Kupferschmidt, Benjamin; Berdugo, Albert; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In most current PCM based telemetry systems, an instrumentation engineer manually creates the sampling format. This time consuming and tedious process typically involves manually placing each measurement into the format at the proper sampling rate. The telemetry industry is now moving towards Ethernet-based systems comprised of multiple autonomous data acquisition units, which share a single global time source. The architecture of these network systems greatly simplifies the task of implementing an automatic format generator. Automatic format generation eliminates much of the effort required to create a sampling format because the instrumentation engineer only has to specify the desired sampling rate for each measurement. The system handles the task of organizing the format to comply with the specified sampling rates. This paper examines the issues involved in designing an automatic format generator for a network data acquisition system.
    • A Time Correlated Approach to Adaptable Digital Filtering

      Grossman, Hy; Pellarin, Steve; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Signal conditioning is a critical element in all data telemetry systems. Data from all sensors must be band limited prior to digitization and transmission to prevent the potentially disastrous effects of aliasing. While the 6th order analog low-pass Butterworth filter has long been the de facto standard for data channel filtering, advances in digital signal processing techniques now provide a potentially better alternative. This paper describes the challenges in developing a flexible approach to adaptable data channel filtering using DSP techniques. Factors such as anti-alias filter requirements, time correlated sampling, decimation and filter delays will be discussed. Also discussed will be the implementation and relative merits and drawbacks of various symmetrical FIR and IIR filters. The discussion will be presented from an intuitive and practical perspective as much as possible.

      Hicks, William T.; IMET Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Most modern digital filtering is done by taking the average (mean) of a signal or some weighted average. Another method is to use feedback, which more closely resembles how analog filters with feedback operate. In the case of low pass filters, all these methods tend to give a trade off in getting the signal to pass while attenuating the higher frequency noise. An alternative is to use a median filter, which selects the mid value of a group of points. While this is not as computationally simple as other filters, it allows for the attenuation of noise while allowing sudden changes in signal level to pass thru unaltered. This paper discusses the characteristics of median filters and methods of implementing them.
    • Best Source Selection on Encrypted Data

      Guadiana, Juan M.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The size of the range at White Sands means multiple acquisition sites are needed to properly cover a typical vehicle trajectory. As vehicle complexity increase, the need for robust acquisition grows. Multiple acquisition sites are needed to provide as complete coverage as practical. Space Diversity combining would provide a single composite source for all the displays and recording, but this is not practical due to the large distances between acquisition sites. Instead a composite is made from the various sites by correlation on non-encrypted (or decrypted) data. The previous best source selector, a frame synch histogrammer, could produce encrypted and decrypted composites. Some of our customers have missed the encrypted composites, hence the subject is revisited to encourage development. This paper reviews post decryption correlation and then focuses on correlating on encrypted data. The encryption serves to eliminate the ambiguities that are inherent in decrypted (nonencrypted) signals. So, it may be possible to accomplish this with a small correlator. The expected performance would be similar to that of correlated composites on decrypted or unencrypted data. The typical configuration would be considerably smaller as well since only two decrypters would be needed. One decrypter alone would be insufficient and could not resolve the case where only one site has data and the remaining sites have noise. When there is no correlation the correct site cannot be resolved. Testing these compositing methods is also discussed, as a good test method also provides insight on how the compositor should work.

