• Identification and Tracking Application of Self-Configuring Sensor Networks from Off-the-Shelf Parts

      Marcellin, Michael; Xin, Hao; Wood, Kevin; Stephens, Michael Zack; Moore, Michael; Hane, Thurston; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With the cost of microprocessor systems dropping steadily, sensor networks are becoming more and more viable for replacing traditional "dumb" sensors. This presents a host of advantages to the system collecting data, and allows for unprecedented system flexibility. In parallel to these developments, RFID "tagging" has come a long way and has also entered the realm of affordable sensor solutions. The merger of these ideas enables transient, modular, and reconfigurable asset identification and tracking systems. In this paper, we explore the feasibility of implementing such a network with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for real world applications. Specifically, we create a drop-in system for managing documents and records in a medical triage center, based on identifying assets and personnel by means of RFID. A self-reconfiguring sensor network provides the foundation, allows for the system to be deployed in minutes, both on a battlefield or in a hospital, and once deployed, the hospital beds may move around freely. The advantages of this platform will be discussed alongside the unique requirements that are introduced in this type of project.
    • Implementation of an LDPC Decoder Using Functional Programming Languages

      Perrins, Erik; Gill, Andy; Weling, Brett W.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper we present an implementation of a low density parity check (LDPC) decoder in the functional programming language Haskell. We describe the LDPC code in a very general sense and show how it is used in our implementation. We then discuss the advantages of using a functional programming language like Haskell to model this decoder, as well as the implications of doing so. Finally, we evaluate our model in terms of algorithm accuracy.
    • Implementation of the Viterbi Algorithm Using Functional Programming Languages

      Perrins, Erik; Gill, Andy; Bull, Tristan; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper, we present an implementation of the Viterbi algorithm using the functional programming language Haskell. We begin with a description of the functional implementation of the algorithm. Included are aspects of functional programming that must be considered when implementing the Viterbi algorithm as well as properties of Haskell that can be used to simplify or optimize the algorithm. Finally, we evaluate the performance of the Viterbi algorithm implemented in Haskell.
    • Improved Error Performance in SOQPSK Modulation Using a Ternary Symbol Encoder

      Counsil, David T.; Punnoose, Ratish J.; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Telemetry transmissions have been evolving over the recent years from PCM/FM to other constant envelope modulation schemes such as SOQPSK and multi-h CPM. These newer modulations schemes have better spectral efficiency but tend to have worse error performance than optimally detected PCM/FM. We present a new ternary symbol encoder to replace the existing differential encoder and pre-coder for SOQPSK. This improves error performance while minimally affecting the spectral properties. The "reach" of the new ternary code length is not much longer than current symbol encoder, so there will not be a significant increase in synchronization time in the receiver. We provide simulation results showing the increased performance. Along the way, we also provide a simplified view of the current SOQPSK differential encoder and pre-coder.
    • iNET Deployment Process: A Case Study

      Faulstich, Raymond; Skelley, Daniel; Anderson, Brian; Computer Science Corporation; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Sponsored by the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP), the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project has created a proposed architecture for network enhancing aeronautical telemetry. Given the static nature of the current aeronautical telemetry architecture (it has not significantly changed in over 50 years), it is recognized that iNET must be carefully deployed to avoid test disruptions and safety issues. In support of a smooth transition to this new architecture, the Naval Air Warfare Division Aircraft (NAWCAD) conducted an extensive continuous process improvement project. This paper will describe the process, defined and launched by this study, to assure the safe deployment of iNET.
    • iNET Networking Standards Test Bed

      Newton, Todd A.; Kenney, Joshua D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Grace, Thomas B.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project working groups have developed standards for Telemetry Network Systems (TmNS). In order for the standards to mature, the functionality of the standards will be demonstrated. To achieve this, efforts have been undertaken to simulate (and at times emulate) the key interfaces and to assess performance. To facilitate this work, a common network test bed has been developed. This test bed allows for validation of the iNET standards' performance characteristics.
    • Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) - Information Security in a Multi-Service Program

      O'Neal, Steve; Lukins, Jeff; Hodack, David; TYBRIN Corporation; Dynetics, Inc.; Patuxent River Naval Air Station (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With increasing competition for communications capability on Department of Defense, DOD, test ranges, and mounting associated costs for sequential scheduling of test activities, DOD is investing in 21st century digital telemetry for test ranges. This upgrade, the first major overhaul in more than 30 years, promises utilization of common RF spectrum for multiple, simultaneous tests on a given test range. Implementing this capability while 1) assuring program test directors of test execution capability and 2) complying with information assurance (IA) requirements for all DOD Services is a significant, but not impossible, challenge. In this paper we present a path forward for implementation of Certification and Accreditation (C&A) requirements for multi- Service implementation of integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Initial Operational Capability (IOC).
    • Intellibus™: Network Solution for Distributed High-Performance Data Acquisition Systems

