• Adding Flight Termination Capability to a Missile Telemetry Section

      Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Fielder, Russell G.; Sandberg, Alvia D.; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Past presented papers [1,2] have discussed the integration efforts of incorporating Central Test & Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) sponsored Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) components (namely the JAMI TSPI Unit-JTU), Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) parts (e.g. ARTM Tier I SO-QPSK Transmitter, Encryptor and Thermal Battery), and in-house developed devices (such as PCM Encoder and Dual Band Antenna) into a five-inch diameter Missile Telemetry (TM) Section. A prototype of this TM Section has been built up and integrated into an All Up Round (AUR) Missile and twice flown as a Captive Carried Test Missile (CTM) on an F/A-18 jet with great success. This TM Section has passed all flight qualification testing (including environmental and electro-magnetic interference-EMI tests). This paper will detail the current efforts to incorporate Flight Termination System (FTS) capabilities into this TM section. In addition, the effort to upgrade some Navy and Air Force Test Ranges (with JAMI Ground Stations and Decommutators/Demodulators) to track and gather data from this Missile containing the new TM section will be discussed.
    • Adjacent Channel Interference Criteria for Aeronautical Telemetry Operations with the Tactical Targeting Network Technology System

      Temple, Kip; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper will provide recommended channel spacing requirements when the Tactical Targeting Network Technology (TTNT) System is utilized in conjunction with airborne telemetry systems at airborne test ranges. The recommendation will be in the form of an equation similar in form to the adjacent channel interference (ACI) equation currently in the Telemetry Standard IRIG-106. Test results will be presented to support this recommendation.
    • Advantages of Using a Modular Architecture to Extenuate the Effects of Disruptive Technologies

      Khaburzaniya, Yason; L-3 Communications (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Disruptive technologies affect every industry and often indicate the rate of technological advancement. Observing previous technological leaps can help ensure that the next disruptive technology innovation has less of an impact. Many methodologies that were developed to combat the high adoption costs of disruptive technologies in the field of computer engineering can be applied to the satellite and telemetry world. One such methodology is modular architecture in software.
    • Aeronautical Gateways: Supporting TCP/IP-based Devices and Applications over Modern Telemetry Networks

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Çetinkaya, Egemen K.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Modern telemetry networks require the use of efficient domain-specific protocols at the transport, network, and routing layers. However, the existing end-devices and services are based on legacy protocols such as TCP/IP. This necessitates translation between the legacy and aeronautical protocol. In this paper we propose an efficient translation mechanism with the help of gateways at the telemetry network edges.
    • AeroRP: A Geolocation Assisted Aeronautical Routing Protocol for Highly Dynamic Telemetry Environments

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Jabbar, Abdul; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With the increasing importance of networked systems for telemetry, there is a need for efficient routing algorithms in aeronautical environments. Unlike traditional mobile networks, the highly dynamic nature of airborne networks results in extremely short-lived paths, especially for multi-hop scenarios thereby necessitating domain-specific protocols. In this paper, we present the detailed design and evaluation of AeroRP, a cross-layered routing protocol designed specifically for airborne telemetry applications. AeroRP exploits the broadcast nature of the wireless medium along with the physical node location and trajectory to improve the data delivery in Mach-speed mobile scenarios We present a multi-modal protocol that addresses various operational scenarios of test and telemetry networks. Preliminary simulation results show that AeroRP significantly outperforms traditional MANET routing protocols while limiting the overhead.
    • Analysis and Suppression of Power Supply Noise for Airborne Telemetering Transmitter

      Song, Peng; Wu, Qing; Yang, Lu-yu; North China University of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      During the program researching on airborne telemetering transmitter of a certain remote telemetry system, small size and a variety of voltage on board are design difficulties. Due to the above important factors, the performance of power supply makes a big affect to the parameters of BPSK modulated signal, especially the EVM (Error Vector Magnitude). The author analyzes the cause of power supply noise and puts forward some suggestions to damp the noise. With these methods, the EVM of modulated signal is improved. Finally, we can conclude the related principles about the suppression of power supply noise.
    • Antenna Tracking and Command Destruct Capabilities Based on Angular Velocity and Acceleration

      Altan, Hal; Honeywell International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Most range safety telemetry tracking systems have antenna designs that feature an S-band (2200-2400 MHz) Telemetry Tracking and UHF-Band (400-450 MHz) Command Destruct feed along side an omni-directional antenna. The antennas must have, by design, high angular velocity (w) and acceleration (α) parameters to achieve these tasks. Generally, these parameters are user configurable through software and monitored through BIT (Built In Test) log files. The parameters are nominally set to their maximum values (ie. w=10 deg/sec and α = 15 deg/sec².) Considering the dynamics of a sample satellite launch vs. the ground tracking and omni antennas' combined capabilities, this document analyzes whether the target will stay within the beam.
    • Applying the iNET System Management Standard

