• Cognitive Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

      Kosbar, Kurt; Panagos, Adam; Telemetry Learning Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Spectrum allocation in wireless communication and telemetry systems of the future may be performed in a dynamic and distributed manner, as opposed to static centralized regulations currently in place. This paper surveys a new area of research in the communications field known as cognitive radio which will allow dynamic sharing of spectral bands. An introduction to cognitive radio, a review of existing research results, and discussion of open problems in the area is provided.

      Tian, Hai; Trojak, Tom; Jones, Charles H.; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper presents a practical implementation of a hardware design for transmission of data over aircraft power lines. The intent of such hardware is to significantly reduce the wiring in the aircraft instrumentation system. The potential usages of this technology include pulse code modulation (PCM), Ethernet and other forms data communications. Details of the fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA) and printed circuit board (PCB) designs of the digital and analog front end will be discussed. The power line is not designed for data transmission. It contains considerable noise, multipath effects, and time varying impedance. Spectral analysis data of an aircraft is presented to indicate the difficulty of the problem at hand. A robust modulation is required to overcome the harsh environment and to provide reliable transmission. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been used in power line communication industry with a great deal of success. OFDM has been deemed the most appropriate technology for high-speed data transmission on aircraft power lines. Additionally, forward error correction (FEC) techniques are discussed.

      Wolf, Glen; Ortigoza, Saul; Streich, Ronald G.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      A rocket launch, as high dynamics target, was used to demonstrate X-band tracking and also to verify high bit rate frequency planning while demonstrating significant bandwidth reduction with IRIG standard advanced modulation methods. X-band tracking by a modified 8-foot mobile telemetry antenna was excellent. Three separate S-band transmitters with three separate wraparound antennas were launched as a piggyback payload on an Enhanced Orion sounding rocket at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) to compare the performance of 10 Mbs and 20 Mbs bit error rate (BER) pattern data transmission from CPFSK, FQPSK-JR and ARTM CPM modulation formats under high dynamic conditions. The test is more remarkable in that another S-band wideband spread spectrum signal was also transmitted with good success. These results show that all three modulation methods performed well during ignition and liftoff, low aspect angle (receiving through the rocket motor plume during ascent from a tracker near the launch pad), spin stabilization antenna lobe fades and payload tumbling. Spectrum pictures are provided to show the dramatic reduction in transmission bandwidth from CPFSK to FQPSK-JR to ARTM CPM. Confirmation of the preflight RF adjacent channel interference planning procedures from IRIG 106-05 is described by spectrum pictures and data quality measurements.
    • Current Status of Integrating GPS and Flight Termination Capabilities into a Missile Telemetry Section

      Kujiraoka, Scott R.; Fielder, Russell G.; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Last year (2005), a paper discussed the efforts of integrating Joint Advanced Missile Instrumentation (JAMI) Program components (JAMI TSPI Unit - JTU, and the Flight Termination Safe & Arm device - FTS&A), commercial off the shelf parts (Flight Termination Receivers, Telemetry Transmitter, Encryptor and Thermal Batteries) and in-house developed devices (PCM Encoder and Tri-band Antenna with integrated Limiter, Filter, & Amplifier) into a five-inch diameter Missile Telemetry (TM) Section. This retrofitted missile would be captive-carried on a F/A-18 jet. This paper is a continuation of that one presented at the 2005 International Telemetry Conference (ITC) Symposium. It annotates the latest status of the JAMI Effort, as well as the Follow-On Effort to qualify the Missile TM Section for an actual missile firing. This would include the developmental and flight qualification efforts for the Explosive Train (Detonation Cord-to-Cutter Ring Assembly) and Thermal Batteries.
    • Data Filtering Unit (DFU): Dealing With Cryptovariable Keys in Data Recorded Using the IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Format

      Manning, Dennis; Williams, Rick; Ferrill, Paul; Eglin Air Force Base; Scientific Data Systems, LLC; Avionics Test and Analysis Corp. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Recent advancements in IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recording systems allow the recording of all on board 1553 bus and PCM traffic to a single media. These advancements have also brought about the issue of extracting data with different levels of classification that was written to single location. Carrying GPS “smart” weapons further complicates this issue since the recording of GPS keys adds another level of classification to the mix. The ability to separate and/or remove higher level data from a data product is now required. This paper describes the design of a hardware device that will filter specified data from IRIG 106 Chapter 10 recorder memory modules (RMMs) to prevent the storage device or computer from becoming classified at the level of the specified data.

