• Effects of Synchronization Error on Space Time Block Codes Equipped with FSK Waveforms

      Potter, Chris; Kosbar, Kurt; Panagos, Adam; Dynetics, Inc.; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Space-time Coding (STC) for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless communication systems is an effective technique for providing robust wireless link performance in telemetry systems. This paper investigates the degradation in system performance when synchronization errors between the transmitter and receiver are present. Specifically, expressions that quantify the increase in symbol-error-rate as a function of symbol synchronization error are derived for a two-transmit and single receive antenna MISO system using binary frequency shift keying waveforms. These results are then extended to the MIMO case. The analytic results are verified with simulation results that show close agreement between the theoretical expressions and Monte Carlo simulation runs.
    • Electrostatic Approach for Mitigation of Communication Attenuation During Directed Energy Testing

      Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Keidar, Michael; Jones, Charles; George Washington University; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Electrostatic approach is considered for mitigation of communication attenuation during the testing of laser powered directed energy weapon. Mitigation analysis is carried out for two target materials Al and Ti. Plasma parameters are obtained using one dimensional coupled analysis of laser-target interaction. Influence of laser beam frequency on plasma parameters is addressed. Sheath thickness is obtained using transient sheath calculations. It is found that uninterrupted telemetry can be achieved | using a maximum bias voltage of 10 kV, through Al plasma for fluences below 5 J/cm² and through Ti plasma for fluences below 2 J/cm².
    • Excel Application Leverages XML to Configure Both Airborne Data Acquisition System and Ground Based Data Processing System

      Dunnaville, Ted; Lindsey, Mark; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Flight test instrumentation/data processing environments consist of three components: * Airborne Data Acquisition System * Telemetry Control Room * Post Test Data Processing System While these three components require the same setup information, most often they are configured separately using a different tool for each system. Vendor supplied tools generally do not interact very well with hardware other than their own. This results in the multiple entry of the configuration information. Multiple entries of data for large complex systems are susceptible to data entry errors as well as version synchronization issues. This paper describes the successful implementation of a single Microsoft Excel based tool being used to program the instrumentation data acquisition hardware, the real-time telemetry system, and the post test data processing system on an active test program. This tool leverages the XML interfaces provided by vendors of telemetry equipment.
    • Expanding the Role of Telemetry in the Aircraft and Space Vehicle Factory Acceptance Test to a Design Driver Allowing 100% Equipment to be Identified that Suffer Infant Mortality Failures

      Losik, Len; Failure Analysis (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The aircraft, satellite, missile and launch vehicle industry suffer from catastrophic infant mortality failures rate at ~25% even after exhaustive and comprehensive factory acceptance testing is completed causing unreliable systems, program delays and cost overruns. The discovery of the presence of deterministic behavior in equipment analog telemetry generated during factory acceptance testing preceding all equipment failures, which is identifiable using prognostic analysis, eliminates infant mortality failures resulting in increased equipment reliability, lower program cost, shorter test and delivery schedule and increased equipment usable life ensuring mission success. The addition of a single, embedded analog telemetry measurement to all active equipment allowing all equipment to be identified during factory testing that fails, and all equipment that will fail within the first year of use, to be identified will allow vehicle builders to lower program cost, use less equipment, use less testing and have a shorter delivery schedule and more reliable equipment and longer equipment usable life expanding the use of telemetry to identifying equipment that will fail well into the future.
    • The F-22 Radar Instrumentation System

      Natale, Louis; Roach, John; Lockheed Martin Aeronautics; Telectronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
    • Frequency Agile Transceiver for Advanced Vehicle Data Links

      Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Macias, Filiberto; Cornelius, Harold; NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; U.S. Army White Sands Missile Range; Hi-Val-U Consulting (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Emerging and next-generation test instrumentation increasingly relies on network communication to manage complex and dynamic test scenarios, particularly for uninhabited autonomous systems. Adapting wireless communication infrastructure to accommodate challenging testing needs can benefit from reconfigurable radio technology. Frequency agility is one characteristic of reconfigurable radios that to date has seen only limited progress toward programmability. This paper overviews an ongoing project to validate a promising chipset that performs conversion of RF signals directly into digital data for the wireless receiver and, for the transmitter, converts digital data into RF signals. The Software Configurable Multichannel Transceiver (SCMT) enables four transmitters and four receivers in a single unit, programmable for any frequency band between 1 MHz and 6 GHz.
    • Identification and Tracking Application of Self-Configuring Sensor Networks from Off-the-Shelf Parts