      Hedricks, Michael J.; Sussex, Jeff; Streich, Ronald G.; Vandenberg AFB (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The transition of PCM recording from analog to digital recorders was completed at many test ranges more than a decade ago as marked by delivery of data on S-VHS tape, CD-ROM, DVD, ZIP disc, JAZ disc, 8mm tape and DLT tape for low rate data and D-1 cassettes for high rate data. Data then quickly began distribution via the internet and other networks. Analog recorders have remained a necessary legacy for the long transition to convert from analog to digital (PCM) data transmission from the test vehicles. However, the new digital recorder capabilities have removed this requirement to convert the transmissions from the test vehicle. Analog signal and predetection recording on digital recorders has been successfully demonstrated at costs below the existing analog recorders. Application of new techniques in a methodical transition program to the new digital recorders has proven the many benefits of recording wider bandwidths with excellent repeatability. Repeatability issues are primarily in the very low error sources of the processing system because the major analog error sources of the analog tape recorders, analog time code readers, analog demodulators, etc have been greatly reduced. This paper provides test results of recording higher signal rates and bandwidths of the new programs and describes the techniques and implementation through procedures of the Western Range transition from analog to digital recorders. Surprising results show predetection and analog signal recording costs are nearly the same as PCM recording costs due to the price of deliverable media with respect to mission recording requirements.

      Leftwich, Thomas E.; Edwards AFB (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The purpose of the Personnel/Equipment Tracking System (P/ETS) is to provide ground safety and real-time surveillance awareness of all personnel and equipment authorized entry to the Edwards AFB Precision Impact Bombing and Laser Test Ranges. This includes multiple hazardous sites within an area that encompasses approximately 140 square miles. The P/ETS utilizes an off-the-shelf Global Positioning System (GPSFlight) which provides full-time tracking and display of all on-board transmitter-equipped elements. A line-of-sight wireless-to-fiber network system is employed to acquire and transport positional data to display systems within the range safety control tower. Utilization of P/ETS has indicated accurate tracking display in real time, particular advantages for night time operations, prevention of hazardous area intrusion, and relocation of miss-oriented personnel. This system is an economical solution for meeting the ground safety requirements within the confines of the Precision Impact Bombing and Laser Test Ranges.
    • Wireless Sensor System for Airborne Applications

      Berdugo, Albert; Grossman, Hy; Schofield, Nicole; Musteric, Steven; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Adding an instrumentation / telemetry system to a test vehicle has historically required an intrusive installation for wiring and powering all elements of the system from the sensor to the telemetry transmitter. In some applications there is need for a flexible and modular instrumentation and telemetry system that can be installed with minimal intrusiveness on an aircraft without the need for permanent modifications. Such an application may benefit from the use of a miniaturized, inexpensive network of wireless sensors. This network will communicate its data to a central unit installed within the aircraft. This paper describes recent efforts associated with the Advanced Subminiature Telemetry System (ASMT) Initial Test Capability Project. It discusses the challenges in developing a wireless sensor network system for use in an airborne environment. These include selection of frequencies, COTS wireless devices, batteries, system synchronization, data bandwidth calculations, and mechanical structure for external installation. The paper will also describe the wireless network architecture as well as the architecture of the wireless sensor and the central control unit.

      Andzik, Rob; Brans, Charles (Chuck) N.; RT Logic Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Today Ranges are faced with the typical dilemma of doing more with less—less money, less time, and less experienced range personnel. Meanwhile, Ranges are being forced to make their operations more efficient in use of time, money, and functionality. As a result, Ranges are looking for automated ways to remotely configure and operate their tracking stations and to provide interoperability between ranges, sites, and equipment. RT Logic worked with numerous range operators and equipment vendors to create an open software architecture that provides rapid device configuration, equipment status at a glance, and automatic fault detection and isolation. RT Logic’s architecture utilizes the CORBA specification to achieve extensibility and scalability for future range requirements. Adoption of this architecture and approach will reduce costs, time, and mistakes.

      Schultz, Stephen; Selfridge, Richard; Newman, Jason; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In this paper we will present a new fiber sensor integrated monitor (FSIM) to be used in an embedded instrumentation system (EIS). The proposed system consists of a super luminescent diode (SLD) as a broadband source, a novel high speed tunable MEMS filter with built in photodetector, and an integrated microprocessor for data aggregation, processing, and transmission. As an example, the system has been calibrated with an array of surface relief fiber Bragg gratings (SR-FBG) for high speed, high temperature monitoring. The entire system was built on a single breadboard less than 50 cm² in area.

