• A New Breed of Johnny Appleseed

      Geist, J. Michael (Society for Range Management, 1989-02-01)
    • Douglas-Fir Encroachment into Mountain Grasslands in Southwestern Montana

      Arno, S. F.; Gruell, G. E. (Society for Range Management, 1986-05-01)
      A study of plant succession in relation to disturbance history was conducted in Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco] forest and fescue (Festuca L. spp.) grassland communities along the eastern slope of the Continental Divide in Montana. The objective was to obtain ecological information needed for assessing management alternatives aimed at enhancing big game habitat and livestock forage. Fire history was reconstructed through analysis of fire scars and age classes of trees. Sizes and ages were inventoried in sapling stage, pole stage, and mature forest stands. Results indicate that prior to 1890 fires occurring every few decades favored grassland and confined tree growth to rocky or topographically moist sites. Since 1890 fires have been rare as a result of livestock grazing (which removes fine fuels), fire suppression, and cessation of ignitions by Native Americans. Lack of fire allowed extensive areas of Douglas-fir "invasion" now of pole size to become established in former grasslands between 1890 and 1915. Widespread invasion of sapling size trees occurred between 1941 and 1955, when seed crops apparently coincided with unusually favorable moisture conditions. For management of these areas, we recommend use of prescribed fire in conjunction with timber harvesting to enhance declining forage productivity for big game and livestock.
    • Effect of grazing by sheep on the quantity and quality of forage available to big game in Oregon's Coast Range

      Rhodes, B. D.; Sharrow, S. H. (Society for Range Management, 1990-05-01)
      Effects of sheep grazing in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) plantations in Oregon’s Coast Range were studied in 1981 through 1983 to determine the impact of grazing on big game habitat. Biomass, dry matter digestibility, and crude protein content of forage present on grazed vs. ungrazed areas were determined in October and March both years. Sheep grazing reduced total current year’s phytomass of browse and forbs (p<.10) in October. October phytomass of graminoids was not affected by grazing. Forage from grazed areas in October generally had higher crude protein levels and dry matter digestibility than forage from ungrazed areas in October. Few differences in either crude protein or dry matter digestibility of forage from grazed vs. ungrazed areas were evident in March. However, a greater quantity (p<.10) of new, succulent forage was generally present in grazed areas compared to ungrazed areas. These data suggest that sheep grazing can improve big game forage supply in Oregon’s Coast Range by improving forage quality in the fall and by increasing the quantity of high quality forage in the spring.
    • Effects of Brush Control and Game-bird Management on Nongame Birds

      Gruver, B. J.; Guthery, F. S. (Society for Range Management, 1986-05-01)
      We observed the responses of nongame birds to brush suppression and habitat management for game birds in the Rolling Plains of Texas during 1981-1983. Data from line transects were used to describe density, species diversity, species richness, and equitability. We observed no difference in these variables between untreated sites and sites late sprayed with herbicides in 1969. The density of northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos) was lower on treated than untreated areas, but no other species were affected. Habitat management to favor mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) and bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) was associated with a 54% increase in combined density of nongame birds and a reduction in equitability. Species diversity and species richness were similar on managed and unmanaged sites. On our study area, past herbicide treatment of mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) and habitat management for game birds were compatible with nongame birds.
    • Effects of spring headfires and backfires on tall grass prairie

      Bidwell, T. G.; Engle, D. M.; Claypool, P. L. (Society for Range Management, 1990-05-01)
      We compared responses of tallgrass prairie vegetation to late spring herdfires and backfires on a moderately stocked 2.4 AUM ha-1) shallow prairie range site 15 km southwest of Stillwater, Oklahoma. We replicated treatments 4 times in a randomized complete block design on 10 X 20-m plots oriented with the prevailing wind direction. Treatment factors included burning treatments (headfire, backfire, and unburned check) and treatment years (1986 and 1987). Herbage standing crop was clipped to ground level in tive 0.25-m2 quadrats per plot in June and August and separated into vegetation categories. Standing crop of tallgrasses in August was 21% (400 kg ha-1) greater on headfired than backfired plots. Forb standing crop in August was 26% (98 kg ha-1) greater on backfired plots than headfired plots. On tallgrass prairie managed for livestock, the area headfired should be maximized within the constraints of the bum prescription. Backfiring in late spring can be used to increase wildlife habitat on small areas.
    • Floral Changes Following Mechanical Brush Removal in Central Texas

      Rollins, D.; Bryant, F. C. (Society for Range Management, 1986-05-01)
      A field study was initiated in May 1981 to monitor the effectiveness of mechanical brush control (chaining) as a method of reclaiming Ashe juniper (Juniperus asheii)-oak (Quercus spp.) dominated rangelands in central Texas. Brush was cleared from 4 sites by double-chaining and the resultant slash was burned. Brush canopy reduction and herbaceous standing crop were monitored for 2 growing seasons following treatment. Total brush canopy at 1 year post-treatment was 80% less than untreated brush stands. Chaining was more effective for Ashe juniper (93% reduction) than for oaks (64-75% reduction). Grass and forb standing crop at 22 months post-treatment was 55% higher on chained sites during all collection months.
    • Improving Riparian Habitats