      Grace, Thomas B.; Bertrand, Allison R.; Newton, Todd A.; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR); Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The System Management Standard Working Group (SMSWG) of the integrated Network- Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has developed a standard for the management of the Telemetry Network System (TmNS). The introduction of Internet Protocol (IP) networks on test ranges has created the potential for greater flexibility and improved usability in the telemetry environment. This paper will discuss how to apply the TmNS System Management Standard to best take advantage of the new networking paradigm. Some of the benefits include the ability to monitor or change resource allocations (such as data subscriptions and network routes), detect fault conditions, or change configuration during any phase of a test. An example of a common test scenario will illustrate one example of how the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) commands, queries, and events included in the System Management Standard may be used to extend the capabilities of the TmNS. The discussion topics will include discovering devices, monitoring status variables, receiving device events, performing configuration, and performing control from the TmNS Management Information Base (MIB). This scenario gives guidance to ranges and test conductors in selecting and using System Management capabilities.
    • Augmenting Serial Streaming Telemetry with iNET Data Delivery

      Reinwald, Carl; CSC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Incorporating network-based telemetry components into a flight test article creates new types of network-based data flows between a test article and a telemetry ground station. The emerging integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Standard defines new, network-based data delivery protocols which can produce various network data flows. Augmenting existing Serial Streaming Telemetry (SST) data flows with these network-based data flows is crucial to enhancing current flight test capabilities. This paper briefly introduces the network protocols referenced in the iNET Standard and then identifies the various data flows generated by network-based components which comply with the iNET Standard. Several combinations of SST and TmNS data flows are presented and the enhanced telemetry capabilities provided by each combination are identified. Identifying time intervals of unused telemetry network bandwidth explicitly for reallocation to other test articles is also addressed.
    • Automatic Format Generation Techniques for Network Data Acquisition Systems

      Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Pesciotta, Eric; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Configuring a modern, high-performance data acquisition system is typically a very timeconsuming and complex process. Any enhancement to the data acquisition setup software that can reduce the amount of time needed to configure the system is extremely useful. Automatic format generation is one of the most useful enhancements to a data acquisition setup application. By using Automatic Format Generation, an instrumentation engineer can significantly reduce the amount of time that is spent configuring the system while simultaneously gaining much greater flexibility in creating sampling formats. This paper discusses several techniques that can be used to generate sampling formats automatically while making highly efficient use of the system's bandwidth. This allows the user to obtain most of the benefits of a hand-tuned, manually created format without spending excessive time creating it. One of the primary techniques that this paper discusses is an enhancement to the commonly used power-of-two rule, for selecting sampling rates. This allows the system to create formats that use a wider variety of rates. The system is also able to handle groups of related measurements that must follow each other sequentially in the sampling format. This paper will also cover a packet based formatting scheme that organizes measurements based on common sampling rates. Each packet contains a set of measurements that are sampled at a particular rate. A key benefit of using an automatic format generation system with this format is the optimization of sampling rates that are used to achieve the best possible match for each measurement's desired sampling rate.
    • Coded SOQPSK-TG Using the Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm

      Perrins, Erik; Alam, Daniel; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper we present a system-level description of a serially concatenated convolutional coding scheme for shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying, telemetry group (SOQPSK-TG). Our paper describes the operation of various system modules. In addition, implementation details and references for each module in the system are provided. The modified Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm (SOVA) is employed for decoding inner and outer convolutional codes. The modified SOVA possess strong performance and low-complexity cost. The comparison of the modified (SOVA) and Max-Log-maximum a posteriori (MAP) decoding algorithm is presented. The SOVA after a simple modification displays the same performance as Max-Log-MAP algorithm, which is demonstrated by the simulation results. The advantage of the simple implementation of the modified SOVA makes it superior to Max-Log-MAP for our purposes.
    • Collaborative Environment Learning: The Key to Localization of Soldiers in Urban Environments

      Moafipoor, Shahram; Bock, Lydia; Fayman, Jeffrey A.; Mader, Gerry; Strong, Michael; Geodetics Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Several navigation technologies exist, which can facilitate the generation of Time Space Positioning Information (TSPI) in urban environments. These include GPS, image-based localization, radio-based localization and dead reckoning. This paper first presents a basic overview of these techniques including advantages and limitations of each. We present an approach to localization in urban environments, based on environment learning and collaborative navigation using multiple homogeneous and non-homogeneous localization technologies, fused to form a multi-sensor system.
    • Common Display System (CDS) at the NAVAIRWD Ranges

      Karr, Bill; Maxel, Matt; Watson, Errol; NAVAIRWD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The Common Display System (CDS) will provide all NAVAIRWD sites with a flexible Range real-time situational awareness and telemetry display/processing capability. CDS will have an extensible framework enabling all sites to quickly and conveniently develop Range unique plugins to accommodate new requirements or functionality not presently found in the applications common core plug-ins. Range unique plug-ins are separate and distinct from the application's common core engine.
    • Community of Programming Protocols

      Powell, Dave; Cook, Paul; Telemetry Technology Consultants, Inc.; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      As new products are developed for the telemetry market, network interfaces are being used for set-up and control. This paper describes the programmability of various telemetry components that are now available and discusses the internal status functions that can be returned to the user or telemetry system via the same interface that are good indicators of system health. Possible control interfaces are discussed that could be used to interface many different components. Also discussed is the need for the Range Commanders Council to address the total programmability protocol issues related to connecting multiple components into a common setup and control bus.
    • Convolutional Versus LDPC and Turbo Codes on the Rayleigh Fading Channel

