• Potential Solutions to Communications During Plasmasonic Flight

      Jones, Charles H.; Air Force Flight Test Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      At about Mach number 10 and above, a high energy plasma field forms around a vehicle. This plasma sheath has a high attenuation factor that can cause communications black out. No practical solutions to communicating through a plasma sheath are known. In addition to standard real time data needs for test, a driving requirement to solve this problem is that most solutions will have to be designed into the vehicle. Modifications of vehicles designed to travel at these Mach numbers, especially any exterior modifications, will be extremely difficult due to effects on aerodynamics, thermal protection, and the materials used. A list of possible solutions to communications through hypersonically induced plasma has been collected over several years. This list was added to and verified during the Workshop on Communications through Plasma during Hypersonic Flight. Pros and cons of these potential solutions have been discussed and documented as well. The workshop also included a vote by the attending experts on what solutions are most promising. This paper reviews these solutions, their pros and cons, and a recommended way forward to solving this problem.
    • Preamble Design for Symbol Timing Estimation from SOQPSK-TG Waveforms

      Erkmen, Baris I.; Tkacenko, Andre; Okino, Clayton M.; California Institute of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Data-aided symbol synchronization for bursty communications utilizes a predetermined modulation sequence, i.e., a preamble, preceding the payload. For effective symbol synchronization, this preamble must be designed in accordance with the modulation format. In this paper, we analyze preambles for shaped offset quadrature phase-shift keying (SOQPSK) waveforms. We compare the performance of several preambles by deriving the Cram´er-Rao bound (CRB), and identify a desirable one for the Telemetry Group variant of SOQPSK. We also demonstrate, via simulation, that the maximum likelihood estimator with this preamble approaches the CRB at moderate signal-to-noise ratio.
    • A Programmable Dual Modulator Testbed for MIMO Applications

      Kosbar, Kurt; Seaber, John; Barkley, Jacob; Ngo, Tony; Poettgen, Adam; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems use multiple transmitters and receivers to increase the capacity and reliability of radio frequency communication links used in multipath and disruptive environments. This paper describes a recently designed hardware testbed that can be used as a modulator and transmitter for MIMO systems which use two transmitters. The testbed consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) that generates the I/Q baseband signals for the two transmitters. A wide variety of modulation and coding formats, up to data rates of 10 Mbps, can be implemented by reprogramming the FPGA. The dual I/Q outputs from the FPGA are then fed to a pair of quadrature modulators, which have programmable carrier frequencies from 1,025 to 2,450 MHz. The system is implemented on a single printed circuit board, and has dual RF outputs with programmable power levels up to 0 dBm.
    • Proposed iNET Network Security Architecture

      Dean, Richard; Dukes, Renata; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Morgan State University's iNET effort is aimed at improving existing telemetry networks by developing more efficient operation and cost effectiveness. This paper develops an enhanced security architecture for the iNET environment in order to protect the network from both inside and outside adversaries. This proposed architecture addresses the key security components of confidentiality, integrity and authentication. The security design for iNET is complicated by the unique features of the telemetry application. The addition of encryption is complicated by the need for robust synchronization needed for real time operation in a high error environment.
    • Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA)

      Grubbs, Elmer; Marcellin, Michael; Lichtsinn, Wade; McKelvy, Evan; Myrick, Adam; Quihuis, Dominic; Williamson, Jamie; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      NASA's Remote Imaging System Acquisition (RISA) project has the goal of producing a single robust and space-efficient imaging system. This paper will show the progress of the current RISA project iteration, tasked with implementing a Inter-Integrated Circuit (I²C) communications controller on a radiation hardened Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), characterizing a liquid lens optical system, and adding a radiation hardened temperature sensor. The optical design focuses on small liquid lenses that can vary focal length with no moving parts. The chosen designs will allow this camera system to meet critical mission objectives and provide reliable service to NASA's astronauts.
    • Secure Remote Access to Telemetry: A Study in How to Allow Remote Access to Satellite Telemetry Data

      McClinton, Arthur T., Jr.; Noblis, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The need to allow remote access to telemetry data from closed networks has long existed. To ensure the correct engineers are available for anomaly resolution, NOAA developed the Secure Remote Access Server (SRAS) to allow transfer of satellite telemetry to an external secure server. SRAS uses one-way links to protect the ground system and secure communications for all communications with the user. After the SRAS was developed, a similar system was developed to support file transfers. This paper provides an overview of these systems and lessons learned in the development of one-way fiber systems.
    • Semantic Web Technologies for T&E Metadata Verification and Validation

      Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Hamilton, John; Jones, Charles; Weisenseel, Annette; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The vision of the semantic web is to unleash the next generation of information sharing and interoperability by encoding meaning into the symbols that are used to describe various computational capabilities within the World Wide Web or other networks. This paper describes the application of semantic web technologies to Test and Evaluation (T&E) metadata verification and validation. Verification is a quality process that is used to evaluate whether or not a product, service, or system complies with a regulation, specification, or conditions imposed at the start of a development phase or which exists in the organization. Validation is the process of establishing documented evidence that provides a high degree of assurance that a product, service, or system accomplishes its intended requirements. While this often involves acceptance and suitability with external customers, automation provides significant assistance to the customers.
    • Sensing with Terahertz Radiation: Applications and Challenges

