AdvisorJessen, Poul S.
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractQuantum control of many body atomic spins is often pursued in the context of an atom-light quantum interface, where a quantized light field acts as a "quantum bus" that can be used to entangle distant atoms. One key challenge is to improve the coherence of the atom-light interface and the amount of atom-light entanglement it can generate, given the constraints of working with multilevel atoms and optical fields in a 3D geometry. We have explored new ways to achieve this, through rigorous optimization of the spatial geometry, and through control of the internal atomic state. Our basic setup consists of a quantized probe beam passing through an atom cloud held in a dipole trap, first generating spin-probe entanglement through the Faraday interaction, and then using backaction from a measurement of the probe polarization to squeeze the collective atomic spin. The relevant figure of merit is the metrologically useful spin squeezing determined by the enhancement in the resolution of rotations of the collective spin, relative to the commonly used spin coherent state. With an optimized free-space geometry, and by using a 2-color probe scheme to suppress tensor light shifts, we achieve 3(2) dB of metrologically useful spin squeezing. We can further increase atom-light coupling by implementing internal state control to prepare spin states with larger initial projection noise relative to the spin coherent state. Under the right conditions this increase in projection noise can lead to stronger measurement backaction and increased atom-atom entanglement. With further internal state control the increased atom-atom entanglement can then be mapped to a basis where it corresponds to improved squeezing of, e.g., the physical spin-angular momentum or the collective atomic clock pseudospin. In practice, controlling the collective spin of N ~ 10⁶ atoms in this fashion is an extraordinarily difficult challenge because errors in the control of individual atoms tend to be highly correlated. By employing precise internal state control, we have prepared and detected projection noise limited "cat" states (which have initial projection noise that is larger by a factor of 2f = 8 for Cs relative to the spin coherent state) and estimate that we can generate up to 6.0(5) dB of metrologically useful spin squeezing, demonstrating the advantage of using the internal atomic structure as a resource for ensemble control.
Degree ProgramGraduate College