• The SoftDecom Engine

      Benitez, Jesus; Guadiana, Juan; Torres, Miguel; Creel, Larry; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The software decommutator was recently fielded at White Sands to address the requirements of a new missile test program. This software decommutator is rewritten as a simple C program Function or Class with a simple interface. The function and an Interface Control Definition (ICD) comprise the SoftDecom Engine (SDE). This paper addresses how an SDE can deliver Enterprise Wide Portability, not only that of the SDE, but more importantly a test program!s Verification & Validation (V&V). The crux of the portability issue is reduced to defining the interface of the SDE. In the simplest manifestation only two interfaces are needed and one is a given. The input structure is defined by the telemeter minor frame with time appended if desired. The output structure is no more than an array containing the parameters required. The ICD could be generalized into a standard for most applications, but that isn!t necessary, as the structures are simple, hence easy to adapt to anyway. This new paradigm!s importance will flourish on industries irreversible migration to faster and more complex telemeters. The paper reviews the relative ease that software exhibits when addressing very complex telemeters. With confidence it may be said “ if the telemeter format can be described in writing, it can be processed real time”. Also discussed are tasks that normally require specialized or customized and expensive equipment for example, merged streams, complex simulations and recording and reproducing PCM (sans recorder). Hopefully, your creativity will be engaged as ours has been.

      Spjut, Erik; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Prounh, Chris; Rowland, Clarence; Ryckman, Raymond; Winton, Elizabeth; Harvey Mudd College (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The Edwards Air Force Base Clinic team at Harvey Mudd College designed, built, and tested a prototype for a laser-based telemetry system. The test data were encoded on a 500 mW 1550 nm laser aimed at a ground station by a computer-controlled gimbal. The system communicated from a terrestrial vehicle to a ground station over a distance of 900 m. The extrapolated results indicate a maximum range of greater than 3000 m. This project emphasized COTS parts to minimize cost. Suggestions for the next-generation design, with an air-to-ground link, higher throughput, and greater range, are presented.

      Lockard, Michael T.; Rajagopalan, R.; Garling, James A.; EMC Corporation, Solutions Engineering Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Rapid access to ever-increasing amounts of test data is becoming a problem. The authors have developed a data-mining methodology solution approach to provide a solution to catalog test files, search metadata attributes to derive test data files of interest, and query test data measurements using a web-based engine to produce results in seconds. Generated graphs allow the user to visualize an overview of the entire test for a selected set of measurements, with areas highlighted where the query conditions were satisfied. The user can then zoom into areas of interest and export selected information.

      Saquib, Mohammad; Popescu, Otilia; Popescu, Dimitrie C.; Rice, Michael; University of Texas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In this paper we describe a new method that is applicable to mitigating both multipath interference and adjacent channel interference (ACI) in aeronautical telemetry applications using ARTM Tier-1 waveforms. The proposed method uses a linear equalizer that is derived using Kalman filtering theory, which has been used for channel equalization for high-speed communication systems. We illustrate the proposed method with numerical examples obtained from simulations that show the bit error rate performance (BER) for different modulation schemes.

      Wolf, Glen; Ortigoza, Saul; Streich, Ronald G.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      A rocket launch, as high dynamics target, was used to demonstrate X-band tracking and also to verify high bit rate frequency planning while demonstrating significant bandwidth reduction with IRIG standard advanced modulation methods. X-band tracking by a modified 8-foot mobile telemetry antenna was excellent. Three separate S-band transmitters with three separate wraparound antennas were launched as a piggyback payload on an Enhanced Orion sounding rocket at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) to compare the performance of 10 Mbs and 20 Mbs bit error rate (BER) pattern data transmission from CPFSK, FQPSK-JR and ARTM CPM modulation formats under high dynamic conditions. The test is more remarkable in that another S-band wideband spread spectrum signal was also transmitted with good success. These results show that all three modulation methods performed well during ignition and liftoff, low aspect angle (receiving through the rocket motor plume during ascent from a tracker near the launch pad), spin stabilization antenna lobe fades and payload tumbling. Spectrum pictures are provided to show the dramatic reduction in transmission bandwidth from CPFSK to FQPSK-JR to ARTM CPM. Confirmation of the preflight RF adjacent channel interference planning procedures from IRIG 106-05 is described by spectrum pictures and data quality measurements.

      Blakely, Patrick A.; The Boeing Commercial Airplanes (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper discusses the importance of time measurement and the necessity of time measurement accuracy to data acquisition and analysis. It briefly reviews how time is used in data analysis and how to determine what amount of jitter, latency and phase error is acceptable for various data acquisition systems and analysis methodology. It discusses the relevance of various measurement timing errors and how some of them may be corrected. Finally, this paper discusses various approaches to time tagging of measurements in a distributed network based data system where data is packetized for efficient transmission.
    • How to Estimate the Unmodulated Carrier Power Level of a Modulated Telemetry Signal

      Law, Eugene; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper will present methods to both measure the unmodulated carrier power of a modulated signal and to estimate the unmodulated carrier power level from the measured power spectrum. The unmodulated carrier power level is needed to convert measured spectra into units of dBc.
    • DoD Ranges Interoperability and Resource Reuse Achievable Through the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      To ensure range interoperability and range resource reuse are available and promoted across the DoD Test and Training range community, the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) has developed and continues to refine the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA). TENA provides the architecture and software implementation to enable range interoperability, to foster range asset reuse, to provide composability, and to enable simulation‐based system engineering/acquisition. TENA has proven to be a critical enabler of major distributed live military exercises but has expanded to embrace other usage. Inclusive of new technologies, TENA developers are actively involved with the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET), a CTEIP program which will provide wireless connectivity over which a variety of users will run applications and exchange data.