      McCormick, John; Ferrill, Paul; Avionics Test and Analysis Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      DataProbeCLASSIC is the new PC-based version of the classic tool for telemetry data analysis and visualization. DataProbe was the brainchild of the Unites States Navy and its contractors. At a time when computer terminals were expensive and graphical visualization of data was cutting edge, this software product was specifically designed to process time-series data in an efficient manner. The primary strength of DataProbe is the capability to read specific data items for specific time slices from very large data files rather than reading the entire data file into memory. The efficiency and versatility of the product was quickly noted, and it gained widespread use within the testing community. This paper presents a brief history of the legacy product and discusses the features and strengths of new implementation.

      Spjut, Erik; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Prounh, Chris; Rowland, Clarence; Ryckman, Raymond; Winton, Elizabeth; Harvey Mudd College (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The Edwards Air Force Base Clinic team at Harvey Mudd College designed, built, and tested a prototype for a laser-based telemetry system. The test data were encoded on a 500 mW 1550 nm laser aimed at a ground station by a computer-controlled gimbal. The system communicated from a terrestrial vehicle to a ground station over a distance of 900 m. The extrapolated results indicate a maximum range of greater than 3000 m. This project emphasized COTS parts to minimize cost. Suggestions for the next-generation design, with an air-to-ground link, higher throughput, and greater range, are presented.

      Doonan, Daniel; Fu, Tricia; Utley, Chris; Iltis, Ronald; Kastner, Ryan; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper describes the design and successful development of an acoustic modem for potential use in underwater ecological sensor networks. The presentation includes theoretical study, design and development of both software and hardware, laboratory experiments, full-scale field tests, and the documentation and analysis of field-test results.

      Huang, Heng; Legarsky, Justin; Lei, Qiang; University of Missouri-Columbia; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Radar echo sounders provide a safe, inexpensive and effective means of obtaining ice sheet thickness. As the roughness of ice surface/subsurface depends on the radio wavelength, wideband radar sensors can provide flexibility for ice thickness measurement under areas with various surface conditions. This paper presents the design of a digitally controllable wideband microwave receiver for a potential radar sounding system. Its radio frequency (RF) frequency ranges from 50 to 500 MHz, while the intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth is 20 MHz. The receiver provides eight channels for different RF band choices, as well as a number of convenient gain settings. Testing measurements have also been conducted to verify the design requirements.

      Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In most current PCM based telemetry systems, an instrumentation engineer manually creates the sampling format. This time consuming and tedious process typically involves manually placing each measurement into the format at the proper sampling rate. The telemetry industry is now moving towards Ethernet-based systems comprised of multiple autonomous data acquisition units, which share a single global time source. The architecture of these network systems greatly simplifies the task of implementing an automatic format generator. Automatic format generation eliminates much of the effort required to create a sampling format because the instrumentation engineer only has to specify the desired sampling rate for each measurement. The system handles the task of organizing the format to comply with the specified sampling rates. This paper examines the issues involved in designing an automatic format generator for a network data acquisition system.

      Crawford, Kevin; Thomas, John; NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is developing a new launch vehicle to replace the Space Shuttle. The Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be a combination of new design hardware and heritage Apollo and Space Shuttle hardware. The current CLV configuration is a 5 segment solid rocket booster First Stage and a new Upper Stage design with a modified Apollo era J-2 engine. The current schedule has an Ascent Development Test Flight (ADFT-0) with a First Stage and a dummy structurally identical, but without engine, Upper Stage. The ADFT-0 test results will determine if there will be multiple ADFT flights. There will be a minimum of two test flights with a full complement of flight hardware. After the completion of the test flights, the first manned flight to the International Space Station is scheduled for late 2014. To verify the CLV’s design margins a developmental flight instrumentation (DFI) system is needed. The DFI system will collect environmental and health data from the various CLV subsystems’ and either transmit it to the ground or store it onboard for later evaluation on the ground. The CLV consists of 4 major elements: the First Stage, the Upper Stage, the Upper Stage Engine and the integration of these elements together. It is anticipated that each of CLV’s elements will have some version of DFI. This paper will discuss a conceptual DFI design for each element and also of an integrated CLV DFI system.

      Engler, Richard; Tiqui, Dwight (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
    • DoD Ranges Interoperability and Resource Reuse Achievable Through the Test and Training Enabling Architecture, TENA

      Hudgins, Gene; TENA Software Development Activity (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      To ensure range interoperability and range resource reuse are available and promoted across the DoD Test and Training range community, the Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) has developed and continues to refine the Test and Training Enabling Architecture (TENA). TENA provides the architecture and software implementation to enable range interoperability, to foster range asset reuse, to provide composability, and to enable simulation‐based system engineering/acquisition. TENA has proven to be a critical enabler of major distributed live military exercises but has expanded to embrace other usage. Inclusive of new technologies, TENA developers are actively involved with the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET), a CTEIP program which will provide wireless connectivity over which a variety of users will run applications and exchange data.