      Marcellin, Michael; Xin, Hao; Wood, Kevin; Stephens, Michael Zack; Moore, Michael; Hane, Thurston; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With the cost of microprocessor systems dropping steadily, sensor networks are becoming more and more viable for replacing traditional "dumb" sensors. This presents a host of advantages to the system collecting data, and allows for unprecedented system flexibility. In parallel to these developments, RFID "tagging" has come a long way and has also entered the realm of affordable sensor solutions. The merger of these ideas enables transient, modular, and reconfigurable asset identification and tracking systems. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of implementing such a network with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for real world applications. Specifically, we create a drop-in system for managing documents and records in a medical triage center, based on identifying assets and personnel by means of RFID. A self-reconfiguring sensor network provides the foundation, allows for the system to be deployed in minutes, both on a battlefield or in a hospital, and once deployed, the hospital beds may move around freely. The advantages of this platform will be discussed alongside the unique requirements that are introduced in this type of project.
    • Implementation of an LDPC Decoder Using Functional Programming Languages

      Perrins, Erik; Gill, Andy; Weling, Brett W.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper we present an implementation of a low density parity check (LDPC) decoder in the functional programming language Haskell. We describe the LDPC code in a very general sense and show how it is used in our implementation. We then discuss the advantages of using a functional programming language like Haskell to model this decoder, as well as the implications of doing so. Finally, we evaluate our model in terms of algorithm accuracy.
    • Implementation of the Viterbi Algorithm Using Functional Programming Languages

      Perrins, Erik; Gill, Andy; Bull, Tristan; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper, we present an implementation of the Viterbi algorithm using the functional programming language Haskell. We begin with a description of the functional implementation of the algorithm. Included are aspects of functional programming that must be considered when implementing the Viterbi algorithm as well as properties of Haskell that can be used to simplify or optimize the algorithm. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the Viterbi algorithm implemented in Haskell.
    • Improved Error Performance in SOQPSK Modulation Using a Ternary Symbol Encoder

      Counsil, David T.; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Telemetry transmissions have been evolving over the recent years from PCM/FM to other constant envelope modulation schemes such as SOQPSK and multi-h CPM. These newer modulations schemes have better spectral efficiency but tend to have worse error performance than optimally detected PCM/FM. We present a new ternary symbol encoder to replace the existing differential encoder and pre-coder for SOQPSK. This improves error performance while minimally affecting the spectral properties. The "reach" of the new ternary code length is not much longer than current symbol encoder, so there will not be a significant increase in synchronization time in the receiver. We provide simulation results showing the increased performance. Along the way, we also provide a simplified view of the current SOQPSK differential encoder and pre-coder.
    • iNET Deployment Process: A Case Study

      Faulstich, Raymond; Skelley, Daniel; Anderson, Brian; Computer Science Corporation; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Sponsored by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP), the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has created a proposed architecture for network enhancing aeronautical telemetry. Given the static nature of the current aeronautical telemetry architecture (it has not significantly changed in over 50 years), it is recognized that iNET must be carefully deployed to avoid test disruptions and safety issues. In support of a smooth transition to this new architecture, the Naval Air Warfare Division Aircraft (NAWCAD) conducted an extensive continuous process improvement project. This paper will describe the process, defined and launched by this study, to assure the safe deployment of iNET.
    • iNET Networking Standards Test Bed

      Newton, Todd A.; Kenney, Joshua D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project working groups have developed standards for Telemetry Network Systems (TmNS). In order for the standards to mature, the functionality of the standards will be demonstrated. To achieve this, efforts have been undertaken to simulate (and at times emulate) the key interfaces and to assess performance. To facilitate this work, a common network test bed has been developed. This test bed allows for validation of the iNET standards' performance characteristics.
    • Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) - Information Security in a Multi-Service Program

