McWhorter, Mark; Honeywell Aerospace Electronic Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper discusses the effect of vehicle exhaust plasma/plume on the ability to receive telemetered data via an S-band RF link. The data presented herein were captured during the launch of the STARS FT-04-1 on February 23, 2006 from Kodiak Launch Center, Kodiak, Alaska using Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation’s (AADC) Range Safety and Telemetry System (RSTS), designed and integrated by Honeywell.

      Heath, Doug; Polluconi, Marty; Samad, Flora; RT Logic Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      As the rates and numbers of serial telemetry data streams increase, the cost of timely, efficient and robust distribution of those streams increases faster. Without alternatives to traditional pointto- point serial distribution, the complexity of the infrastructure will soon overwhelm potential benefits of the increased stream counts and rates. Utilization of multiplexing algorithms in Field- Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA), coupled with universally available Internet Protocol (IP) switching technology, provides a low-latency, time-data correlated multi-stream distribution solution. This implementation has yielded zero error IP transport and regeneration of multiple serial streams, maintaining stream to stream skew of less than 10 nsec, with end-to-end latency contribution of less than 15 msec. Adoption of this technique as a drop-in solution can greatly reduce the costs and complexities of maintaining pace with the changing serial telemetry community.

      Lockard, Michael T.; Garling, James A. Jr; EMC Corporation, Solutions Engineering Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The quantity and types of measurements and measurement instrumentation required for a test are growing. This paper describes a methodology to define and program multi-vendor instrumentation using abstraction models in a database that allows new instrumentation to be defined rapidly. This allows users to support multiple vendors’ systems while using a common user interface to define instrumentation networks, bus catalogs, measurements, pulse code modulated (PCM) formats, and data processing requirements.

      Hicks, William T.; IMET Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Most modern digital filtering is done by taking the average (mean) of a signal or some weighted average. Another method is to use feedback, which more closely resembles how analog filters with feedback operate. In the case of low pass filters, all these methods tend to give a trade off in getting the signal to pass while attenuating the higher frequency noise. An alternative is to use a median filter, which selects the mid value of a group of points. While this is not as computationally simple as other filters, it allows for the attenuation of noise while allowing sudden changes in signal level to pass thru unaltered. This paper discusses the characteristics of median filters and methods of implementing them.

      Grace, Thomas; Fink, Clay; Naval Air Systems Command; John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      CTEIP has launched the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project to foster advances in networking and telemetry technology to meet emerging needs of major test programs. This paper describes an approach for providing a unified means of describing telemetry systems. It will describe the motivation and framework for a metadata standard for specifying the components of an instrumented test article, its data and the flow of data through a telemetry system. The paper will also describe how this metadata standard can provide the means for describing different transmission formats for a common test article. The result of the task described by this paper will lead to a standard or set of standards that will optimize the use of commercial technology and tools.

      Lockard, Michael T.; Rajagopalan, R.; Garling, James A.; EMC Corporation, Solutions Engineering Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Rapid access to ever-increasing amounts of test data is becoming a problem. The authors have developed a data-mining methodology solution approach to provide a solution to catalog test files, search metadata attributes to derive test data files of interest, and query test data measurements using a web-based engine to produce results in seconds. Generated graphs allow the user to visualize an overview of the entire test for a selected set of measurements, with areas highlighted where the query conditions were satisfied. The user can then zoom into areas of interest and export selected information.

      Portnoy, Michael; Yang, Hsueh-Szu; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Traditional data acquisition systems have relied on physical connections between data sources and data receivers to handle the routing of acquired data streams. However, these systems grow exponentially in complexity as the number of data sources and receivers increases. New techniques are needed to address the ever increasing complexity of data acquisition. Furthermore, more advanced mechanisms are needed that move past the limitations of traditional data models that connect each data source to exactly one data receiver. This paper presents a software framework for the playback of multiplexed data acquired from a network acquisition system. This framework uses multicast technologies to connect data sources with multiple data receivers. The network acquisition system is briefly introduced before the software framework is discussed. Both the challenges and advantages involved with creating such a system are presented. Finally, this framework is applied to an aviation telemetry example.
    • An Overview Of An Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language

      Hamilton, John; Fernandes, Ronald; Koola, Paul; Jones, Charles H.; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In this paper we provide the motivation for a neutral instrumentation hardware abstraction language that is focused on the description and control of instrumentation systems and networks. We also describe the design approach and structure of such a language that meets the needs. The language design is described according to the three roles it must serve: (1) as a descriptive language for specifying and describing the components and configuration of an instrumentation system, (2) as a command language for issuing configuration and data commands to instrumentation hardware and (3) as a query language for requesting the current state of instrumentation hardware.

