer significant advantages, but only if the receiver has an accurate estimate of the channel state information (CSI). To obtain a CSI estimate, the transmitter must stop sending data, and instead send a training sequence. To maximize throughput, the time spent sending training data should be minimized. This paper describes a method which allows the receiver to track the accuracy of its CSI estimate, so that it can request new training data only when necessary.
    • Traceable Enterprise Information Security Architecture Methodology

      Dean, Richard; Brown-Moorer, Charlotte A.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With the introduction of networking into telemetry applications, these systems have become increasingly complex. This imposes significant strain on information security for architecture designs. It has been recognized that an organized or structured approach to developing security architectures is needed. Several enterprise architecture frameworks are available today that address system complexity. However they fall short of addressing security at a high enough level in the enterprise and address security too late in the design process. In this paper a methodology is proposed that bridges the gap between security requirements and architecture design development at the enterprise level. This approach is consistent with and traceable to the original needs of the customer. This paper introduces a systems engineering approach to develop an enterprise level methodology, and presents a worked example of this approach for the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry system.
    • Symbol Synchronization of GFSK Modulated Signals in a Multipath Environment

      Kosbar, Kurt; Gupte, Abhishek; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper investigates the performance of a symbol synchronization technique when used for bandlimited modulation formats in multipath environments. The performance was analyzed using Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying as the modulation format, and assume the receiver has no channel state information The symbol synchronization algorithm calculates the minimum sample variance of eye diagrams over varying symbol rate estimates. The system performance was measured through simulations run at various signal-to-noise ratios and over a range of single-reflection multipath channels.
    • Secure Remote Access to Telemetry: A Study in How to Allow Remote Access to Satellite Telemetry Data

      McClinton, Arthur T., Jr.; Noblis, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The need to allow remote access to telemetry data from closed networks has long existed. To ensure the correct engineers are available for anomaly resolution, NOAA developed the Secure Remote Access Server (SRAS) to allow transfer of satellite telemetry to an external secure server. SRAS uses one-way links to protect the ground system and secure communications for all communications with the user. After the SRAS was developed, a similar system was developed to support file transfers. This paper provides an overview of these systems and lessons learned in the development of one-way fiber systems.
    • Virtualization Security Issues in Telemetry Post-Processing Environments

      Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Virtualization technologies have the potential to transform the telemetry post-processing environment. Significant efficiencies can be gained by migrating telemetry post processing activities to virtual computing platforms. However, while facilitating better server utilization, virtualization also presents several challenges; one of the most difficult of those challenges being security. In virtualization, server environments are replicated in software; unfortunately, the security individual servers provide is not replicated in a software stack implementation of a server environment. After reviewing virtualization fundamentals, security issues and their impact on telemetry post processing will be discussed.
    • Effects of Synchronization Error on Space Time Block Codes Equipped with FSK Waveforms

      Potter, Chris; Kosbar, Kurt; Panagos, Adam; Dynetics, Inc.; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Space-time Coding (STC) for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless communication systems is an effective technique for providing robust wireless link performance in telemetry systems. This paper investigates the degradation in system performance when synchronization errors between the transmitter and receiver are present. Specifically, expressions that quantify the increase in symbol-error-rate as a function of symbol synchronization error are derived for a two-transmit and single receive antenna MISO system using binary frequency shift keying waveforms. These results are then extended to the MIMO case. The analytic results are verified with simulation results that show close agreement between the theoretical expressions and Monte Carlo simulation runs.
    • AeroRP: A Geolocation Assisted Aeronautical Routing Protocol for Highly Dynamic Telemetry Environments

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Jabbar, Abdul; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With the increasing importance of networked systems for telemetry, there is a need for efficient routing algorithms in aeronautical environments. Unlike traditional mobile networks, the highly dynamic nature of airborne networks results in extremely short-lived paths, especially for multi-hop scenarios thereby necessitating domain-specific protocols. In this paper, we present the detailed design and evaluation of AeroRP, a cross-layered routing protocol designed specifically for airborne telemetry applications. AeroRP exploits the broadcast nature of the wireless medium along with the physical node location and trajectory to improve the data delivery in Mach-speed mobile scenarios We present a multi-modal protocol that addresses various operational scenarios of test and telemetry networks. Preliminary simulation results show that AeroRP significantly outperforms traditional MANET routing protocols while limiting the overhead.
    • Frequency Agile Transceiver for Advanced Vehicle Data Links

      Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Macias, Filiberto; Cornelius, Harold; NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range; Hi-Val-U Consulting (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Emerging and next-generation test instrumentation increasingly relies on network communication to manage complex and dynamic test scenarios, particularly for uninhabited autonomous systems. Adapting wireless communication infrastructure to accommodate challenging testing needs can benefit from reconfigurable radio technology. Frequency agility is one characteristic of reconfigurable radios that to date has seen only limited progress toward programmability. This paper overviews an ongoing project to validate a promising chipset that performs conversion of RF signals directly into digital data for the wireless receiver and, for the transmitter, converts digital data into RF signals. The Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver (SCMT) enables four transmitters and four receivers in a single unit, programmable for any frequency band between 1 MHz and 6 GHz.
    • Aeronautical Gateways: Supporting TCP/IP-based Devices and Applications over Modern Telemetry Networks

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Modern telemetry networks require the use of efficient domain-specific protocols at the transport, network, and routing layers. However, the existing end-devices and services are based on legacy protocols such as TCP/IP. This necessitates translation between the legacy and aeronautical protocol. In this paper we propose an efficient translation mechanism with the help of gateways at the telemetry network edges.
    • Key Components of the iNET Test Article Standard