      O'Neal, Steve; Lukins, Jeff; Hodack, David; TYBRIN Corporation; Dynetics, Inc.; Patuxent River Naval Air Station (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With increasing competition for communications capability on Department of Defense, DOD, test ranges, and mounting associated costs for sequential scheduling of test activities, DOD is investing in 21st century digital telemetry for test ranges. This upgrade, the first major overhaul in more than 30 years, promises utilization of common RF spectrum for multiple, simultaneous tests on a given test range. Implementing this capability while 1) assuring program test directors of test execution capability and 2) complying with information assurance (IA) requirements for all DOD Services is a significant, but not impossible, challenge. In this paper we present a path forward for implementation of Certification and Accreditation (C&A) requirements for multi- Service implementation of integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Initial Operational Capability (IOC).
    • Intellibus™: Network Solution for Distributed High-Performance Data Acquisition Systems

      Ellerbrock, Philip J.; Winkelman, Christian H.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The demands for accurate, phase coherent, data acquisition is increasing with the advances in data analysis and data mining techniques. In addition, the space that data acquisition equipment and its wiring can use is getting smaller as structures become more efficient and space available is absorbed by new capabilities. Thus, there exists a need for instrumentation systems that can be distributed such that it reduces size, wire count, weight and cost. Boeing has developed a feature-rich multi-point transducer bus suitable for highly time deterministic, multiple sample rate, data acquisition systems. The new technology enables the use of emerging high-performance analog and digital signal conditioning integrated circuits into miniature, low-cost modules and smart transducers suitable for flight-test, ground-test, and laboratory applications. This paper explores the development of this technology, the technical challenges it addresses, the benefits the technology brings, and its current applications.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 45 (2009)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10
    • Isually Lossless Coding for Color Aerial Images Using PEG

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Kim, Yookyung; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper describes a psychophysical experiment to measure visibility thresholds (VT) for quantization distortion in JPEG2000 and an associated quantization algorithm for visually lossless coding of color aerial images. The visibility thresholds are obtained from a quantization distortion model based on the statistical characteristics of wavelet coefficients and the deadzone quantizer of JPEG2000, and the resulting visibility thresholds are presented for the luminance component (Y) and two chrominance components (Cb and Cr). Using the thresholds, we have achieved visually lossless coding for 24-bit color aerial images at an average bitrate of 4.17 bits/pixels, which is approximately 30% of the bitrate required for numerically lossless coding.
    • Key Components of the iNET Test Article Standard

      Grace, Thomas B.; Kenney, Joshua D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Test Article Standards Working Group (TASWG) has developed a standard for Telemetry Network System (TmNS). The introduction of Internet Protocol (IP) networks on test ranges has created the potential for greater flexibility in the telemetry environment. This paper discusses the rationale for particular decisions concerning key components mandated by the standard. Performance implications concerning the mandates of the standard are also described. As an educational aid, examples of TAS-based processing philosophies and data structures have been constructed. These examples, including sending and receiving messages, are shown to reinforce understanding core concepts of the standard.
    • Look Ma, No Hardware!

      Guadiana, Juan M.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Google Soft Decom and the number of hits will be tenfold over the same search last year. The migration of hardware functionality toward software is relentless. On the telemetry front, Data Bridges that take Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) signals and transform them to ubiquitous network packets make it all too easy. The need for expensive hardware such as the Decommutator (Decom), Frame Synchronizer, Digital Recorder, and Oscillograph Recorder (StripChart) will diminish sharply. Software Decom packages will feel the squeeze too, from homegrown Soft Decom software that is easier to maintain and has no licensing issues. This paper airs the dirty laundry associated with this hardware and software. Latencies and ugly temporal aberration that really plague an analyst. Also discussed is how a few packet/file formats eliminate the need for most of the hardware in a traditional telemetry data processing facility.
    • Low Noise Amplifiers with High Dynamic Range

      Ridgeway, Robert; Digi International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This new transistor will make it possible to achieve signal to noise ratio improvements of up to 15 dB (six times more link distance) for systems where the antenna looks sky ward. Using this type of low noise pHEMT device for on the horizon links insures that the telemetry link will be limited only by the natural thermal radio back ground noise and not by the receivers noise.
    • Low-Density Parity-Check Codes Which Can Correct Three Errors Under Iterative Decoding

      Vasic, Bane; Marcellin, Michael W.; Krishnan, Anantha Raman; Chilappagari, Shashi Kiran; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes with column-weight four to correct three errors when decoded using hard-decision message-passing decoding. We then give a construction technique which results in codes satisfying these conditions. We also provide numerical assessment of code performance via simulation results.