      Leftwich, Thomas E.; Edwards AFB (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The purpose of the Personnel/Equipment Tracking System (P/ETS) is to provide ground safety and real-time surveillance awareness of all personnel and equipment authorized entry to the Edwards AFB Precision Impact Bombing and Laser Test Ranges. This includes multiple hazardous sites within an area that encompasses approximately 140 square miles. The P/ETS utilizes an off-the-shelf Global Positioning System (GPSFlight) which provides full-time tracking and display of all on-board transmitter-equipped elements. A line-of-sight wireless-to-fiber network system is employed to acquire and transport positional data to display systems within the range safety control tower. Utilization of P/ETS has indicated accurate tracking display in real time, particular advantages for night time operations, prevention of hazardous area intrusion, and relocation of miss-oriented personnel. This system is an economical solution for meeting the ground safety requirements within the confines of the Precision Impact Bombing and Laser Test Ranges.

      Rolenc, David D.; Chang, Yong "Skip"; RT Logic Incorporated (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      As telemetry systems migrate toward network-centric distribution architectures, more efficient mechanisms are needed to distribute the telemetry data from the source to various users of the data. The most widely used network protocol for reliable delivery of telemetry data over IP networks is TCP/IP. With TCP/IP, the bandwidth required to distribute telemetry data increases linearly according to the number of point-to-point connections. An alternate approach to reliably deliver telemetry data to multiple end users in a network efficient manner is the Pragmatic General Multicast (PGM) protocol.

      Reil, Michael J.; Bartlett, T. George; Henry, Kevin; SFA Inc.; Aberdeen Test Center; Sverdrup Technology Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper is a follow on to a paper presented at the 2005 International Telemetry Conference by Dr. Samuel Harley et. al., titled Data, Information, and Knowledge Management. This paper will describe new techniques and provide further detail into the inner workings of the VISION (Versatile Information System – Integrated, Online) Engineering Performance Data Mart.

      Rice, Michael; Nelson, Tom; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The optimum detector for shaped offset QPSK (SOQPSK) is a trellis detector which has high complexity (as measured by the number of detection filters and trellis states) due to the memory inherent in this modulation. In this paper we exploit the cross-correlated, trellis-coded, quadrature modulation (XTCQM) representation of SOQPSK-TG to formulate a reduced complexity detector. We show that a factor of 128 reduction in the number of trellis states of the detector can be achieved with a loss of only 0.2 dB in bit error rate performance as compared to optimum at P(b) = 10^(-5).

      Ferrill, Paul; Avionics Test and Analysis Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      As more aircraft are fitted with solid state memory recording systems, the need for a large data archival storage system becomes increasingly important. In addition, there is a need to keep classified and unclassified data separate but available to the aircrews for training and debriefing along with some type of system for cataloging and searching for specific missions. This paper will present a novel approach along with a reference design for using commercially available hardware and software and a minimal amount of custom programming to help address these issues.
    • Securing Print Services for Telemetry Post-Processing Applications

      Hines, Larry; Kalibjian, Jeff; Hewlett Packard Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      One of the primary goals of telemetry post processing is to format received data for review and analysis. This occurs by both displaying processed data on video monitors and by printing out the results to hardcopy media. Controlling access (i.e. viewing) of telemetry data in soft form (i.e. video monitor) is achieved by utilizing the existing framework of authentication and authorization on the client/server machines hosting the telemetry data (and post processing applications). Controlling access to hardcopy output has historically been much more problematic. This paper discusses how to implement secure printing services for telemetry post processing applications.

      Dean, Richard; Mwangi, Patricia A. W.; Haj-Omar, Amr; Montaque, Kishan; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The aeronautical channel is an air to ground channel characterized by multipath, high doppler shifts, Rayleigh fading and noise. Use of a channel sounder ensures proper estimation of the parameters associated with the impulse response of the channel. These estimates help us to characterize the radio channels associated with aeronautical telemetry. In order to have a satisfactory channel characterization, the amplitudes, phase shifts and delays associated with each multipath component in the channel model must be determined.
    • Single Bounce Air to Ground Communication Channel Capacity for MIMO Applications