      Grace, Thomas B.; Kenney, Joshua D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Test Article Standards Working Group (TASWG) has developed a standard for Telemetry Network System (TmNS). The introduction of Internet Protocol (IP) networks on test ranges has created the potential for greater flexibility in the telemetry environment. This paper discusses the rationale for particular decisions concerning key components mandated by the standard. Performance implications concerning the mandates of the standard are also described. As an educational aid, examples of TAS-based processing philosophies and data structures have been constructed. These examples, including sending and receiving messages, are shown to reinforce understanding core concepts of the standard.
    • Applying the iNET System Management Standard

      Grace, Thomas B.; Bertrand, Allison R.; Newton, Todd A.; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR); Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The System Management Standard Working Group (SMSWG) of the integrated Network- Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has developed a standard for the management of the Telemetry Network System (TmNS). The introduction of Internet Protocol (IP) networks on test ranges has created the potential for greater flexibility and improved usability in the telemetry environment. This paper will discuss how to apply the TmNS System Management Standard to best take advantage of the new networking paradigm. Some of the benefits include the ability to monitor or change resource allocations (such as data subscriptions and network routes), detect fault conditions, or change configuration during any phase of a test. An example of a common test scenario will illustrate one example of how the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) commands, queries, and events included in the System Management Standard may be used to extend the capabilities of the TmNS. The discussion topics will include discovering devices, monitoring status variables, receiving device events, performing configuration, and performing control from the TmNS Management Information Base (MIB). This scenario gives guidance to ranges and test conductors in selecting and using System Management capabilities.
    • iNET Networking Standards Test Bed

      Newton, Todd A.; Kenney, Joshua D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project working groups have developed standards for Telemetry Network Systems (TmNS). In order for the standards to mature, the functionality of the standards will be demonstrated. To achieve this, efforts have been undertaken to simulate (and at times emulate) the key interfaces and to assess performance. To facilitate this work, a common network test bed has been developed. This test bed allows for validation of the iNET standards' performance characteristics.
    • Standardize Your IP Traffic with TMOIP

      Grebe, Andy; Apogee Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With the emergence of higher bandwidth Ethernet networks on ranges, many ranges are converting their data transport from ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks to Ethernet networks. Both networks have their respective advantages and disadvantages, however one reoccurring issue is product interoperability. The RCC (Range Commanders Council) TTG (Telecommunications and Timing Group) created the Telemetry over IP (TMoIP 218-07) solution with input from various ranges and vendors to solve this issue. This specification allows ranges to use different vendors together for Telemetry over Ethernet, based on specific needs at each site. This paper targets those who are thinking about converting from ATM to Ethernet networks.
    • Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) - Information Security in a Multi-Service Program

      O'Neal, Steve; Lukins, Jeff; Hodack, David; TYBRIN Corporation; Dynetics, Inc.; Patuxent River Naval Air Station (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With increasing competition for communications capability on Department of Defense, DOD, test ranges, and mounting associated costs for sequential scheduling of test activities, DOD is investing in 21st century digital telemetry for test ranges. This upgrade, the first major overhaul in more than 30 years, promises utilization of common RF spectrum for multiple, simultaneous tests on a given test range. Implementing this capability while 1) assuring program test directors of test execution capability and 2) complying with information assurance (IA) requirements for all DOD Services is a significant, but not impossible, challenge. In this paper we present a path forward for implementation of Certification and Accreditation (C&A) requirements for multi- Service implementation of integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Initial Operational Capability (IOC).
    • Proposed iNET Network Security Architecture

      Dean, Richard; Dukes, Renata; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Morgan State University's iNET effort is aimed at improving existing telemetry networks by developing more efficient operation and cost effectiveness. This paper develops an enhanced security architecture for the iNET environment in order to protect the network from both inside and outside adversaries. This proposed architecture addresses the key security components of confidentiality, integrity and authentication. The security design for iNET is complicated by the unique features of the telemetry application. The addition of encryption is complicated by the need for robust synchronization needed for real time operation in a high error environment.
    • Isually Lossless Coding for Color Aerial Images Using PEG

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Kim, Yookyung; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper describes a psychophysical experiment to measure visibility thresholds (VT) for quantization distortion in JPEG2000 and an associated quantization algorithm for visually lossless coding of color aerial images. The visibility thresholds are obtained from a quantization distortion model based on the statistical characteristics of wavelet coefficients and the deadzone quantizer of JPEG2000, and the resulting visibility thresholds are presented for the luminance component (Y) and two chrominance components (Cb and Cr). Using the thresholds, we have achieved visually lossless coding for 24-bit color aerial images at an average bitrate of 4.17 bits/pixels, which is approximately 30% of the bitrate required for numerically lossless coding.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA)

      Grubbs, Elmer; Marcellin, Michael; Lichtsinn, Wade; McKelvy, Evan; Myrick, Adam; Quihuis, Dominic; Williamson, Jamie; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      NASA's Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) project has the goal of producing a single robust and space-efficient imaging system. This paper will show the progress of the current RISA project iteration, tasked with implementing a Inter-Integrated Circuit (I²C) communications controller on a radiation hardened Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), characterizing a liquid lens optical system, and adding a radiation hardened temperature sensor. The optical design focuses on small liquid lenses that can vary focal length with no moving parts. The chosen designs will allow this camera system to meet critical mission objectives and provide reliable service to NASA's astronauts.