      Gargasz, John; DRS CODEM SYSTEMS, INC. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      There is a growing demand for an affordable Satellite Communications On-The-Move (COTM) Antenna system to serve Military and high commercial requirements. Current COTM architectures do not meet the Government’s price point objectives and thus are not effective production solutions. DRS Codem Systems has developed an affordable COTM the move antenna system architecture that meets the market price point while maintaining superior technical performance. The core elements of the architecture include: low-cost antenna reflector technology, integrated navigation sensors, integrated antenna control electronics with intelligent sensor fusion, maximum use of COTS components and an overall design intended to meet MILSpec environments. We have also selected X-band as the initial band for operation enabling a low-cost design and reliable network performance.

      Huang, Heng; Legarsky, Justin; Lei, Qiang; University of Missouri-Columbia; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Radar echo sounders provide a safe, inexpensive and effective means of obtaining ice sheet thickness. As the roughness of ice surface/subsurface depends on the radio wavelength, wideband radar sensors can provide flexibility for ice thickness measurement under areas with various surface conditions. This paper presents the design of a digitally controllable wideband microwave receiver for a potential radar sounding system. Its radio frequency (RF) frequency ranges from 50 to 500 MHz, while the intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth is 20 MHz. The receiver provides eight channels for different RF band choices, as well as a number of convenient gain settings. Testing measurements have also been conducted to verify the design requirements.
    • !a_waste_of_time

      Creel, Larry; Torres, Miguel; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Time has always been the elusive fourth dimension - until now. Using a common programming language and a network-to-PCM interface, the power to generate time codes is facilitated using a non-traditional approach. This novel approach to time simulation addresses the common conundrums concerning time code simulation and testing. Practical applications will be discussed along with an intriguing technical demonstration.

      Doonan, Daniel; Fu, Tricia; Utley, Chris; Iltis, Ronald; Kastner, Ryan; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper describes the design and successful development of an acoustic modem for potential use in underwater ecological sensor networks. The presentation includes theoretical study, design and development of both software and hardware, laboratory experiments, full-scale field tests, and the documentation and analysis of field-test results.

      Heath, Doug; Polluconi, Marty; Samad, Flora; RT Logic Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      As the rates and numbers of serial telemetry data streams increase, the cost of timely, efficient and robust distribution of those streams increases faster. Without alternatives to traditional pointto- point serial distribution, the complexity of the infrastructure will soon overwhelm potential benefits of the increased stream counts and rates. Utilization of multiplexing algorithms in Field- Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), coupled with universally available Internet Protocol (IP) switching technology, provides a low-latency, time-data correlated multi-stream distribution solution. This implementation has yielded zero error IP transport and regeneration of multiple serial streams, maintaining stream to stream skew of less than 10 nsec, with end-to-end latency contribution of less than 15 msec. Adoption of this technique as a drop-in solution can greatly reduce the costs and complexities of maintaining pace with the changing serial telemetry community.

      Tian, Hai; Trojak, Tom; Jones, Charles H.; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper presents a practical implementation of a hardware design for transmission of data over aircraft power lines. The intent of such hardware is to significantly reduce the wiring in the aircraft instrumentation system. The potential usages of this technology include pulse code modulation (PCM), Ethernet and other forms data communications. Details of the fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA) and printed circuit board (PCB) designs of the digital and analog front end will be discussed. The power line is not designed for data transmission. It contains considerable noise, multipath effects, and time varying impedance. Spectral analysis data of an aircraft is presented to indicate the difficulty of the problem at hand. A robust modulation is required to overcome the harsh environment and to provide reliable transmission. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been used in power line communication industry with a great deal of success. OFDM has been deemed the most appropriate technology for high-speed data transmission on aircraft power lines. Additionally, forward error correction (FEC) techniques are discussed.

      Berdugo, Albert; Hildin, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Airborne data acquisition systems have changed very little over the years. Their growth has primarily been in the area of digital filtering and the acquisition of new avionic busses. Communication between data acquisition units operating as a system still employs Time Division Multiplexing scheme. These schemes utilize command and data busses like CAIS and PCM. Although this approach is highly efficient, it has many drawbacks. These drawbacks have resulted in rigid system architecture, system bandwidth limitations, highly specialized recorders to acquire unique avionic busses that would otherwise overwhelm the system bandwidth, and unidirectional flow of data and control. This paper describes a network centric data acquisition system that is Ethernet based. Although Ethernet is known as an asynchronous bus, the paper will describe a deterministic time distribution over the bus per IEEE-1588 that allows the use of a packet network for airborne data acquisition. The acquisition unit within the network system is defined by its MIB (Management Information Base) and operates as a data source unit. Other network components may operate as a data sink unit, such as recorders, or as a data source and sink. The role of different units in the network system will be evaluated. The paper will also describe network gateways that allow the use of traditional PCM systems with a network-based system.