      Chaildin, Mark; Inter-Coastal Electronics (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      For several decades, the military has used the Multiple Integrated Laser Engagement System (MILES) with a series of iR sensors along a belt fastened to a vehicle for training and simulation. Now, an alternative to this legacy system, a solar rechargeable battery powered wireless IR sensor is replacing wired sensors. The use of short-range RF communications network, allows the MILES sensors strategic placement about a combat vehicle without the umbilical cabling normally required for power and signal coupling from the players processing unit. The RF network operates in the 340 to 380 MHz band, has channeling capability of over 1600 channels, and coexists with the vehicles on board high-powered radios without interference. The wireless sensor implements a custom designed IR sensing amplifier, designed for maximum sensitivity and minimal power dissipation, along with advanced semiconductor IC’s for signal processing and power conversion. Solar recharging enables the sensor to operate for extended time, on a single battery that should last for years without replacement. A proprietary software protocol, developed for communication integrity, is a critical part of the overall system and supports other sensor types and control elements with low data rates for a wireless Vehicle Area Network. The system, successfully installed on several military training platforms, proves to be a viable product for military training and simulation systems for the 21st century.

      Morrison, Thomas M.; JT3, Edwards AFB (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Telemetry data are usually collected for analysis at some later time and can be monitored to follow the progress of a test. In the case of an Air Data System the signals from the sensors are sent to a computer that calculates the air data parameters for use on multiple LabView-generated displays, as well as to the Data Acquisition System. The readouts on the multiple displays need to be real-time so they are useful to the flight crew. Equations that control the different air data values are determined by what telemetry data are available and the preference of those doing the test planning. These systems need to display the information in a format useful to the flight crew and be reliable.

      Xiangwu, Gao; Juan, Lin; Zhengguang, He; Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering; China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      XX launch vehicle has been flying onboard video system which includes video cameras, data compression devices and channel switch device for the second Chinese spaceflight. The camera is a PAL analog camera that been sampled and compressed by compression device. The compressed digital video data is combined with telemetry data into the telemetry radio channel. Lighting is provided by sunlight, or a light has been equipped when sunlight is unavailable. IRIG-B timing is used to correlate the video with other vehicle telemetry. The video system’s influences to the vehicle flight have been decreased to minimum.

      Clark, Nicholas; Dunne, Fiona; Lee, Michael; Lee, Hua; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper describes the concept of wide-angle coverage optical vision system integrated with guidance support of microwave or acoustical imaging arrays. The objective is to provide the capability of effective high-resolution full-view monitoring and sensing. The optical component, formed by a multi-camera array, is responsible for the main interface with human users. The acoustical and microwave arrays are integrated, allowing the system to function in the event-triggered modality for optimal efficiency. In this paper, the arrays discussed are in circular configurations. With minor modification, the system can also function with linear array configurations.

      Lee, Hua; Chin, Maurice; Clark, Nicholas; Dunne, Fiona; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Drivers’ visibility is an area of automobile safety that has seen very limited improvement over the past several decades. Limited visibility is responsible for many car accidents all across America. Mirrors require constant readjustment, and are easily blocked. There is currently a lot of interest in ways to reduce or eliminate all mirrors on a car, and one such method is through a wide-angle network of cameras mounted on the vehicle’s rear. Using real-time video processing, the data from several cameras can be spliced together, and displayed on a vehicle’s dashboard in an intuitive, easy to understand fashion that a driver can quickly see without having to turn away from the road. This has extensive application to light armored vehicles in the military, as well as to automotive designers today.

      Paulick, Michael J.; TYBRIN Corporation; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The Image Data Automated Processing System (IDAPS), developed by the 96th Communications Group Test and Analysis Division at Eglin AFB, uses a CAD-based image matching technique to calculate a 6DOF trajectory of a store separation event. The system has been used successfully for single camera release sequences, but needed to be extended for multi-camera releases. This is vital for bomber missions where several cameras are needed to cover a store separation event.