      Suen, J. Y.; Singh, R. S.; Li, W.; Taylor, Z. D.; Culjat, M. O.; Tewari, P.; Grundfest, W. S.; Brown, E. R.; Lee, H.; University of California, Santa Barbara; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The field of Terahertz (THz) radiation, electromagnetic energy, between 0.3 to 3 THz, has seen intense interest recently, because it combines some of the best properties of IR along with those of RF. For example, THz radiation can penetrate fabrics with less attenuation than IR, while its short wavelength maintains comparable imaging capabilities. We discuss major challenges in the field: designing systems and applications which fully exploit the unique properties of THz radiation. To illustrate, we present our reflective, radar-inspired THz imaging system and results, centered on biomedical burn imaging and skin hydration, and discuss challenges and ongoing research.
    • The Software Decommutation Model (SDM)

      Creel, Larry; Engler, Richard; Alexis Telemetry, Incorporated; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      It is well known that current PCM telemetry formats are outstripping the capability of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) Telemetry Systems to implement the corresponding data conversions required to process them. Two complementary approaches are needed for solving this problem: one is to put end users into direct touch with the information stored in telemetry streams; and the other is to convert telemetry applications into this new way of doing things. It is less known that a single technology, software decommutation, provides a practical foundation for both approaches. This document explains why this is so. While developing this software decommutation theme, a very sharp line must be drawn between a software decommutation approach and the COTS telemetry systems solution so that the label "software decommutation" will not be used in misleading ways. The key to drawing this line is SDM's (Software Decommutation Model) ability to: * Extract bits from the raw telemetry stream into 64-bit parameter "containers" in a platform independent ("big endian" or "little endian") manner. * Process algorithms in an algorithm chain on telemetry parameter data to support the desired formatting (i.e. engineering unit conversion). * Easily integrate "special" processing of non-IRIG 106 telemetry data as required (i.e. multiple embedded streams, mode changes, embedded packetized data, etc.). * Independently interface to user-developed data displays locally or via a network connection. *Note: The SDM cannot process a PCM stream directly; to do its job, a databridge is required that provides telemetry data as frame aligned IP packets via a network port.
    • Standardize Your IP Traffic with TMOIP

      Grebe, Andy; Apogee Labs, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      With the emergence of higher bandwidth Ethernet networks on ranges, many ranges are converting their data transport from ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks to Ethernet networks. Both networks have their respective advantages and disadvantages, however one reoccurring issue is product interoperability. The RCC (Range Commanders Council) TTG (Telecommunications and Timing Group) created the Telemetry over IP (TMoIP 218-07) solution with input from various ranges and vendors to solve this issue. This specification allows ranges to use different vendors together for Telemetry over Ethernet, based on specific needs at each site. This paper targets those who are thinking about converting from ATM to Ethernet networks.
    • Strategies for Optimized Spectrum Allocation and Management

      Painter, Mike K.; Fernandes, Ronald; Ramachandran, Satheesh; Verma, Ajay; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper describes research aimed at investigating how to help decision makers devise optimized frequency scheduling and management strategies, both for advanced planning and real-time metrics adjustment. Part of these investigations include research to (i) define the metrics, objectives, and constraints involved in optimal frequency allocation decision-making; (ii) harmonize competing, orthogonal goals when devising candidate solutions; and (iii) devise an architectural strategy for dynamic spectrum allocation and management.
    • Symbol Synchronization of GFSK Modulated Signals in a Multipath Environment

      Kosbar, Kurt; Gupte, Abhishek; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This paper investigates the performance of a symbol synchronization technique when used for bandlimited modulation formats in multipath environments. The performance was analyzed using Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying as the modulation format, and assume the receiver has no channel state information The symbol synchronization algorithm calculates the minimum sample variance of eye diagrams over varying symbol rate estimates. The system performance was measured through simulations run at various signal-to-noise ratios and over a range of single-reflection multipath channels.
    • Synchronization for Burst-Mode APSK

      Rice, Michael; Shaw, Christopher; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      We derive bounds on the performance of data-aided joint estimators for timing offset, carrier phase offset, and carrier frequency offset for use in an APSK packet-based communication link. It is shown that the Cramér-Rao Bound (CRB) is a function of the training sequence, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and the pulse shape. We also compute APSK training sequences of different lengths that minimize the CRB for each of the parameters.
    • A System-Level Description of a SOQPSK-TG Demodulator for FEC Applications

