Targeting the Cystine/Glutamate Antiporter System xc⁻ in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain
AuthorSlosky, Lauren M.
Peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst
AdvisorVanderah, Todd W.
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractMany common cancers, including breast, prostate and lung cancers, have a propensity to metastasize to bone. Although these cancers go undetected in their native tissues, bone metastases often produce excruciating pain, the etiology of which is poorly understood. Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is not well-controlled with existing medications, severely compromising patient quality of life. While CIBP is multifaceted, increased level of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in the bone-tumor microenvironment may contribute to the pain state. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a relationship between reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, glutamate in the bone-tumor microenvironment and pain behaviors. The murine mammary adenocarcinoma cell line 66.1 is found to release glutamate via the cystine/glutamate antiporter system xc⁻. In a syngeneic model of breast CIBP in which 66.1 cells are inoculated into the femur intramedullary space, administration of sulfasalazine, an established system xc⁻ inhibitor and anti-inflammatory agent, reduces femur glutamate level and attenuates CIBP-related behaviors. Peroxynitrite, a reactive nitrogen species known to be generated in breast tumors, is shown to drive 66.1 system xc⁻ functional expression and tumor cell glutamate release. The elimination of peroxynitrite with the redox modulators FeTMPyP or SRI10 not only modulates tumor cell system xc⁻ functional expression in vitro and in vivo, significantly altering glutamate levels, but also assuages CIBP. In sum, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of system xc⁻ transport attenuates CIBP-related behaviors. These data support a role for tumor-derived glutamate in CIBP and validate system xc⁻ an analgesic target in this pain state.
Degree ProgramGraduate College