• DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTATION WITH A SOFTWARE-DEFINED ACOUSTIC TELEMETRY MODEM

      Doonan, Daniel; Fu, Tricia; Utley, Chris; Iltis, Ronald; Kastner, Ryan; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper describes the design and successful development of an acoustic modem for potential use in underwater ecological sensor networks. The presentation includes theoretical study, design and development of both software and hardware, laboratory experiments, full-scale field tests, and the documentation and analysis of field-test results.
    • NETWORK DATA ACQUISITION AND PLAYBACK OF MULTIMEDIA DATA

      Portnoy, Michael; Yang, Hsueh-Szu; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Traditional data acquisition systems have relied on physical connections between data sources and data receivers to handle the routing of acquired data streams. However, these systems grow exponentially in complexity as the number of data sources and receivers increases. New techniques are needed to address the ever increasing complexity of data acquisition. Furthermore, more advanced mechanisms are needed that move past the limitations of traditional data models that connect each data source to exactly one data receiver. This paper presents a software framework for the playback of multiplexed data acquired from a network acquisition system. This framework uses multicast technologies to connect data sources with multiple data receivers. The network acquisition system is briefly introduced before the software framework is discussed. Both the challenges and advantages involved with creating such a system are presented. Finally, this framework is applied to an aviation telemetry example.
    • LAUNCH VEHICLE EXHAUST PLASMA / PLUME EFFECTS ON GROUND TELEMETRY RECEPTION, STARS FT-04-1

      McWhorter, Mark; Honeywell Aerospace Electronic Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper discusses the effect of vehicle exhaust plasma/plume on the ability to receive telemetered data via an S-band RF link. The data presented herein were captured during the launch of the STARS FT-04-1 on February 23, 2006 from Kodiak Launch Center, Kodiak, Alaska using Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation’s (AADC) Range Safety and Telemetry System (RSTS), designed and integrated by Honeywell.
    • LEVERAGING INTERNET PROTOCOL (IP) NETWORKS TO TRANSPORT MULTI-RATE SERIAL DATA STREAMS

      Heath, Doug; Polluconi, Marty; Samad, Flora; RT Logic Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      As the rates and numbers of serial telemetry data streams increase, the cost of timely, efficient and robust distribution of those streams increases faster. Without alternatives to traditional pointto- point serial distribution, the complexity of the infrastructure will soon overwhelm potential benefits of the increased stream counts and rates. Utilization of multiplexing algorithms in Field- Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), coupled with universally available Internet Protocol (IP) switching technology, provides a low-latency, time-data correlated multi-stream distribution solution. This implementation has yielded zero error IP transport and regeneration of multiple serial streams, maintaining stream to stream skew of less than 10 nsec, with end-to-end latency contribution of less than 15 msec. Adoption of this technique as a drop-in solution can greatly reduce the costs and complexities of maintaining pace with the changing serial telemetry community.
    • ENCRYPTED CORRELATING SOURCE SELECTOR

      Reid, Eric; RT Logic Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Modern telemetry and data streams are often encrypted. The majority of range testing activities require multiple ground stations to collect these streams and send them to a central processing location. Each of these streams currently needs to be individually decrypted before best source selection, processing and analysis. Using innovative techniques, it is possible to time correlate these encrypted streams, compare them with each other and create an output stream of better quality than any of the individual streams. This stream can then be decrypted by a single decryption device, greatly reducing cost and complexity.
    • Securing Print Services for Telemetry Post-Processing Applications

      Hines, Larry; Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      One of the primary goals of telemetry post processing is to format received data for review and analysis. This occurs by both displaying processed data on video monitors and by printing out the results to hardcopy media. Controlling access (i.e. viewing) of telemetry data in soft form (i.e. video monitor) is achieved by utilizing the existing framework of authentication and authorization on the client/server machines hosting the telemetry data (and post processing applications). Controlling access to hardcopy output has historically been much more problematic. This paper discusses how to implement secure printing services for telemetry post processing applications.
    • DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF AN OPTICAL TELEMETRY SYSTEM