      Perrins, Erik; Rea, Gino; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this paper we present a system-level description of a demodulator for shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying, telemetry group version (SOQPSK-TG) for use in forward error correction (FEC) applications. We describe the system in block-diagram form and provide implementation details for data sequence detection, symbol timing synchronization, carrier phase synchronization, and block recovery. This decision-directed demodulator is based on maximum likelihood principles, and is efficiently implemented by the soft output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA). We also provide results of the demodulator's performance in the additive white Gaussian noise channel, based on the observed bit error rate at different signal-to-noise ratio levels.
    • The Technology of DBPSK Modulation-Demodulation for Telecommand in Remote Control Test System

      Song, Peng; Han, Yu-long; Mao, Chi-heng; Huang, Kun; North China University of Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      This design adopts the software radio and DBPSK(Differential Binary Phase Shift Keying)modulation-demodulation, which detects the telecommand receiving by the guided-missile system correctly. The DBPSK modulation module in Altera FPGA chip converts the binary telecommand into DBPSK signal, which will be frequency modulated after D/A conversion. In the receiver, the FM signal is demodulated and A/D converted before sending to the FPGA. The DBPSK demodulation module in FPGA finally gets the telecommand which will be tally with the telecommand from transmitter. At last, the whole DBPSK modulation-demodulation module is embedded into the remote control test system. The design is working properly and meeting the requirements of the test system.
    • Telemetry Recorders and Disruptive Technologies

      Kortick, David; Astro-Med, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Telemetry data recorders are not immune to the effects that a number of disruptive technologies have had on the telemetry industry. Data recorder designs today make use of data buses, storage types and graphical user interfaces that are constantly evolving based on the advances of personal computer and consumer electronics technologies. Many of these recorders use embedded designs that integrate disruptive technologies such as PCI Express for realtime data and signal processing, SATA interfaces for data storage and touchscreen technologies to provide an intuitive operator interface. Solid state drives also play a larger role in the latest recorder designs. This paper will explore the effects of these technologies on the latest telemetry recorders in terms of the benefits to the users, cost of implementation, obsolescence management, and integration considerations. The implications of early adoption of disruptive technologies will also be reviewed.
    • A Telemetry System for Firefighters

      Marcellin, Michael; Melde, Kathleen; Uprety, Sandip; Caglio, Joseph; Ho, Michelle; Chio, Chi Hou; Mckeefery, Stephanie; Goh, Jae Hyok; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      In this project, a telemetry system is implemented to save firefighters from potential danger in their working environment. Each Firefighter has a "node" or "unit" attached to them which contains temperature, oxygen, and carbon-monoxide sensors, and a transceiver. Each node constantly transmits data collected by the sensors to a central "base station." The base station consists of a laptop which is monitored by the Fire Chief at a safe distance from the scene, and it displays gas levels. The base station monitors the sensor readings, and sets off an alarm locally and also at the node if a reading has reached a predetermined critical value.
    • Temporal, Spectral, and Spatial Treat Simulation Using a Towed Airborne Plume Simulator (TAPS)

      Taylor, Rick; Redmond, Neal; Balding, Jeff; Science Applications International Corporation; Center for Countermeasures (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Efforts are underway to develop Infrared countermeasure (IRCM) systems to defend aircraft against IR guided surface-to-air (SAM) and air-to-air (AAM) missiles. One such system is the Large Aircraft Infrared Counter Measure (LAIRCM) which employs temporal, spatial, and spectral missile warning techniques. There is no current technique however, for installed system flight testing of such countermeasures in a realistic temporal, spatial, and spectral environment. This paper is an introduction to the Towed Airborne Plume Simulator (TAPS), a system designed to address this test shortfall. The TAPS operational concept is described as well as techniques for simulating missile signatures.
    • TENA Performance in a Telemetry Network System

      Saylor, Kase J.; Wood, Paul B.; Malatesta, William A.; Abbott, Ben A.; Southwest Research Institute; Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      The integrated Network-Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project conducted an assessment to determine how the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA) would integrate into an iNET Telemetry Network System (TmNS), particularly across constrained environments on a resource constrained platform. Some of the key elements investigated were quality of service measures (throughput, latency, and reliability) in the face of projected characteristics of iNET Data Acquisition Unit (DAU) devices including size, weight, and power (SWAP), and processing capacity such as memory size and processor speed. This paper includes recommendations for both the iNET and TENA projects.
    • Terahertz Spectroscopy for Medical Instrumentation Development

      Li, W.; Singh, R. S.; Suen, J. Y.; Taylor, Z. D.; Culjat, M. O.; Grundfest, W. S.; Brown, E. R.; Lee, H.; University of California, Santa Barbara; University of California, Los Angeles (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2009-10)
      Recent development of sources and detectors in the THz regime (300 GHz to 3 THz) has enabled the precise measurement of material properties, including complex refractive indexes and loss tangents. Using our developed THz spectrometer, new data, in particular, of biological tissues has been used to develop potential THz medical imaging applications. In this paper, an overview of a 0.1-3 THz, with sub-GHz resolution spectroscopy system is presented that has been designed in particular to measure biological samples and provide data that will used to determine initial viability of THz medical imaging applications.