• Combined Techniques to Date the First Turkish Bridge over the Tisza River, Hungary

      Szántó, Zsuzsanna; Kertész, Róbert; Morgós, András; Nagy, Dénes; Molnár, Mihály; Grabner, Michael; Rinyu, Lászól; Futó, István (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2007-01-01)
      Given the fluctuating nature of the radiocarbon calibration curve, the precision of single 14C dates on the calendar timescale is limited. However, 14C dating combined with dendrochronology enabled us to date timbers found in the Tisza River, Hungary, during the dry period of summer 2003. Routine preparation of wood samples gave 14C results spread over 4 centuries. By extracting alpha-cellulose from the samples, 2 distinct and relatively narrow historical time periods were obtained: the first period (AD 1505-1595 and 1612-1673, respectively) coincided with the Turkish occupation period, while the second interval (1733-1813) obtained in the case of 2 samples did not exclude the existence of another bridge constructed later. The dendrochronological data confirmed that the bridge was constructed from oak timbers felled between 1558 and 1565. The 14C and dendrochronological dates correspond with the date of a letter written in 1562 by Antal Verancsics, Bishop of Eger, mentioning the construction of the first bridge. In conclusion, the archaeological excavation revealed proof of the first historically attested wooden bridge over the Tisza River.
    • Concentration of Radiocarbon and Its Chemical Forms in Gaseous Effluents, Environmental Air, Nuclear Waste and Primary Water of a Pressurized Water Reactor Power Plant in Hungary

      Veres, Mihály; Hertelendi, Ede; Uchrin, György; Csaba, Eszter; Barnabás, István; Ormai, Péter; Volent, Gábor; Futó, István (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1995-01-01)
      We measured airborne releases of 14C from the Paks Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Two continuous stack samplers collect 14C in 14CO2 and 14CnHm chemical forms. 14C activities were measured using two techniques; environmental air samples of lower activities were analyzed by proportional counting, stack samples were measured by liquid scintillation counting. 14C concentration of air in the stack varies between 80 and 200 Bqm-3. The average normalized yearly discharge rates for 1988-1993 were 0.74 TBqGWe-1y-1 for hydrocarbons and 0.06 TBqGWe-1y-1 for CO2. The discharge rate from Paks Nuclear Power Plant is about four times higher than the mean discharge value of a typical Western European PWR NPP. The higher 14C production may be apportioned to the higher level of nitrogen impurities in the primary coolant. Monitoring the long-term average excess from the NPP gave D-14C = 3.5 per mil for CO2 and D-14C = 20 per mil for hydrocarbons. We determined 14C activity concentration in the primary coolant to be ca. 4 kBq liter-1. The 14C activity concentrations of spent mixed bed ion exchange resins vary between 1.2 and 5.3 MBqkg-1 dry weight.
    • Duration of Tell Settlements at Four Prehistoric Sites in Hungary

      Hertelendi, Ede; Svingor, Éva; Raczky, Pál; Horváth, Ferenc; Futó, István; Bartosiewicz, László (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1998-01-01)
      The chief objective of this paper is to improve our understanding of the Neolithic in eastern Hungary using absolute chronological data. To accomplish this we calibrated new measurements as well as previously published dates. The up-to-date, standardized evaluation of 147 calibrated measurements showed temporal overlaps between archaeological cultures defined on the basis of ceramic styles. The average timespan of tell settlements of 285 yr was obtained using radiocarbon dates from four major settlements in eastern Hungary: Berettyóújfalu-Herpály, Hódmezóvásáhely-Gorzsa-Cukortanya, Öcsöd-Kováshalom and Polgár-Csószhalom.
    • Radiocarbon Concentration and Origin of Thermal Karst Waters in the Region of the Bukk Mountains, Northeastern Hungary

      Hertelendi, Ede; Veres, Mihály; Futó, István; Svingor, Éva; Mikó, Lajos; Lénart, László; Deák, Jozsef; Süveges, Miklós (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1995-01-01)
      Karst springs are abundant in Hungary, and many are thermal (temperatures >30 degrees C). As thermal springs are a significant part of Hungary's water resources, it is important to quantify their travel times in the karst systems. Thus, we chose to measure T and delta-18O in the water and delta-13C and 14C in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water from 50 thermal and non-thermal springs and wells in the Bukk Mountains, northeastern Hungary. Environmental isotope data confirm the karst waterflow pattern implied by earlier studies. We found the water in warm springs and boreholes to be mixtures of cold young and old thermal water. We also determined short mean-residence times for some large cold springs. The 14C activities measured in these springs indicate that the recharge area of the karst aquifer is open to the atmosphere, and atmospheric CO2 contributes to the 14C activity of these groundwaters. We observed good correlation between 14C and 3H activities and we determined negative correlations between 14C concentration and delta-13C values and temperature. From the delta-18O values of the oldest thermal waters, we attribute their origin to precipitation during colder temperatures than at present.
    • Re-Evaluation of the Neolithic in Eastern Hungary Based on Calibrated Radiocarbon Dates

      Hertelendi, Ede; Kalicz, Nándor; Raczky, Pál; Horváth, Ferenc; Veres, Mihály; Svingor, Éva; Futó, István; Bartosiewicz, László (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1995-01-01)
      The chief objective of this paper is to improve our understanding of the Neolithic in Eastern Hungary using absolute chronological data. To accomplish this we calibrated new measurements as well as previously published dates. The up-to-date, standardized evaluation of 261 calibrated measurements showed temporal overlaps between archaeological cultures defined on the basis of ceramic styles. The increasing number of dates suggest that the Neolithic period began at the turn of the 6th and 7th millennia BC and lasted for ca. 1500 yr in the present area of the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld). Further research should be aimed at complementing the current data set with dates from western Hungary and establishing additional correlations among stratigraphic, typological and radiocarbon dates.