      Ryan, William E.; Marcellin, Michael W.; Jagiello, Kristin; Cooper, Charlie; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      We consider the performance of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, turbo codes and convolutional codes over the binary-input AWGN channel with flat Rayleigh fading. LDPC and turbo codes are capacity-approaching codes for long codewords. For short and medium codewords we seek to determine if they still outperform the industry-standard memory-6, rate-1/2 convolutional code. For a fixed SNR, the probability of error for the codes of interest are plotted as a function of codelength. We find that for very short codewords, the convolutional code performs best.
    • A COTS and Standards Based Solution to Weapons System Integration

      Scardello, Michael A.; Packham, William R.; Diehl, Michael; Spiral Technology, Inc.; TRAX International, Inc.; U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The Weapons System Test and Integration Laboratory (WSTIL) at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) will provide a new capability for ground based testing in this arena. Current and near term YPG scheduled test programs will benefit tremendously from this enhanced ground test capability provided by the Weapons STIL. The Weapons STIL's design goals center on the implementation of an automated mechanism for testing the weapon systems and sensors that are currently the responsibility of the YPG facility. To meet the Army's weapons test needs the Weapons STIL incorporates various levels of digital stimulation, human-in-the-loop, hardware-in-the-loop, and installed system test facility (ISTF) techniques to maximize ground testing in order to focus and optimize subsequent open air flight testing. This paper describes this work in progress.
    • Data Acquisition Blasts Off - Space Flight Testing

      Curry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In principle, the requirements for a flight test data acquisition system for space testing (launch vehicles, orbiters, satellites and International Space Station (ISS) installations) are very similar to those for more earth-bound applications. In practice, there are important environmental and operational differences that present challenges for both users and vendors of flight test equipment. Environmental issues include the severe vibration and shock experienced on take-off, followed by a very sharp thermal shock, culminating (for orbital vehicles) in a low temperature, low pressure, high radiation operating environment. Operational issues can include the need to dynamically adapt to changing configurations (for example when an instrumented stage is released) and the difficulty in Telemetering data during the initial launch stage from a vehicle that may not be recoverable, and therefore does not offer the option of an on-board recorder. Addressing these challenges requires simple, rugged and flexible solutions. Traditionally these solutions have been bespoke, specifically designed equipment. In an increasingly cost-conscious environment engineers are now looking to commercial off-the-shelf solutions. This paper discusses these solutions and highlights the issues that instrumentation engineers need to consider when designing or selecting flight test equipment.
    • Data Flow and Remote Control in the Telemetry Network System

      Laird, Daniel T.; Morgan, Jon; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program is currently developing new standards for wired-wireless local area networking (LAN-WLAN) using the Internet Protocol (IP), for use in telemetry (TM) channels, under the umbrella of the Telemetry Network System (TmNS). Some advantages of TmNS are real-time command and control of instrumentation, quick-look acquisition, data retransmission and recovery ('gapless TM' or 'PCM backfill'), data segmentation, etc. The iNET team is developing and evaluating prototypes, based on commercial 802.x and other technologies, in conjunction with Range Commander's Council (RCC) Inter-Range Instrumentation Group (IRIG) standards and standards developed under the iNET program.
    • Design and Implementation of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) for Small Diameter Ballistic Applications

      Bukowski, Edward F.; Brown, T. Gordon; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The US Army Research Laboratory currently uses a variety of ballistic diagnostic systems for gathering aerodynamic information pertaining to gun launched munitions. Sensors are a vital component of each of these diagnostic systems. Since multiple sensors are commonly used, they are often configured into a sensor suite or inertial measurement unit (IMU). In order to gather information on smaller diameter projectiles, a small diameter IMU was designed using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) sensors and components. This IMU was first designed with a 21.6mm diameter and then later reintegrated into a 17.5mm diameter unit. The IMU provides up to ten sensor data channels which can be used to make in-flight projectile motion measurements. These measurements are then used in the determination of the projectile's aerodynamics. It has been successfully flight tested on a variety of projectiles. It has been used in conjunction with an on-board recorder (OBR) to take measurements on 40mm and 25mm projectiles. It has also been used in a telemetry based system on-board a flare stabilized 25mm projectile. This paper covers the design of the IMU and gives examples of various sensor data.
    • Design Considerations for Networked Data Acquisition Systems

      Cranley, Nikki; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Ethernet technology offers numerous benefits for networked Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) systems such as increased data rates, flexibility, scalability and most importantly interoperability owing to the inherent interface, protocol and technological standardization. However, the best effort nature of Ethernet is in sharp contrast to the intrinsic determinism of tradition FTI systems. The challenge for network designers is to optimize the configuration of the Ethernet network to meet the data processing demands in terms of reliability and latency. This paper discusses the necessary planning and design phases to investigate, analyze, fine-tune and optimize the networks performance.