The Effects of Developmental Nicotine Exposure on Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in Neural Control of Breathing in Neonatal Rats
AuthorHeller, Briena Moselle
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractThe aim of this literature review is to explore how the neural control of breathing in neonatal rats is affected with the primary focus on DNE-induced changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission. All living organisms need to breathe in order to sustain life. This essential and complex phenomenon is a rhythmic process utilizing the lungs, muscles controlling lower and upper airways, the nerves the innervate these muscles, and the brainstem and cortex neural networks controlling them. Rhythmogenesis of respiration is generated and maintained by respiratory neurons in the medulla and pons of the brainstem. Nicotine is a primary focus of research obtained for this paper as studies suggest that disruptions to this rhythm generation affecting successful respiration are attributed to nicotine in cigarettes. The age group with the highest percentage of cigarette usage is those of childbearing age. Prenatal smoking allows toxins from cigarettes to damage various tissues in the unborn fetus resulting in an abundance of health problems including obstructive sleep apneas and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This review will concentrate on the effects of DNE on glutamatergic neurotransmission as alteration to excitatory neurotransmission impacting the brainstem regions responsible for controlling the tongue muscles that are essential for natural breathing.
Degree ProgramHonors College
Neuroscience and Cognitive Science