• Networked Flight Test Instrumentation Data Recording Solutions

      Cranley, Nikki; Corry, Diarmuid; ACRA Control, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      An integral component of networked Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) and Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) is the networked Data Recorder. The high data rates achievable in networked data acquisition systems put increased demands on the recorder to support ever faster read and write rates. Key to the success of the networked recorder is the format in which the data is recorded. The data recording file format should be network-centric with a low processing overhead to support the recording demands. In this paper the popular file formats, Chapter 10 and the Packet CAPture (PCAP), that are used for recording networked FTI are analyzed and compared.
    • Obtaining an ATO for an iNET Operational Demonstration

      Hodack, David; Naval Air Systems Command (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project was launched to foster network enhanced instrumentation and telemetry. The program is currently implementing an operational demonstration. That will involve installing and using a network enhanced instrumentation system on a helicopter. This demonstration will be used as a learning exercise for the implementation of network technologies. This paper will give a brief description of the operational demonstration. Then it will explore the need for an Authority to Operate (ATO) and describe how one was obtained.
    • OFDM Performance on Aeronautical Channnels

      Dean, Richard; Kamirah, Daniel K.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper provides an introduction to the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) scheme which has been proposed for future aeronautical telemetry applications. OFDM offers the potential for high data rates on radio channels with multipath such as aeronautical telemetry channels. This paper provides in introduction to OFDM and demonstrates how orthogonality is maintained over multipath channels by the introduction of a guard band and by the inclusion of a cyclic prefix. The simulation of OFDM in multipath is simulated and performance results are presented that show the degradation of this scheme on a multipath channel with and without the guard band and the cyclic prefix.
    • Pacific Ranges Interoperable Test & Evaluation Capabilities (PRITEC)

      Hermann, Scott A.; Wigent, Mark A.; Chavez, Tomas C.; PMRF; SAIC; CSC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The office of the Defense Test Resources Management Center (DTRMC) has developed two major programs to achieve Joint/Interoperable exercises between DoD test and training ranges. Joint Mission Environment Test Capability (JMETC) defines a LVC environment in which Joint operations take place, while the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) defines the communication within that environment. Putting these programs to everyday use has been a challenge for the ranges. The Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) is executing the Central Test & Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) sponsored Pacific Ranges Interoperable Test & Evaluation Capabilities (PRITEC) project designed to develop a set of tools that will facilitate implementation of JMETC and TENA. This paper will discuss the PRITEC project in detail.
    • Performance Analysis of Reentry TDOA Positioning System

      Nan, Xie; Futang, Zhang; China Academy of Engineering Physics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In reentry measurement, we need to measure the track of reentry vehicle. For the speed of target is very high, it is difficult for traditional positioning system to capture and track the target. TDOA (time difference of arrival) positioning system is used in reentry measurement. The position of target is calculated by using time difference of arrival. This paper introduces the principle of reentry TDOA positioning system. The key technology is synchronization of ground stations' clocks. The implementation of clock synchronization using low-cost commercial GPS receiver is presented. The sources of errors in the existing telemetry system, corresponding precision and experimental results are presented. Some methods, which are used to improve the precision, are proposed at the end of this paper.
    • Performance and Disruption Tolerance of Transport Protocols for Airborne Telemetry Networks

      Sterbenz, James P. G.; Rohrer, Justin P.; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The airborne telemetry environment presents unique challenges to end-to-end communications due to the highly dynamic topology and time-varying connectivity of high-velocity wireless nodes. The AeroTP transport protocol uses multiple reliability modes to trade off end-to-end reliability and efficiency as appropriate for different categories of telemetry data. Based on the architecture previously presented, we have further developed the design of this protocol, as well as performing preliminary simulations of AeroTP using the ns-3 simulation platform. In this paper we present the operational modes of AeroTP in greater detail, as well as comparing the performance of TCP with the AeroTP domain-specific transport protocol.
    • Performance Comparison of OFDM and DSSS on Aeronautical Channels

      Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Dean, Richard; Ehichioya, Daniel; Golriz, Arya; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper develops a performance framework for OFDM by contrasting its performance with Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) over aeronautical channels. Each of the OFDM and DSSS modulated simulations are put through the channel and compared on terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR) versus bit error rate. The simulation will show that DSSS will have better power efficiency on multipath channels because the rake receiver adds all multipath components to strengthen the receiver. By contrast OFDM with an equalizer will have better spectrum efficiency results where QAM modulation of multiple tones allows for high data rates in a limited bandwidth. This work develops a framework for contrasting the performance of the rake receiver and the equalizer for operation on multipath channels. By comparing these schemes on various channels the choice of OFDM for iNET can be clearly understood and evaluated.
    • The Performance Evaluation of an OFDM-Based iNET Transceiver

