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Herbicide effects on cross timbers breeding birdsWe censused breeding nongame birds on replicated 5- and 6-year post herbicide-treated (tebuthiuron and triclopyr) and untreated cross timbers rangeland in central Oklahoma. Twenty species of breeding birds were observed. No treatment effects were detected for total bird density, species diversity, or richness; however, species composition varied considerably among treatments. Control sites supported species associated with closed canopy woodlands, and treated sites supported species associated with brushy and prairie habitat. Generally, control sites had greater foliar cover, fewer snags, and less slash and herbaceous cover than treated sites. Densities of 6 of the 7 most abundant bird species were correlated variously with habitat variables. We concluded that changes in habitat structure resulted in differences in bird species composition among treatments.