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AdvisorArmstrong, Neal R.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractTiO2 films as electron collecting interlayers are important in determining the efficiency of organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Various methods of film deposition have been explored, and they revealed the tradeoff between pinhole free coverage (large shunt resistance) and small film thickness (small series resistance). It is hypothesized that atomic layer deposition (ALD) with its self-limiting nature and sub-nanometer level control would be able to circumvent this problem and provide TiO2 films of pinhole free coverage and small thickness. TiO2 films made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ALD were investigated and compared. Conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) was used to characterize film morphology and conductivity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized to analyze film composition and chemical state. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) was able to reveal the hole blocking capability of films. Finally, organic photovoltaic devices were made with different TiO2 films to reveal the relationship between device property and film characteristic. It is found that both CVD and ALD created TiO2 films with Ti4+ species containing oxygen from hydroxyl groups. They both showed conformal coverage of the electrode via CAFM and CV measurements, and clearly ALD method achieved this with a thinner film and smaller series resistance. This work provided the evidence of effective and surprising capabilities of electron harvesting and hole blocking of ultrathin ALD TiO2 films for OPVs.
Degree ProgramGraduate College