      Lu, Cheng; Roach, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The nXCVR-2000G transceiver is an 802.11a OFDM-based system undergoing performance studies that uses both simulation and laboratory tests. The multi-path channel model used in the simulation experiments is based on a telemetry multi-path channel model described in the iNET Telemetry Experimental Standard document. To date, the results using the simulation have been confirmed by outdoor laboratory tests. They show that multi-path has less impact on the OFDM performance when the channel spread is within a limit of 800ns; the same specified guard interval (GI) used by 802.11a. For example, with a channel spread of 144ns (τ1) and a reflection coefficient of -0.26dB (Γ1), the Error Vector Magnitude (EVM) is on the order of 2.5%. As the channel spread expands beyond the standard GI 800ns, the demodulated signal degrades. The performance penalty depends upon the channel spread factor and the total Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR).
    • Performance of an OFDM-Based DVB-T System and its FPGA Implementation

      Yang, Luyu; Song, Peng; Song, Qingping; North China University of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a new technique for data transmission. Conforming to the final draft of OFDM-based DVB-T (ETSI EN 300 744 V1.6.1), which is intended for digital terrestrial television broadcasting, a DVB-T baseband system is designed. The system performance is simulated in MATLAB using Simulink. Then it is implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with the help of System Generator software. The result shows that OFDM is robust against multipath effect and convenient for implementation as well, thus owning a quite promising future.
    • Post Processing Data Analysis

      Irick, Nancy; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Once the test is complete, the job of the Data Analyst has begun. Files from the various acquisition systems are collected. It is the job of the analyst to put together these files in a readable format so the success or failure of the test can be attained. This paper will discuss the process of breaking down these files, comparing data from different systems, and methods of presenting the data.
    • Potential Solutions to Communications During Plasmasonic Flight

      Jones, Charles H.; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      At about Mach number 10 and above, a high energy plasma field forms around a vehicle. This plasma sheath has a high attenuation factor that can cause communications black out. No practical solutions to communicating through a plasma sheath are known. In addition to standard real time data needs for test, a driving requirement to solve this problem is that most solutions will have to be designed into the vehicle. Modifications of vehicles designed to travel at these Mach numbers, especially any exterior modifications, will be extremely difficult due to effects on aerodynamics, thermal protection, and the materials used. A list of possible solutions to communications through hypersonically induced plasma has been collected over several years. This list was added to and verified during the Workshop on Communications through Plasma during Hypersonic Flight. Pros and cons of these potential solutions have been discussed and documented as well. The workshop also included a vote by the attending experts on what solutions are most promising. This paper reviews these solutions, their pros and cons, and a recommended way forward to solving this problem.
    • Preamble Design for Symbol Timing Estimation from SOQPSK-TG Waveforms

      Erkmen, Baris I.; Tkacenko, Andre; Okino, Clayton M.; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Data-aided symbol synchronization for bursty communications utilizes a predetermined modulation sequence, i.e., a preamble, preceding the payload. For effective symbol synchronization, this preamble must be designed in accordance with the modulation format. In this paper, we analyze preambles for shaped offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK) waveforms. We compare the performance of several preambles by deriving the Cram´er-Rao bound (CRB), and identify a desirable one for the Telemetry Group variant of SOQPSK. We also demonstrate, via simulation, that the maximum likelihood estimator with this preamble approaches the CRB at moderate signal-to-noise ratio.
    • A Programmable Dual Modulator Testbed for MIMO Applications

      Kosbar, Kurt; Seaber, John; Barkley, Jacob; Ngo, Tony; Poettgen, Adam; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems use multiple transmitters and receivers to increase the capacity and reliability of radio frequency communication links used in multipath and disruptive environments. This paper describes a recently designed hardware testbed that can be used as a modulator and transmitter for MIMO systems which use two transmitters. The testbed consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) that generates the I/Q baseband signals for the two transmitters. A wide variety of modulation and coding formats, up to data rates of 10 Mbps, can be implemented by reprogramming the FPGA. The dual I/Q outputs from the FPGA are then fed to a pair of quadrature modulators, which have programmable carrier frequencies from 1,025 to 2,450 MHz. The system is implemented on a single printed circuit board, and has dual RF outputs with programmable power levels up to 0 dBm.
    • Proposed iNET Network Security Architecture

      Dean, Richard; Dukes, Renata; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Morgan State University's iNET effort is aimed at improving existing telemetry networks by developing more efficient operation and cost effectiveness. This paper develops an enhanced security architecture for the iNET environment in order to protect the network from both inside and outside adversaries. This proposed architecture addresses the key security components of confidentiality, integrity and authentication. The security design for iNET is complicated by the unique features of the telemetry application. The addition of encryption is complicated by the need for robust synchronization needed for real time operation in a high error environment.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA)