      Kosbar, Kurt; Potter, Chris; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper addresses the air-to-ground communication problem, where multiple transmit antennas are used on the aircraft to combat multi-path interference. The channel is assumed to have a line-of-sight component and a single ground reflection. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques can be used in this situation, to increase the reliability and data rate. In this paper we discuss how the MIMO channel capacity changes, with the aircraft antenna configuration, altitude, velocity, range, and a number of other parameters. For comparison, the MIMO results are compared to systems which have single antennas at the transmitter, at the receiver, or at both ends.
    • The SoftDecom Engine

      Benitez, Jesus; Guadiana, Juan; Torres, Miguel; Creel, Larry; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The software decommutator was recently fielded at White Sands to address the requirements of a new missile test program. This software decommutator is rewritten as a simple C program Function or Class with a simple interface. The function and an Interface Control Definition (ICD) comprise the SoftDecom Engine (SDE). This paper addresses how an SDE can deliver Enterprise Wide Portability, not only that of the SDE, but more importantly a test program!s Verification & Validation (V&V). The crux of the portability issue is reduced to defining the interface of the SDE. In the simplest manifestation only two interfaces are needed and one is a given. The input structure is defined by the telemeter minor frame with time appended if desired. The output structure is no more than an array containing the parameters required. The ICD could be generalized into a standard for most applications, but that isn!t necessary, as the structures are simple, hence easy to adapt to anyway. This new paradigm!s importance will flourish on industries irreversible migration to faster and more complex telemeters. The paper reviews the relative ease that software exhibits when addressing very complex telemeters. With confidence it may be said “ if the telemeter format can be described in writing, it can be processed real time”. Also discussed are tasks that normally require specialized or customized and expensive equipment for example, merged streams, complex simulations and recording and reproducing PCM (sans recorder). Hopefully, your creativity will be engaged as ours has been.

      Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Walter, Fernando; CTA - Grupo Especial de Ensaios em Vôo; ITA - Divisão de Telecomunicações (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      For the final evaluation of a GPS attitude determination algorithm, it was determined its true performance in terms of accuracy, reliability and dynamic response. To accomplish that, a flight test campaign was carried out to validate the attitude determination algorithm. In this phase, the measured aircraft attitude was compared to a reference attitude, to allow the determination of the errors. The system was built using non-dedicated airborne GPS receivers, and a complete Flight Tests Instrumentation (FTI) System. The flight test campaign was carried out at the Brazilian’s Flight Test Group T-25C 1956 Basic Trainer aircraft. The performance and accuracy of the system is demonstrated under static and dynamics tests profiles, which are fully compliant with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Advisory Circular (AC) 25-7A. Dynamic response of the system is evaluated.

      Berdugo, Albert; Hildin, John; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Airborne data acquisition systems have changed very little over the years. Their growth has primarily been in the area of digital filtering and the acquisition of new avionic busses. Communication between data acquisition units operating as a system still employs Time Division Multiplexing scheme. These schemes utilize command and data busses like CAIS and PCM. Although this approach is highly efficient, it has many drawbacks. These drawbacks have resulted in rigid system architecture, system bandwidth limitations, highly specialized recorders to acquire unique avionic busses that would otherwise overwhelm the system bandwidth, and unidirectional flow of data and control. This paper describes a network centric data acquisition system that is Ethernet based. Although Ethernet is known as an asynchronous bus, the paper will describe a deterministic time distribution over the bus per IEEE-1588 that allows the use of a packet network for airborne data acquisition. The acquisition unit within the network system is defined by its MIB (Management Information Base) and operates as a data source unit. Other network components may operate as a data sink unit, such as recorders, or as a data source and sink. The role of different units in the network system will be evaluated. The paper will also describe network gateways that allow the use of traditional PCM systems with a network-based system.
    • A Time Correlated Approach to Adaptable Digital Filtering

      Grossman, Hy; Pellarin, Steve; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Signal conditioning is a critical element in all data telemetry systems. Data from all sensors must be band limited prior to digitization and transmission to prevent the potentially disastrous effects of aliasing. While the 6th order analog low-pass Butterworth filter has long been the de facto standard for data channel filtering, advances in digital signal processing techniques now provide a potentially better alternative. This paper describes the challenges in developing a flexible approach to adaptable data channel filtering using DSP techniques. Factors such as anti-alias filter requirements, time correlated sampling, decimation and filter delays will be discussed. Also discussed will be the implementation and relative merits and drawbacks of various symmetrical FIR and IIR filters. The discussion will be presented from an intuitive and practical perspective as much as possible.