      Lee, Jung Kyu; De Flaviis, Franco; University of California, Irvine (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In this paper, we propose a dual-band switched beam system operating at 4.05 and 7.4 GHz. This system comprise of a dual frequency Butler matrix feeding a microstrip antenna array. Very good agreement is shown between measured and simulated data. The system can provide a tilted beam of ±13° and ±48° at the lowest frequency band and ±9° and ±27° at the higher frequency band.

      Reid, Eric; RT Logic Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Modern telemetry and data streams are often encrypted. The majority of range testing activities require multiple ground stations to collect these streams and send them to a central processing location. Each of these streams currently needs to be individually decrypted before best source selection, processing and analysis. Using innovative techniques, it is possible to time correlate these encrypted streams, compare them with each other and create an output stream of better quality than any of the individual streams. This stream can then be decrypted by a single decryption device, greatly reducing cost and complexity.

      Graul, Michael; Fernandes, Ronald; Hamilton, John L.; Jones, Charles H.; Morgan, Jon; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper presents the description of the updated Data Display Markup Language (DDML), a neutral format for data display configurations. The development of DDML is motivated by the fact that in joint service program systems, there is a critical need for common data displays to support distributed T&E missions, irrespective of the test location, data acquisition system, and display system. DDML enables standard data displays to be specified for any given system under test, irrespective of the display vendor or system in which they will be implemented. The version 3.0 of DDML represents a more mature language than the version 1.0 presented at the 2003 ITC. The updated version has been validated for completeness and robustness by developing translators between DDML and numerous vendor formats. The DDML schema has been presented to the Range Commander’s Council (RCC) Data Multiplex Committee for consideration for inclusion in the IRIG 106 standard. The DDML model will be described in terms of both the XML schema and the UML model, and various examples of DDML models will be presented. The intent of this paper is to solicit specific input from the community on this potential RCC standard.

      Perrins, Erik; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The existing offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) differential encoder in IRIG-106 is a curious scheme with a rather mysterious origin. In this paper, an alternative scheme known as double differential encoding is proposed. In many aspects, the proposed scheme has equivalent performance to the existing scheme: it successfully resolves the 4-phase ambiguity introduced by most carrier phase tracking loops and it also produces two decoded bit errors for each detection error. However, the proposed scheme has a number of conceptual advantages: it can be derived easily from first principles, it decouples the operations of even-bit/odd-bit demultiplexing and differential encoding, and it greatly simplifies the overly-complicated binary-to-ternary symbol mapping for OQPSK. It is also demonstrated to have tangible benefits, such as improved performance in systems with error control coding.

      Kosbar, Kurt; Lord, Dale; Telemetry Learning Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Recent emphasis has been placed on mobile robotics performing in unstructured environments. This realm of operations requires many different algorithms to interpret the various situations. This not only requires a system that is able to support, and facilitate, the fusion of the results, but it also needs to be tolerant of system errors. In modern operating systems, separate processes are able to fail without affecting other processes. Using this ability, along with fault tolerant inter-process communications, and supervisory process managers, allows the total system to continue to operate under adverse conditions. While this paper focuses primarily on the challenges faced by mobile robotics, the approach can be extended to a wide range of systems which must autonomously identify and adapt to failures/situations.

      Schultz, Stephen; Selfridge, Richard; Newman, Jason; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In this paper we will present a new fiber sensor integrated monitor (FSIM) to be used in an embedded instrumentation system (EIS). The proposed system consists of a super luminescent diode (SLD) as a broadband source, a novel high speed tunable MEMS filter with built in photodetector, and an integrated microprocessor for data aggregation, processing, and transmission. As an example, the system has been calibrated with an array of surface relief fiber Bragg gratings (SR-FBG) for high speed, high temperature monitoring. The entire system was built on a single breadboard less than 50 cm² in area.

      Kelkar, Anand; Lamarra, Norm; Gonzalez, Daniel; Creative Digital Systems; Malibu Research Associates (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      A Synthetic Beamforming antenna was built for Airborne Telemetry. Low-Noise Block-converters translated RF to IF suitable for direct analog-to-digital conversion. Then all telemetry functions were performed digitally via parallel FPGAs for 10 independent sources. Monopulse tracking and optimal diversity combination was performed using 4 antenna quadrants at two orthogonal polarizations. Novel estimation approaches drove digital demodulation, symbol- and bit- synchronization. Final telemetry outputs include: digital, analog (video), and analog IF (e.g., for downlink relay). This program has incubated several concepts that we believe have the combined potential to significantly improve the future of telemetry.