      Spjut, Erik; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Prounh, Chris; Rowland, Clarence; Ryckman, Raymond; Winton, Elizabeth; Harvey Mudd College (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The Edwards Air Force Base Clinic team at Harvey Mudd College designed, built, and tested a prototype for a laser-based telemetry system. The test data were encoded on a 500 mW 1550 nm laser aimed at a ground station by a computer-controlled gimbal. The system communicated from a terrestrial vehicle to a ground station over a distance of 900 m. The extrapolated results indicate a maximum range of greater than 3000 m. This project emphasized COTS parts to minimize cost. Suggestions for the next-generation design, with an air-to-ground link, higher throughput, and greater range, are presented.
    • The SoftDecom Engine

      Benitez, Jesus; Guadiana, Juan; Torres, Miguel; Creel, Larry; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The software decommutator was recently fielded at White Sands to address the requirements of a new missile test program. This software decommutator is rewritten as a simple C program Function or Class with a simple interface. The function and an Interface Control Definition (ICD) comprise the SoftDecom Engine (SDE). This paper addresses how an SDE can deliver Enterprise Wide Portability, not only that of the SDE, but more importantly a test program!s Verification & Validation (V&V). The crux of the portability issue is reduced to defining the interface of the SDE. In the simplest manifestation only two interfaces are needed and one is a given. The input structure is defined by the telemeter minor frame with time appended if desired. The output structure is no more than an array containing the parameters required. The ICD could be generalized into a standard for most applications, but that isn!t necessary, as the structures are simple, hence easy to adapt to anyway. This new paradigm!s importance will flourish on industries irreversible migration to faster and more complex telemeters. The paper reviews the relative ease that software exhibits when addressing very complex telemeters. With confidence it may be said “ if the telemeter format can be described in writing, it can be processed real time”. Also discussed are tasks that normally require specialized or customized and expensive equipment for example, merged streams, complex simulations and recording and reproducing PCM (sans recorder). Hopefully, your creativity will be engaged as ours has been.
    • A VERSATILE, SOFTWARE PROGRAMMABLE TELEMETRY SYSTEM FOR SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLES

      Pillai, Sreelal Sreedharan; Sankarattil, Sreekumar; Padmanabhan, Padma; Rao, Vinod Padmanabha; Pillai, Sivasubramonia; Pillai, Madaswamy; Kollamparambil, Damodaran; Kurian, Thomas; Thirunavukkarasu, Chidambaram; Indian Space Research Organization (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      We describe the design and development of a baseband telemetry system for multistage launch vehicles. The system is organized as a three tier one with remote data acquisition and processing units and a centralized control unit. The front-end Data Acquisition Units (DAUs) feature software programmable amplification, offset, filtering and sensor excitation and thus are flexible to interface directly to a variety of sensors used in launch vehicles. The Data Processing Units (DPUs) gather data from DAUs through a serial link compatible to RS-485 standards and carry out a variety of data analysis and data compression functions on selected channels under software control. The central Telemetry Control Unit (TCU) receives this data through a transformer isolated link compatible to MIL-1553B standards and performs the functions of data delay, data storage, onboard computer data monitoring, PCM formatting and pre-modulation signal conditioning to achieve miniaturization. The configuration and features of this telemetry system make its integration simple without compromising on data integrity and reliability and suit the adoption of futuristic technologies and concepts such as smart sensor networks, adaptability, reconfiguration and vehicle health management.
    • THE APPLICATION OF OBJECT-ORIENTED DATA MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES TO T&E DATA CHALLENGES

      Dawson, Dan; Wyle Laboratories, Telemetry and Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper describes an adaptive data management architecture capable of supporting order-of-magnitude data volume increases without a priori knowledge of data structures. The architecture allows users to generate and maintain data in optimal legacy formats while managing and extracting information with common analysis tools. This paper shows how an object-oriented data management system can manage both data and the knowledge imparted to the data by users.
    • MINING IRIG-106 CHAPTER 10 AND HDF-5 DATA