      McCormick, John; Ferrill, Paul; Avionics Test and Analysis Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      DataProbeCLASSIC is the new PC-based version of the classic tool for telemetry data analysis and visualization. DataProbe was the brainchild of the Unites States Navy and its contractors. At a time when computer terminals were expensive and graphical visualization of data was cutting edge, this software product was specifically designed to process time-series data in an efficient manner. The primary strength of DataProbe is the capability to read specific data items for specific time slices from very large data files rather than reading the entire data file into memory. The efficiency and versatility of the product was quickly noted, and it gained widespread use within the testing community. This paper presents a brief history of the legacy product and discusses the features and strengths of new implementation.

      Pesciotta, Eric; Portnoy, Michael; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      As data acquisition systems evolve and begin utilizing new avenues of acquisition such as Ethernet, an entirely new range of flight test capabilities become available. These new capabilities, defined by acquisition, monitoring, and varying of test measurements, enhance previous operation as they can now be realized during flight. Achieving such high levels of integration between ground station and test vehicle involves complex network protocols. Implementing such systems from scratch would be a time consuming and costly proposition. Fortunately, employing Internet protocols (TCP/IP) over Ethernet provides a cornucopia of readily available technology. Using state-of-the-art integration techniques, modern data acquisition systems can leverage years of proven technology offered by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). This paper discusses an implementation of dynamic data acquisition measurements for use in network data acquisition systems. The methodology used to determine whether or not a measurement can and should be variable during a flight test is examined in detail along with a discussion of the advantages of dynamically varying flight test measurements. Finally, an implementation is presented which successfully integrates Internet protocols with modern flight test equipment using the techniques described above for dynamic data acquisition measurements.

      Grace, Thomas; Fink, Clay; Naval Air Systems Command; John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      CTEIP has launched the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project to foster advances in networking and telemetry technology to meet emerging needs of major test programs. This paper describes an approach for providing a unified means of describing telemetry systems. It will describe the motivation and framework for a metadata standard for specifying the components of an instrumented test article, its data and the flow of data through a telemetry system. The paper will also describe how this metadata standard can provide the means for describing different transmission formats for a common test article. The result of the task described by this paper will lead to a standard or set of standards that will optimize the use of commercial technology and tools.

      Graul, Michael; Fernandes, Ronald; Hamilton, John L.; Jones, Charles H.; Morgan, Jon; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper presents the description of the updated Data Display Markup Language (DDML), a neutral format for data display configurations. The development of DDML is motivated by the fact that in joint service program systems, there is a critical need for common data displays to support distributed T&E missions, irrespective of the test location, data acquisition system, and display system. DDML enables standard data displays to be specified for any given system under test, irrespective of the display vendor or system in which they will be implemented. The version 3.0 of DDML represents a more mature language than the version 1.0 presented at the 2003 ITC. The updated version has been validated for completeness and robustness by developing translators between DDML and numerous vendor formats. The DDML schema has been presented to the Range Commander’s Council (RCC) Data Multiplex Committee for consideration for inclusion in the IRIG 106 standard. The DDML model will be described in terms of both the XML schema and the UML model, and various examples of DDML models will be presented. The intent of this paper is to solicit specific input from the community on this potential RCC standard.
    • XidML – Two Years On

      Corry, Diarmuid; Acra Control Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In 2004 ACRA CONTROL introduced XidML as a published standard for instrumentation definition via XML. After two years in the field, much feedback and two revisions, this paper outlines where the standard is now, some of the lessons learned and discusses some ideas for where next. XidML allows any package, message or frame to be defined including PCM, MIL-STD- 1553, Ethernet and storage formats, it is also used to define the settings for instrumentation as diverse as Analog to Digital modules, MIL-STD-1553 monitors, PCM encoders, recorders, bit-syncs, and decoms. Importantly it facilitates the EU range and data format to be defined for large parameter lists. The key elements in the standard are discussed along with some lessons learned.