      Roach, John; Hildin, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Traditionally, acquired instrumentation data on a non-destructive test article is recorded to a nonvolatile memory recorder. The data acquisition system usually samples and formats its inputs before transmitting the data to the recorder (also known in this paper as a data sink) via a PCM serial data stream (i.e., clock and data). In a network-based data acquisition architecture, the inclusion of an IP-based recorder adds a new dimension to the data acquisition process. Any IP network inherently allows for the bi-directional exchange of data. In this environment, the IPbased recorder can be treated as both a data sink for parameter recording and a data source for parameter extraction, data rate statistics, and recorder status reporting. The network model recasts the data recorder’s function as a file server to which multiple clients could be simultaneously requesting services. Those clients that represent the data acquisition nodes are requesting storage of their acquired parameters. Clients, such as transmitters or test engineers, are requesting access to archived data or status information for further processing. This paper presents the advantages of using an IP-based recorder in a network-based data acquisition system. The availability of an IP interface along with the intelligence built into the recorder expands its capabilities beyond that of a conventional PCM recorder. These capabilities include real-time health monitoring, support for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP), data mining, reporting of real-time performance and network statistics.

      Kosbar, Kurt; Lord, Dale; Telemetry Learning Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Recent emphasis has been placed on mobile robotics performing in unstructured environments. This realm of operations requires many different algorithms to interpret the various situations. This not only requires a system that is able to support, and facilitate, the fusion of the results, but it also needs to be tolerant of system errors. In modern operating systems, separate processes are able to fail without affecting other processes. Using this ability, along with fault tolerant inter-process communications, and supervisory process managers, allows the total system to continue to operate under adverse conditions. While this paper focuses primarily on the challenges faced by mobile robotics, the approach can be extended to a wide range of systems which must autonomously identify and adapt to failures/situations.

      May, Linda R.; Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc.; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      “Wind Weighting” is the process of assessing the effect of wind on a launch vehicle and determining launcher settings which would counteract that effect. This paper discusses the advantages of using GPS radiosondes to determine wind profiles over the historical method of tracking balloon positions with radar for the purposes of Wind Weighting. The primary advantages are lower costs and greater portability. Also presented is evidence of improved accuracy and reliability. Engineering testing is described and test results are reported.
    • Best Source Selection on Encrypted Data

      Guadiana, Juan M.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The size of the range at White Sands means multiple acquisition sites are needed to properly cover a typical vehicle trajectory. As vehicle complexity increase, the need for robust acquisition grows. Multiple acquisition sites are needed to provide as complete coverage as practical. Space Diversity combining would provide a single composite source for all the displays and recording, but this is not practical due to the large distances between acquisition sites. Instead a composite is made from the various sites by correlation on non-encrypted (or decrypted) data. The previous best source selector, a frame synch histogrammer, could produce encrypted and decrypted composites. Some of our customers have missed the encrypted composites, hence the subject is revisited to encourage development. This paper reviews post decryption correlation and then focuses on correlating on encrypted data. The encryption serves to eliminate the ambiguities that are inherent in decrypted (nonencrypted) signals. So, it may be possible to accomplish this with a small correlator. The expected performance would be similar to that of correlated composites on decrypted or unencrypted data. The typical configuration would be considerably smaller as well since only two decrypters would be needed. One decrypter alone would be insufficient and could not resolve the case where only one site has data and the remaining sites have noise. When there is no correlation the correct site cannot be resolved. Testing these compositing methods is also discussed, as a good test method also provides insight on how the compositor should work.
    • CELLULAR BROADBAND TELEMETRY OPTIONS FOR THE 21st CENTURY: Looking at broadband cellular from a telemetry perspective

      Smith, Brian J.; Omniwav Mobile, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      With the recent broadband upgrades to various cellular infrastructures and the myriad new emerging wireless broadband standards and services offered by carriers, it is often difficult to navigate this sea of technology. In deciding the best choice for broadband telemetry applications, one must look not only at the technology, but also at the economics, market timing, bandwidths, legacy issues, future expandability and coverage, security, protocols, and the requirements of the specific application. This paper reviews the technology roadmap of cellular providers keeping these issues in perspective as they apply to TCP/IP data for images, audio, video, and other broadband telemetry data using CDMA 1xRTT, EV-DO, and EV-DO Rev A systems as well as GSM GPRS/EDGE, UMTS/W-CDMA, HSDPA, and HSUPA networks. Lastly, issues seen by system integrators when using cellular channels for telemetry applications are examined, and a case is presented for overcoming many of these issues through the use of cellular routers.