AuthorKosakowsky, Laura J.
KeywordsCuello Site (Belize)
Indian pottery -- Belize.
Excavations (Archaeology) -- Belize.
Indians of Central America -- Belize -- Antiquities.
Mayas -- Antiquities.
Belize -- Antiquities.
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Collection InformationThis title from the Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona collection is made available by the University of Arizona Press and University of Arizona Libraries. If you have questions about this title, please contact the UA Press at http://www.uapress.arizona.edu/.
PublisherUniversity of Arizona Press (Tucson, AZ)
Description"This monograph adds important data on the development of Preclassic period ceramics in northern Belize."—American Antiquity"This book contributes to our understanding of early Maya society during an era that has only new been revealed."—The Chesopiean"Kosakowsky's book, produced in the clear, easy-to-read and well designed format . . . is a substantive contribution to Maya ceramic studies."—Journal of Latin American Studies
Table of ContentsPreface / Summary of the 1980 Excavation / Definition of Terms / Comparisons with the Cuello Ceramic Analysis by Duncan Pring / Type Descriptions (Swasey? Ceramic Sphere) / Type Descriptions (Xe? Ceramic Sphere) / Mortuary Vessels / Differentiating Features Between the Swasey and Bladen Ceramic Complexes / Type Descriptions (Mamom Ceramic Sphere) / Cocos Ceramic Complex / Type Descriptions (Chicanel Ceramic Sphere) / Mortuary Vessels / Early Ceramic Complexes in the New World / Ceramic Development at Cuello / References / Index / Abstract
Series/Report no.Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, No. 47
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Rural society and economic development: British mercantile capital in nineteenth-century Belize.Meyer, Michael; Cal, Angel Eduardo.; Stone, H. Reynolds; Guy, Donna; Gosner, Kevin (The University of Arizona., 1991)Nineteenth-century European industrialization increased the demand for raw resources available in sub-tropical regions. The eastern coast of Central America and the Bay of Campeche had an ample supply of dyewoods used in the textile industry, and mahogany, a durable and precious wood used in the production of railway cars and furniture. British mercantile capital linked the various peoples and activities that were involved in the extractive industry and in the short-lived sugarcane and banana industries. The pre-Columbian regional economic block based on resources such as salt was taken over by the Spaniards during the Contact period. But the tenuous Iberian hold gave way to persistent British buccaneers turned loggers. Eventually, though, British mercantile firms took over the business. These firms monopolized the land, credit and the import business, and exerted considerable influence on the local state. This enclave economy essentially "created" its society, bringing in African slaves and attracting laborers from the region: Garifuna, Miskito, Mestizo and Maya. The Caste War of Yucatan (1847-1901) also sent some 15,000 refugees mostly peasants into Belize. Indentured workers were imported from the 1860s. Except for the blacks, most of the workers and peasants established settlements in the rural areas. The relationship between capital and labor and between capital and the peasantry was marked by both conflict and accommodation. Whereas the firms tried to secure a reliable, cheap, and submissive labor force and tried to "proletarianize" the peasantry with the help of state-backed mechanisms, the nature of the industry: the cultural norms of the Maya peasantry, for example, the strategic alliances among the groups at the frontier and the limited supply of labor made it difficult for capital to have its way. In fact, the Maya's determination to block further British expansion in the northwest eventually undermined the level of business confidence necessary to operate in a turbulent frontier. Mercantile capital withdrew when faced by declining prices. Many workers were repeasantized.
The settlement of Nohmul: Development of a prehispanic Maya community in northern Belize.Culbert, Patrick; Pyburn, Karen Anne.; Kramer, Carol; Yoffee, Norman; Hammond, Norman (The University of Arizona., 1988)The study of prehistoric Maya settlements has been hampered by simplistic views of cultural ecology, over generalized ethnographic analogy, and a lack of attention to both natural and cultural site formation processes. As a result, Mayanists have tended to expect very little variety in archaeological features and have assumed cultural uniformity over wide ranges of time and space. Traditional research designs support these assumptions. Current knowledge of Maya social organization suggests that more structural variety may occur in Maya archaeological sites than is ordinarily discovered. Some of this variation is evidenced by features not currently visible on the ground-surface. The Nohmul Settlement pattern project employed a "purposive" sampling design to search for settlement variation over time and space. Several assumptions about surface-subsurface relationships were tested. Surface indications were not found to outline subsurface variety. Excavating at intervals from site center in both visible and "invisible" features, showed that the Nohmul community was affected by both centralizing and decentralizing influences and grouped into residential clusters resembling neighborhoods. The degree of centralization and the location of the clusters, as well as some of their characteristics, changed notably over Nohmul's 2500 year occupation.