      Grubbs, Elmer; Marcellin, Michael; Lichtsinn, Wade; McKelvy, Evan; Myrick, Adam; Quihuis, Dominic; Williamson, Jamie; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      NASA's Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) project has the goal of producing a single robust and space-efficient imaging system. This paper will show the progress of the current RISA project iteration, tasked with implementing a Inter-Integrated Circuit (I²C) communications controller on a radiation hardened Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), characterizing a liquid lens optical system, and adding a radiation hardened temperature sensor. The optical design focuses on small liquid lenses that can vary focal length with no moving parts. The chosen designs will allow this camera system to meet critical mission objectives and provide reliable service to NASA's astronauts.
    • Secure Remote Access to Telemetry: A Study in How to Allow Remote Access to Satellite Telemetry Data

      McClinton, Arthur T., Jr.; Noblis, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The need to allow remote access to telemetry data from closed networks has long existed. To ensure the correct engineers are available for anomaly resolution, NOAA developed the Secure Remote Access Server (SRAS) to allow transfer of satellite telemetry to an external secure server. SRAS uses one-way links to protect the ground system and secure communications for all communications with the user. After the SRAS was developed, a similar system was developed to support file transfers. This paper provides an overview of these systems and lessons learned in the development of one-way fiber systems.
    • Semantic Web Technologies for T&E Metadata Verification and Validation

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles; Weisenseel, Annette; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The vision of the semantic web is to unleash the next generation of information sharing and interoperability by encoding meaning into the symbols that are used to describe various computational capabilities within the World Wide Web or other networks. This paper describes the application of semantic web technologies to Test and Evaluation (T&E) metadata verification and validation. Verification is a quality process that is used to evaluate whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation, specification, or conditions imposed at the start of a development phase or which exists in the organization. Validation is the process of establishing documented evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a product, service, or system accomplishes its intended requirements. While this often involves acceptance and suitability with external customers, automation provides significant assistance to the customers.
    • Sensing with Terahertz Radiation: Applications and Challenges

      Suen, J. Y.; Singh, R. S.; Li, W.; Taylor, Z. D.; Culjat, M. O.; Tewari, P.; Grundfest, W. S.; Brown, E. R.; Lee, H.; University of California, Santa Barbara; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The field of Terahertz (THz) radiation, electromagnetic energy, between 0.3 to 3 THz, has seen intense interest recently, because it combines some of the best properties of IR along with those of RF. For example, THz radiation can penetrate fabrics with less attenuation than IR, while its short wavelength maintains comparable imaging capabilities. We discuss major challenges in the field: designing systems and applications which fully exploit the unique properties of THz radiation. To illustrate, we present our reflective, radar-inspired THz imaging system and results, centered on biomedical burn imaging and skin hydration, and discuss challenges and ongoing research.
    • The Software Decommutation Model (SDM)

      Creel, Larry; Engler, Richard; Alexis Telemetry, Incorporated; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      It is well known that current PCM telemetry formats are outstripping the capability of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Telemetry Systems to implement the corresponding data conversions required to process them. Two complementary approaches are needed for solving this problem: one is to put end users into direct touch with the information stored in telemetry streams; and the other is to convert telemetry applications into this new way of doing things. It is less known that a single technology, software decommutation, provides a practical foundation for both approaches. This document explains why this is so. While developing this software decommutation theme, a very sharp line must be drawn between a software decommutation approach and the COTS telemetry systems solution so that the label "software decommutation" will not be used in misleading ways. The key to drawing this line is SDM's (Software Decommutation Model) ability to: * Extract bits from the raw telemetry stream into 64-bit parameter "containers" in a platform independent ("big endian" or "little endian") manner. * Process algorithms in an algorithm chain on telemetry parameter data to support the desired formatting (i.e. engineering unit conversion). * Easily integrate "special" processing of non-IRIG 106 telemetry data as required (i.e. multiple embedded streams, mode changes, embedded packetized data, etc.). * Independently interface to user-developed data displays locally or via a network connection. *Note: The SDM cannot process a PCM stream directly; to do its job, a databridge is required that provides telemetry data as frame aligned IP packets via a network port.
    • Standardize Your IP Traffic with TMOIP

      Grebe, Andy; Apogee Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With the emergence of higher bandwidth Ethernet networks on ranges, many ranges are converting their data transport from ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks to Ethernet networks. Both networks have their respective advantages and disadvantages, however one reoccurring issue is product interoperability. The RCC (Range Commanders Council) TTG (Telecommunications and Timing Group) created the Telemetry over IP (TMoIP 218-07) solution with input from various ranges and vendors to solve this issue. This specification allows ranges to use different vendors together for Telemetry over Ethernet, based on specific needs at each site. This paper targets those who are thinking about converting from ATM to Ethernet networks.