Grace, Thomas; Roach, John; Naval Air Systems Command; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      CTEIP has launched the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) project to foster advances in networking and telemetry technology to meet emerging needs of major test programs as well as within the Major Range and Test Facility Base’s. This paper describes one objective of the vNET concept demonstration to provide a test vehicle instrumentation network architecture that can support additional capabilities for data access to the test vehicle. Specifically, this paper addresses the expansion of the current concept demonstration with the incorporation of the IEEE- 1588 standard as the basis for a network time distribution mechanism. Near-term network-based data acquisition systems will likely consist of a mix of standard IRIG 106 timekeeping and IEEE- 1588 timekeeping; in this paper we will examine the ramifications of using the two approaches with the same test vehicle instrumentation system.
    • !a_waste_of_time

      Creel, Larry; Torres, Miguel; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Time has always been the elusive fourth dimension - until now. Using a common programming language and a network-to-PCM interface, the power to generate time codes is facilitated using a non-traditional approach. This novel approach to time simulation addresses the common conundrums concerning time code simulation and testing. Practical applications will be discussed along with an intriguing technical demonstration.

      Grim, Evan T.; Southwest Research Institute (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Network-centric data acquisition and telemetry systems continue to gain momentum and adoption. However, inherent non-deterministic network delays hinder these systems’ suitability for use where high-accuracy timing information is required. The emerging IEEE 1588 standard for time distribution offers the potential for real-time data acquisition system development using cost-effective, standards-based network technologies such as Ethernet and IP multicast. This paper discusses the challenges, realities, lessons, and triumphs experienced using IEEE 1588 in the development and implementation of such a large-scale network-centric data acquisition and telemetry system. IEEE 1588 clears a major hurdle in moving the network-centric buzz from theory to realization.

      Rogers, Derek; University of South Australia (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper presents a case study of the commercialisation of an ad-hoc wireless network technology from a subsidiary of a multinational company. The paper does not disclose any intellectual property specifics, the organisations or individuals involved. Instead the paper focuses on generic issues associated with technology transfer; exploration of market opportunities, market validation, the identification of a novel business model and economic validation. The paper wraps the case study within the academic context of commercialisation providing substantive literature sources, tools and techniques for readers faced with similar challenges; tools and techniques that can be applied irrespective of the underlying technology.

      Wickert, Mark; Samad, Shaheen; Butler, Bryan; University of Colorado at Colorado Springs; Real-Time Logic Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Many satellite payloads require wide-band channels for transmission of large amounts of data to users on the ground. These channels typically have substantial distortions, including bandlimiting distortions and high power amplifier (HPA) nonlinearities that cause substantial degradation of bit error rate performance compared to additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) scenarios. An adaptive equalization algorithm has been selected as the solution to improving bit error rate performance in the presence of these channel distortions. This paper describes the design and implementation of an adaptive baseband equalizer (ABBE) utilizing the latest FPGA technology. Implementation of the design was arrived at by first constructing a high fidelity channel simulation model, which incorporates worst-case signal impairments over the entire data link. All of the modem digital signal processing functions, including multirate carrier and symbol synchronization, are modeled, in addition to the adaptive complex baseband equalizer. Different feedback and feed-forward tap combinations are considered as part of the design optimization.

      May, Linda R.; Honeywell Technology Solutions, Inc.; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      “Wind Weighting” is the process of assessing the effect of wind on a launch vehicle and determining launcher settings which would counteract that effect. This paper discusses the advantages of using GPS radiosondes to determine wind profiles over the historical method of tracking balloon positions with radar for the purposes of Wind Weighting. The primary advantages are lower costs and greater portability. Also presented is evidence of improved accuracy and reliability. Engineering testing is described and test results are reported.

