• Abundance, seed pod nutritional characteristics, and seed germination of leguminous trees in South Kordofan, Sudan

      Hashim, I. M. (Society for Range Management, 1990-07-01)
      Seed pods of leguminous trees are a potential source of livestock feed in Sudan. Abundance, seed pod nutritional characteristics, and seed germination of leguminous trees in south Kordofan were examined. In the study area, densities of all trees and leguminous trees were 99.8 and 24.0 trees/ha, respectively. Percentages of crude protein in seed pods, after seeds were removed, ranged from 0.1 to 27.2, in vitro dry matter digestibility from 28.1 to 59.8, in vitro organic matter digestibility from 23.3 to 59.9, and neutral-detergent fiber from 50.8 to 79.3 during the dry season. Seeds of sunut (Acacia nilotica) and girfaldud (Albisia anthelmintica) germinated only after soaking in a large volume of water; they may have contained chemical inhibitors that restricted germination. Undamaged seeds of other tree speciea required scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid for 5 to 150 minutes to give optimum germination in 2 to 9 days. Seeds damaged by Bruchid beetles failed to germinate if their embryos were eaten, but germination of damaged seeds whose embryos were not eaten was sometimes as high as that of the controls. Bores made by the Bruchids in seeds may have facilitated moisture inbibition.
    • Adesmia subterranea Clos germination physiology and pre-sowing treatments

      Parera, C. A.; Ruiz, M. (Society for Range Management, 2003-05-01)
      The genus Adesmia (Fabaceae, Papilionoideae) is one of the scarce forage resources at high altitude and arid zones of South America. Its germination behavior has not been examined. Seeds of Adesmia subterranea "Cuerno de Cabra" were pretreated with sulfuric acid (1, 3, and 5 minutes soaking) and mechanical scarification to determine their impact upon dormancy and percentage and speed of germination. Treatments were evaluated under a range of constant temperatures (5 to 30 degrees C) and 2 day/night cycles resembling the extreme environmental conditions of this species habitat. Water uptake and leachate conductivity were higher in the seeds scarified mechanically or with 5 minutes chemical scarification. These treatments also had the greatest total germination and rate at all temperatures in a petri dish germination test. However, in a cell tray experiment using a commercial substrate, the highest seedling emergence and rate were observed with chemical scarification (5 and 3 minutes). The high amount of leakage caused by the scarifications affected emergence in a non-sterile media. The results indicate that A. subterranea seeds have an impermeable seed coat which restricts water uptake, and the efficiency of sulfuric acid scarification to overcome seed coat impermeability and improve germination and emergence.
    • Effects of Hay and Straw Mulches on the Establishment of Seeded Grasses and Legumes on Rangeland and a Coal Strip Mine

      McGinnies, W. J. (Society for Range Management, 1987-03-01)
      Straw and grass-hay mulches at rates of 1,120 and 3,360 kg/ha were applied to the surface after seeding or incorporated into the soil before seeding for 3 consecutive years of planting at Central Plains Experimental Range (CPER) near Nunn, Colorado, and at Colorado Yampa Coal Company mine (CYCC) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Averaged across 3 years, the stand ratings of Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Neveski, the only species seeded at CPER, were significantly better for the check (no mulch) treatment than for any mulch treatment. At CYCC, average stand ratings were significantly better than the check when 1,120 kg/ha of straw mulch was applied to the surface after seeding. The species that consistently had the best stand ratings at CYCC were Astragalus cicer L., Bromus biebersteinii Roem and Schult., B. inermis Leyss., B. marginatus Nees, Elytrigia intermedia (Host) Nevski, E. intermedia subsp. barbulato (Schur) A. Löve, Medicago falcata L., M. sativa L., and Phleum pratense L. No erosion from the plots by either wind or water was observed regardless of mulch treatments.
    • Effects of prescribed fire on Chamaespartium tridentatum ((L.)P. Gibbs) in Pinus pinaster (Aiton) forests

      Rego, F. C.; Bunting, S. C.; Barreira, M. G. (Society for Range Management, 1988-09-01)
      Prescribed burning in Pinus pinaster forests was evaluated in terms of the effects on Chamaespartium tridentatum. Postfire forage quantity and quality were studied. Total biomass production, current year's shoot production, and nutritive value were studied in relation to time since fire. Chamaespartium, a vigorous resprouter, achieved 50% of its preburn biomass level in 2 years. Current year's shoot production reached a maximum 3 to 4 years after fire. Nutritive value of Chamaespartium was briefly enhanced by burning but returned to preburn levels. Seasonal variations of forage quality were very important with lower values in summer or fall. Short-lived increases in protein, cellulose, and hemi-cellulose contents after fire in Chamaespartium shoots returned to preburn levels in 4 years. This supported the traditional fire frequency in the shrublands of 3 to 7 in order to maintain forage quality and productivity.
    • Forage Establishment: Weather Effects on Stubble vs. Fallow And Fall vs. Spring Seedling

      Hart, R. H.; Dean, J. G. (Society for Range Management, 1986-05-01)
      Improved pastures are a valuable forage resource in the Central Great Plains, but ranchers need to know which seeding techniques provide the best chance of successful establishment of such pastures. We compared late fall vs. spring seedings of 5 grasses and 2 legumes in barley stubble or fallow. Four directions of stubble rows were compared for snow catchment and effect on forage establishment. Stubble rows in any direction had little effect on snow catch or establishment, and there was little difference between stubble and fallow. Spring seeding gave better stands than fall seeding in the kind of weather most often encountered in the Central Great Plains. Days from seeding to emergence were controlled by soil temperature and timing and amount of precipitation. Stands were negatively correlated with the time required for emergence.