      Lockard, Michael T.; Rajagopalan, R.; Garling, James A.; EMC Corporation, Solutions Engineering Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Rapid access to ever-increasing amounts of test data is becoming a problem. The authors have developed a data-mining methodology solution approach to provide a solution to catalog test files, search metadata attributes to derive test data files of interest, and query test data measurements using a web-based engine to produce results in seconds. Generated graphs allow the user to visualize an overview of the entire test for a selected set of measurements, with areas highlighted where the query conditions were satisfied. The user can then zoom into areas of interest and export selected information.
    • How to Estimate the Unmodulated Carrier Power Level of a Modulated Telemetry Signal

      Law, Eugene; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper will present methods to both measure the unmodulated carrier power of a modulated signal and to estimate the unmodulated carrier power level from the measured power spectrum. The unmodulated carrier power level is needed to convert measured spectra into units of dBc.
    • JOINT INTERFERENCE SUPPRESSION AND QRD-M DETECTION FOR SPATIAL MULTIPLEXING MIMO SYSTEMS IN A RAYLEIGH FADING CHANNEL

      Tsai, Chiou-Wei; Cagley, Richard E.; Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California; Toyon Research Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Spatial multiplexing (SM) systems have received significant attention because the architecture offers high spectral efficiency. However, relatively little research exists on optimization of SM systems in the presence of jamming. In a spatially uncoded SM system, such as V-BLAST, the channel state information is assumed to be unavailable a priori at both transmitter and receiver. Here, Kalman filtering is used to estimate the Rayleigh fading channel at the receiver. The spatial correlation of the jammer plus noise is also estimated, and spatial whitening to reject the jammers is employed in both the Kalman channel estimator and detector. To avoid the exponential complexity of maximum-likelihood (ML) detection, the QRD-M algorithm is employed. In contrast to sphere decoding, QRD-M has fixed decoding complexity of order O(M), and is thus attractive for hardware implementation. The performance of the joint Kalman filter channel estimator, spatial whitener and QRD-M detector is verfied by simulations.
    • Unscented Filter for OFDM Joint Frequency Offset and Channel Estimation

      Iltis, Ronald A.; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      OFDM is a preferred physical layer for an increasing number of telemetry and LAN applications. However, joint estimation of the multipath channel and frequency offset in OFDM remains a challenging problem. The Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) is presented to solve the offset/channel tracking problem. The advantages of the UKF are that it is less susceptible to divergence than the EKF, and does not require computation of a Jacobian matrix. A hybrid analysis/simulation approach is developed to rapidly evaluate UKF performance in terms of symbol-error rate and channel/offset error for the 802.11a OFDM format.
    • CPFSK, FQPSK-JR and ARTM CPM ON A ROCKET LAUNCH

      Wolf, Glen; Ortigoza, Saul; Streich, Ronald G.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      A rocket launch, as high dynamics target, was used to demonstrate X-band tracking and also to verify high bit rate frequency planning while demonstrating significant bandwidth reduction with IRIG standard advanced modulation methods. X-band tracking by a modified 8-foot mobile telemetry antenna was excellent. Three separate S-band transmitters with three separate wraparound antennas were launched as a piggyback payload on an Enhanced Orion sounding rocket at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) to compare the performance of 10 Mbs and 20 Mbs bit error rate (BER) pattern data transmission from CPFSK, FQPSK-JR and ARTM CPM modulation formats under high dynamic conditions. The test is more remarkable in that another S-band wideband spread spectrum signal was also transmitted with good success. These results show that all three modulation methods performed well during ignition and liftoff, low aspect angle (receiving through the rocket motor plume during ascent from a tracker near the launch pad), spin stabilization antenna lobe fades and payload tumbling. Spectrum pictures are provided to show the dramatic reduction in transmission bandwidth from CPFSK to FQPSK-JR to ARTM CPM. Confirmation of the preflight RF adjacent channel interference planning procedures from IRIG 106-05 is described by spectrum pictures and data quality measurements.
    • INTERFERENCE MITIGATION AND CHANNEL EQUALIZATION FOR ARTM TIER-1 WAVEFORMS USING KALMAN FILTER