      Gargasz, John; DRS CODEM SYSTEMS, INC. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      There is a growing demand for an affordable Satellite Communications On-The-Move (COTM) Antenna system to serve Military and high commercial requirements. Current COTM architectures do not meet the Government’s price point objectives and thus are not effective production solutions. DRS Codem Systems has developed an affordable COTM the move antenna system architecture that meets the market price point while maintaining superior technical performance. The core elements of the architecture include: low-cost antenna reflector technology, integrated navigation sensors, integrated antenna control electronics with intelligent sensor fusion, maximum use of COTS components and an overall design intended to meet MILSpec environments. We have also selected X-band as the initial band for operation enabling a low-cost design and reliable network performance.

      Hildin, John; Arias, Sergio; Teletronics Technology Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Today’s data acquisition systems are typically comprised of data collectors connected to multiplexers via serial, point-to-point links. Data flows upstream from the sensors or avionics buses to the data acquisition units, to the multiplexer and finally to the recorder or telemetry transmitter. In a networked data acquisition system, data is transported through the network “cloud”. At the core of the network “cloud” is the network switch. The switch is responsible for distributing and directing data within the network. Network switches are commonplace in the commercial realm. Many businesses today could not function without them. A network-based data acquisition system, however, places additional burdens on the network switch. As in a commercial network, the switch in a data acquisition system must be able to distribute data packets within the network. In addition, it must be able to perform in a harsh environment, occupy a minimal amount of space, operate with limited or no external cooling, be configurable, and deal with the distribution of time information. This paper describes the required features of a ruggedized network switch and the implementation challenges facing its design. As a core component of a network-based data acquisition system, an ideal switch must be capable of operating in a large number of configurations, transporting and aggregating data between data sources and data sinks, with a mixture of devices operating at rates ranging from a few thousand bits per second to several gigabits per second, over twisted pair or fiber optic links. To ensure time coherency, the switch must also facilitate a time distribution mechanism, e.g., IEEE-1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP). The gigabit switch described here uses the PTP to implement an end-to-end clock synchronization, for distributed acquisition nodes, to within 300 nanoseconds.

      Temple, Kip; Laird, Daniel; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      In a quest to provide networked communication to test assets at all of the Major Range and Test Facility Bases (MRTFB), the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) Program was formed. A study was accomplished outlining five environments that encompass the work of these MRTFBs. The first of these environments to be advanced towards networked communication is the Aeronautical Environment. In order to develop these technologies, a test platform is proposed, realized, and tested. This airborne test platform will be used for concept and product testing and validation of the three portions of the Telemetry Network System (TmNS); the vehicle network, vNET, the radio frequency network (RF), rfNET, and the interface to the ground network, gNET. This paper will present the baseline system configuration, describe its operation, and detail RF link testing results.
    • Analytic Solutions for Optimal Training on Fading Channels

      Kosbar, Kurt; Panagos, Adam; University of Missouri (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Wireless communication systems may use training signals for the receiver to learn the fading coefficients of the channel. Obtaining channel state information (CSI) at the receiver is often times necessary for the receiver to correctly detect and demodulate transmitted symbols. The type of training signal, the length of time to spend training, and the frequency of training are all important parameters in these types of systems. In this work, we derive an analytic expression for calculating the optimal training parameters for continuously fading channels. We also provide simulation results showing why this training scheme is considered optimal.

      Dawson, Dan; Wyle Laboratories, Telemetry and Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper describes an adaptive data management architecture capable of supporting order-of-magnitude data volume increases without a priori knowledge of data structures. The architecture allows users to generate and maintain data in optimal legacy formats while managing and extracting information with common analysis tools. This paper shows how an object-oriented data management system can manage both data and the knowledge imparted to the data by users.
    • An approach to Integrated Spectrum Efficient Network Enhanced Telemetry (iSENET)

      Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren; Darden, Scott; Walsh, William; Loh, Kok-kiong; Jet Propulsion Laboratory; LinQuest Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      As the integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) program moves forward in resolving systems engineering design and architecture definition, critical technology “gaps” and a migration path to realizing the integration of this technology are needed to insure a smooth transition from the current legacy point to point telemetry links to a network oriented telemetry system. Specifically identified by the DoD aeronautical telemetry community is the need for a migration to a network solution for command, control, and transfer of test data by optimizing the physical, data link, and network layers. In this paper, we present a network centric telemetry preliminary architecture approach based on variants of 802.11 that leverages the open standards as well as the previous Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) work on the physical layer waveform. We present a burst modem approach based on the recent AOFDM 802.11a work, a TDMA-like MAC layer based on 802.11e, and then add additional MAC layer features to allow for the multi-hop aeronautical environment using a variant of the current working standard of 802.11s. The combined benefits of the variants obtained from 802.11a, 802.11e, and 802.11s address the needs for both spectrum efficiency in the aeronautical environment and the iNET program.
    • The Army’s Way Ahead Challenge: Enterprise Architecture as an Essential Tool to Support the Army’s Transformation Effort

      Mezquita, Fernando; Electronic Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This article explores the development and use of enterprise architecture as an important tool to support the Army in its effort to strive toward new goals and improve performance. The term enterprise architecture is used to refer to a comprehensive description of all of the key elements and relationships that make up the enterprise operational capabilities, and gain important short- and long-term benefits.

      Andzik, Rob; Brans, Charles (Chuck) N.; RT Logic Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Today Ranges are faced with the typical dilemma of doing more with less—less money, less time, and less experienced range personnel. Meanwhile, Ranges are being forced to make their operations more efficient in use of time, money, and functionality. As a result, Ranges are looking for automated ways to remotely configure and operate their tracking stations and to provide interoperability between ranges, sites, and equipment. RT Logic worked with numerous range operators and equipment vendors to create an open software architecture that provides rapid device configuration, equipment status at a glance, and automatic fault detection and isolation. RT Logic’s architecture utilizes the CORBA specification to achieve extensibility and scalability for future range requirements. Adoption of this architecture and approach will reduce costs, time, and mistakes.

      Sousa, Lucas Benedito dos Reis; Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Walter, Fernando; Cunha, Wagner Chiepa; CTA - Grupo Especial de Ensaios em Vôo; ITA - Divisão de Eletrônica (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      A novel Automation System for the Flight Test Laboratory (SALEV) is developed in full compliance with EA-4/02 Standard (i.e. Expression of the Uncertainty of Measurement in Calibration) to compute the uncertainty of the measurement at the calibration laboratory of the Flight Tests Group (GEEV). The GEEV performs flight test campaigns to certificate and/or develop aircrafts and its systems. Then, flight tests instrumentation (FTI) systems are developed and installed in the test bed. The FTI data acquisition complies with IRIG Standard. The FTI is composed by a data acquisition system, which performs signal conditioning, sampling and quantization of all measurements provided by a set of transducers. All parameters are coded in a PCM format and represented in a non-dimensional numerical form (i.e. counts).To allow the establishment of a relation between the non-dimensional form and the physical quantity, a calibration process is carried out to provide the coefficients of a calibration curve. This process is also used to determine the systematic and random errors (i.e. the uncertainty). The accuracy and reliability of calibration process should comply with the requirements, which are customized for each flight test campaign. The satisfactory performance of the SALEV calibration process is achieved by automation in all steps. The SALEV development is presented, which includes the following steps: · Database definition; · Study of all steps and parts that forms the calibration process (i.e. from transducer to final uncertainty determination) to determine its associated uncertainties; · Automation of the entire calibration process (including the process itself up to the effective control of standard and instruments); · Development of algorithms to compute the uncertainty compliant with EA 4/02; and · System validation in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025. As result of the SALEV operation, it could be verified that measurement quality was improved, and the required time for calibration was substantially reduced. Also the standardization of this process allows failures forecast due to aging of systems parameters (i.e. bias).
    • Best Source Selection on Encrypted Data