      Ellerbrock, Philip J.; Winkelman, Christian H.; The Boeing Company (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The demands for accurate, phase coherent, data acquisition is increasing with the advances in data analysis and data mining techniques. In addition, the space that data acquisition equipment and its wiring can use is getting smaller as structures become more efficient and space available is absorbed by new capabilities. Thus, there exists a need for instrumentation systems that can be distributed such that it reduces size, wire count, weight and cost. Boeing has developed a feature-rich multi-point transducer bus suitable for highly time deterministic, multiple sample rate, data acquisition systems. The new technology enables the use of emerging high-performance analog and digital signal conditioning integrated circuits into miniature, low-cost modules and smart transducers suitable for flight-test, ground-test, and laboratory applications. This paper explores the development of this technology, the technical challenges it addresses, the benefits the technology brings, and its current applications.
    • International Telemetering Conference Proceedings, Volume 45 (2009)

      International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10
    • Isually Lossless Coding for Color Aerial Images Using PEG

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Kim, Yookyung; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper describes a psychophysical experiment to measure visibility thresholds (VT) for quantization distortion in JPEG2000 and an associated quantization algorithm for visually lossless coding of color aerial images. The visibility thresholds are obtained from a quantization distortion model based on the statistical characteristics of wavelet coefficients and the deadzone quantizer of JPEG2000, and the resulting visibility thresholds are presented for the luminance component (Y) and two chrominance components (Cb and Cr). Using the thresholds, we have achieved visually lossless coding for 24-bit color aerial images at an average bitrate of 4.17 bits/pixels, which is approximately 30% of the bitrate required for numerically lossless coding.
    • Key Components of the iNET Test Article Standard

      Grace, Thomas B.; Kenney, Joshua D.; Moodie, Myron L.; Abbott, Ben A.; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Test Article Standards Working Group (TASWG) has developed a standard for Telemetry Network System (TmNS). The introduction of Internet Protocol (IP) networks on test ranges has created the potential for greater flexibility in the telemetry environment. This paper discusses the rationale for particular decisions concerning key components mandated by the standard. Performance implications concerning the mandates of the standard are also described. As an educational aid, examples of TAS-based processing philosophies and data structures have been constructed. These examples, including sending and receiving messages, are shown to reinforce understanding core concepts of the standard.
    • Look Ma, No Hardware!

      Guadiana, Juan M.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Google Soft Decom and the number of hits will be tenfold over the same search last year. The migration of hardware functionality toward software is relentless. On the telemetry front, Data Bridges that take Pulse Code Modulated (PCM) signals and transform them to ubiquitous network packets make it all too easy. The need for expensive hardware such as the Decommutator (Decom), Frame Synchronizer, Digital Recorder, and Oscillograph Recorder (StripChart) will diminish sharply. Software Decom packages will feel the squeeze too, from homegrown Soft Decom software that is easier to maintain and has no licensing issues. This paper airs the dirty laundry associated with this hardware and software. Latencies and ugly temporal aberration that really plague an analyst. Also discussed is how a few packet/file formats eliminate the need for most of the hardware in a traditional telemetry data processing facility.
    • Low Noise Amplifiers with High Dynamic Range

      Ridgeway, Robert; Digi International (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This new transistor will make it possible to achieve signal to noise ratio improvements of up to 15 dB (six times more link distance) for systems where the antenna looks sky ward. Using this type of low noise pHEMT device for on the horizon links insures that the telemetry link will be limited only by the natural thermal radio back ground noise and not by the receivers noise.
    • Low-Density Parity-Check Codes Which Can Correct Three Errors Under Iterative Decoding

      Vasic, Bane; Marcellin, Michael W.; Krishnan, Anantha Raman; Chilappagari, Shashi Kiran; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes with column-weight four to correct three errors when decoded using hard-decision message-passing decoding. We then give a construction technique which results in codes satisfying these conditions. We also provide numerical assessment of code performance via simulation results.
    • Measuring and Evaluating Best Source Selection

      Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      To properly evaluate and characterize the performance of a bit synchronizer we need to apply a known data stream and then adjust several interference parameters to measure the effect on synchronization performance: white noise, offset and gain variations and frequency and phase shifts. The task becomes more complex when we consider the performance of a best source selector (BSS) which combines the performance of two or more bit synchronizers to achieve better bit error rates and more consistent synchronization than can be achieved with one alone. Each of the parameters (noise, offset, gain, phase) are often different for each bit synchronizer, and may vary over time. In addition the incoming bit streams can drift in time (possibly 100s of bits) with respect to each other. This paper discusses how these parameters are measured, and looks in particular at the problem of evaluating a BSS. Results showing the performance that can be achieved when aligning and combining multiple streams are presented and discussed.
    • Metadata Description Language: The iNET Metadata Standard Language

      Moore, Michael S.; Price, Jeremy C.; Cormier, Andrew R.; Malatesta, William A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In order to help manage the complexity in designing and configuring network-based telemetry systems, and to promote interoperability between equipment from multiple vendors, the integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Metadata Standards Working Group (MDSWG) has developed a standard language for describing and configuring these systems. This paper will provide the community with an overview of Metadata Description Language (MDL), and describe how MDL can support the description of the requirements, design choices, and the configuration of devices that make up the Telemetry Network System (TmNS). MDL, an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) based language that describes a TmNS from various aspects, is embodied by an XML schema along with additional rules and constraints. Example MDL instance documents will be presented to illustrate how MDL can be used to capture requirements, describe the design, and configure the equipment that makes up a TmNS. Various scenarios for how MDL can be used will be discussed.
    • A Method for Tracking the Accuracy of Channel Estimates in MIMO Receivers

      Kosbar, Kurt; Gupte, Abhishek; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Multiple input multiple output communication systems offer significant advantages, but only if the receiver has an accurate estimate of the channel state information (CSI). To obtain a CSI estimate, the transmitter must stop sending data, and instead send a training sequence. To maximize throughput, the time spent sending training data should be minimized. This paper describes a method which allows the receiver to track the accuracy of its CSI estimate, so that it can request new training data only when necessary.
    • A Model-Based Methodology for Managing T&E Metadata

      Hamilton, John; Fernandes, Ronald; Darr, Timothy; Graul, Michael; Jones, Charles; Weisenseel, Annette; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper, we present a methodology for managing diverse sources of T&E metadata. Central to this methodology is the development of a T&E Metadata Reference Model, which serves as the standard model for T&E metadata types, their proper names, and their relationships to each other. We describe how this reference model can be mapped to a range's own T&E data and process models to provide a standardized view into each organization's custom metadata sources and procedures. Finally, we present an architecture that uses these models and mappings to support cross-system metadata management tasks and makes these capabilities accessible across the network through a single portal interface.
    • Multipath Mitigation for Aeronautical Telemetry with Multiple Antennas

      Saquib, M.; Williams, Ian E.; University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Frequency selective multipath is a key performance limiter for aeronautical telemetry applications. Our research explores multipath mitigation techniques with ARTM Tier-1 waveforms using linear adaptive filters, multiple receive antennas and error-based best source selection. Single antenna adaptive equalization alone is unable to substantially improve performance under certain channel conditions. Analytical investigations demonstrate that nonlinear channel phase response is the principal cause of performance loss. In this adverse environment, spatial diversity with multiple receive antennas along with error-based best source selection are capable of improving bit error rate performance by 5dB for each additional antenna.
    • Network Telemetry Link Throughput Maximization Approaches

      Moodie, Myron L.; Newton, Todd A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The use of Ethernet and Internet Protocol (IP) networking technologies in flight test instrumentation and telemetry systems is rapidly increasing, driven by the ubiquity, scalability, and flexibility of networking technologies. Networks first made a positive impact in ground station infrastructure and have recently been emerging in test article data acquisition infrastructure in programs such as the A380, 787, P-8A, and Future Combat Systems. The next logical step is to provide a two-way network telemetry link to fully extend the flexibility of the network between the test articles and ground station. The United States Department of Defense (DoD) integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program is currently working to build a standardized network telemetry link for exactly this purpose. When developing a network telemetry link, the limited availability of telemetry spectrum must be considered and thus it is critical to choose system-level approaches to maximize the throughput achieved from the link. This paper first presents the statistics of the network data that would typically use this link based on empirical data from current network-based flight test instrumentation systems. Several approaches to using a network telemetry link are then presented. Predicted achievable throughputs of each approach are presented that are derived from the statistics of the empirical test data. Based on this, the paper presents recommendations for building systems using network telemetry links.