      Saquib, Mohammad; Popescu, Otilia; Popescu, Dimitrie C.; Rice, Michael; University of Texas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In this paper we describe a new method that is applicable to mitigating both multipath interference and adjacent channel interference (ACI) in aeronautical telemetry applications using ARTM Tier-1 waveforms. The proposed method uses a linear equalizer that is derived using Kalman filtering theory, which has been used for channel equalization for high-speed communication systems. We illustrate the proposed method with numerical examples obtained from simulations that show the bit error rate performance (BER) for different modulation schemes.
    • ACHIEVING HIGH-ACCURACY TIME DISTRIBUTION IN NETWORK-CENTRIC DATA ACQUISITION AND TELEMETRY SYSTEMS WITH IEEE 1588

      Grim, Evan T.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Network-centric data acquisition and telemetry systems continue to gain momentum and adoption. However, inherent non-deterministic network delays hinder these systems’ suitability for use where high-accuracy timing information is required. The emerging IEEE 1588 standard for time distribution offers the potential for real-time data acquisition system development using cost-effective, standards-based network technologies such as Ethernet and IP multicast. This paper discusses the challenges, realities, lessons, and triumphs experienced using IEEE 1588 in the development and implementation of such a large-scale network-centric data acquisition and telemetry system. IEEE 1588 clears a major hurdle in moving the network-centric buzz from theory to realization.
    • IMPORTANCE OF “ACCURATE” TIME TO TEST AND MEASUREMENT OF COMPLEX DYNAMIC SYSTEMS

      Blakely, Patrick A.; The Boeing Commercial Airplanes (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper discusses the importance of time measurement and the necessity of time measurement accuracy to data acquisition and analysis. It briefly reviews how time is used in data analysis and how to determine what amount of jitter, latency and phase error is acceptable for various data acquisition systems and analysis methodology. It discusses the relevance of various measurement timing errors and how some of them may be corrected. Finally, this paper discusses various approaches to time tagging of measurements in a distributed network based data system where data is packetized for efficient transmission.
    • FROM RF TO BITS WITH SYNTHETIC BEAMFORMING

      Kelkar, Anand; Lamarra, Norm; Gonzalez, Daniel; Creative Digital Systems; Malibu Research Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      A Synthetic Beamforming antenna was built for Airborne Telemetry. Low-Noise Block-converters translated RF to IF suitable for direct analog-to-digital conversion. Then all telemetry functions were performed digitally via parallel FPGAs for 10 independent sources. Monopulse tracking and optimal diversity combination was performed using 4 antenna quadrants at two orthogonal polarizations. Novel estimation approaches drove digital demodulation, symbol- and bit- synchronization. Final telemetry outputs include: digital, analog (video), and analog IF (e.g., for downlink relay). This program has incubated several concepts that we believe have the combined potential to significantly improve the future of telemetry.
    • Single Bounce Air to Ground Communication Channel Capacity for MIMO Applications

      Kosbar, Kurt; Potter, Chris; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper addresses the air-to-ground communication problem, where multiple transmit antennas are used on the aircraft to combat multi-path interference. The channel is assumed to have a line-of-sight component and a single ground reflection. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques can be used in this situation, to increase the reliability and data rate. In this paper we discuss how the MIMO channel capacity changes, with the aircraft antenna configuration, altitude, velocity, range, and a number of other parameters. For comparison, the MIMO results are compared to systems which have single antennas at the transmitter, at the receiver, or at both ends.