      Guadiana, Juan M.; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The size of the range at White Sands means multiple acquisition sites are needed to properly cover a typical vehicle trajectory. As vehicle complexity increase, the need for robust acquisition grows. Multiple acquisition sites are needed to provide as complete coverage as practical. Space Diversity combining would provide a single composite source for all the displays and recording, but this is not practical due to the large distances between acquisition sites. Instead a composite is made from the various sites by correlation on non-encrypted (or decrypted) data. The previous best source selector, a frame synch histogrammer, could produce encrypted and decrypted composites. Some of our customers have missed the encrypted composites, hence the subject is revisited to encourage development. This paper reviews post decryption correlation and then focuses on correlating on encrypted data. The encryption serves to eliminate the ambiguities that are inherent in decrypted (nonencrypted) signals. So, it may be possible to accomplish this with a small correlator. The expected performance would be similar to that of correlated composites on decrypted or unencrypted data. The typical configuration would be considerably smaller as well since only two decrypters would be needed. One decrypter alone would be insufficient and could not resolve the case where only one site has data and the remaining sites have noise. When there is no correlation the correct site cannot be resolved. Testing these compositing methods is also discussed, as a good test method also provides insight on how the compositor should work.
    • CELLULAR BROADBAND TELEMETRY OPTIONS FOR THE 21st CENTURY: Looking at broadband cellular from a telemetry perspective

      Smith, Brian J.; Omniwav Mobile, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      With the recent broadband upgrades to various cellular infrastructures and the myriad new emerging wireless broadband standards and services offered by carriers, it is often difficult to navigate this sea of technology. In deciding the best choice for broadband telemetry applications, one must look not only at the technology, but also at the economics, market timing, bandwidths, legacy issues, future expandability and coverage, security, protocols, and the requirements of the specific application. This paper reviews the technology roadmap of cellular providers keeping these issues in perspective as they apply to TCP/IP data for images, audio, video, and other broadband telemetry data using CDMA 1xRTT, EV-DO, and EV-DO Rev A systems as well as GSM GPRS/EDGE, UMTS/W-CDMA, HSDPA, and HSUPA networks. Lastly, issues seen by system integrators when using cellular channels for telemetry applications are examined, and a case is presented for overcoming many of these issues through the use of cellular routers.

      Lockard, Michael T.; Garling, James A. Jr; EMC Corporation, Solutions Engineering Group (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      The IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Standard has evolved significantly since its inception. This paper covers the background, technology, status, users, supporting vendors and future considerations such as ground-based recording and archiving. Also covered are samples of toolsets available for troubleshooting, validation, data processing and display of Chapter 10 data
    • Cognitive Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

      Kosbar, Kurt; Panagos, Adam; Telemetry Learning Center (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      Spectrum allocation in wireless communication and telemetry systems of the future may be performed in a dynamic and distributed manner, as opposed to static centralized regulations currently in place. This paper surveys a new area of research in the communications field known as cognitive radio which will allow dynamic sharing of spectral bands. An introduction to cognitive radio, a review of existing research results, and discussion of open problems in the area is provided.

      Tian, Hai; Trojak, Tom; Jones, Charles H.; Teletronics Technology Corporation; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2006-10)
      This paper presents a practical implementation of a hardware design for transmission of data over aircraft power lines. The intent of such hardware is to significantly reduce the wiring in the aircraft instrumentation system. The potential usages of this technology include pulse code modulation (PCM), Ethernet and other forms data communications. Details of the fieldprogrammable gate array (FPGA) and printed circuit board (PCB) designs of the digital and analog front end will be discussed. The power line is not designed for data transmission. It contains considerable noise, multipath effects, and time varying impedance. Spectral analysis data of an aircraft is presented to indicate the difficulty of the problem at hand. A robust modulation is required to overcome the harsh environment and to provide reliable transmission. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) has been used in power line communication industry with a great deal of success. OFDM has been deemed the most appropriate technology for high-speed data transmission on aircraft power lines. Additionally, forward error correction (FEC) techniques are discussed.