      Floyd, Don; Ogden, Phil; Roundy, Bruce; Ruyle, George; Stewart, Dave (Society for Range Management, 1988-06-01)
    • Methods of Enhancing Germination of Anacua Seeds

      Fulbright, T. E.; Flenniken, K. S.; Waggerman, G. L. (Society for Range Management, 1986-09-01)
      Seed dormancy hampers establishment of anacua [Ehretia anacua (Teran & Berl.) I.M. Johnst.] in plantings for wildlife. We evaluated methods of enhancing anacua germination and causes of dormancy. Seeds were (1) scarified with 2.9 mol liter-1 H2O2 or 0.71 mol liter-1 NaOCl for 10, 20, or 30 minutes, or concentrated (18.0 mol liter-1) H2SO4 for 15, 30, 60, or 120 minutes; (2) rinsed with water for 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours; (3) treated with 0.1, 1.4, 2.9, and 4.3 mmol liter-1 gibberellic acid (GA); (4) treated with 0.02 mol liter-1 KNO3; (5) treated with dry heat (130 degrees C) for 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 minutes, (6) mechanically scarified; and (7) moist prechilled at 3 and 7 degrees C for 2 or 4 weeks. Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers at 30 degrees C. Germination was not enhanced by chemical scarification or rinsing. GA (1.4 mmol liter-1) increased germination from 35% for controls to 61%. Mechanical scarification and dry heat enhanced germination of highly dormant seeds only. A 2-week moist prechill at 3 degrees C increased germination of intact seeds from 6% for controls to 36%. Percent and rate of germination were similar among seed sources. Apparent afterripening requirements limited germination at 2 months after harvest to 3%. This requirement gradually broke down until at 8 months after harvest, germination had increased to 40%. Our results indicated that treatment with 1.4 mmol liter-1 GA or higher concentrations, moist prechilling for 2 weeks at 3 degrees C, and storage for 8 months will increase germination of dormant anacua seeds.
    • Prescribed Burning Effects in Central California Chaparral

      Florence, Scott R.; Florence, Melanie A. (Society for Range Management, 1988-06-01)
    • Subterranean Clover on Southern Pine Range: Potential Benefits to Game

      Ribbeck, K. F.; Johnson, M. K.; Dancak, K. (Society for Range Management, 1987-03-01)
      Wildlife habitat is an important component of forested lands in the South. We examined effects of silvicultural practices and understory management on abundance of arthropods for wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Plots (roughtly equal to 0.1 ha) of southern pine timber (25-35 years old) were thinned or cleared and were planted with subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum) or were allowed to produce native vegetation. Arthropods were most abundant in clearings for both understory treatments: 127 +/- 15 (subterranean clover), 45 +/- 5 (native) per plot. Abundance of arthropods on pine forested plots with a subterranean clover understory was often greater than abundance of arthropods on cleared plots with native vegetation. Many of the arthropods sampled were the kinds often used by wild turkey and bobwhite. Subterranean clover production on forested plots was about 70% of production on cleared plots. Arthropods from 5 of 8 orders were significantly (P<0.05) more abundant in subterranean clover plots compared to native vegetation. Abundance of arthropods was significantly (P<0.05) associated with forage yield. Dead subterranean clover provided more arthropods in summer than live native vegetation. Planting subterranean clover in Southern pine timber offers a good alternative to removal of timber production for improving wildlife habitat and for integrating livestock and game management practices. Costs for establishing (roughly equal to $100/ha) and maintaining (roughly equal to $50/ha/yr) subterranean clover under pine timber are less than the potential loss in timber revenue ($125 to 340/ha/yr) associated with maintaining clearings.
    • Survivability of Wyoming Big Sagebrush Transplants

      Clements, C.D.; Harmon, D.N. (Society for Range Management, 2019-04)
      Wyoming big sagebrush is a dominant shrub species on millions of acres of rangelands throughout the Intermountain West and plays a critical role in the health and diversity of many wildlife species. Restoration practices to re-establish Wyoming big sagebrush on degraded habitats have largely been met with submarginal success, yet the need to restore or rehabilitate Wyoming big sagebrush has become increasingly important due to extensive losses of big sagebrush habitats, fragmentation, and sensitive sagebrush obligate species. Lack of success from seeding rangelands either by ground application or aerially has prompted some resource managers to look more closely at transplantng methodologies. Transplanting of Wyoming big sagebrush is largely done using cone-size containers or bare-stock plants and is recommended to be conducted in spring. This study was initiated in 2012 to test fall versus spring transplanting. Fall transplanting success averaged 65% with a range of 41% to 82%, while spring transplant success averaged 41% with a range of 13% to 65%. The cold desert of the Great Basin receives the majority of its precipitation during winter months, therefore providing a more reliable source of available precipitation for newly transplanted Wyoming big sagebrush seedlings. A significant part of increasing big sagebrush transplanting success is the combination of increased container size and moving the timing of transplanting from spring to fall due to an increase in favorable and reliable precipitation.
    • The Coordinated Resource Management Planning (CRMP) Process—A Viewpoint

      Demarchi, Raymond A. (Society for Range Management, 1988-02-01)
    • Wild Game in Texas

      Payne, Jack M.; Brown, Robert D.; Guthery, Fred S. (Society for Range Management, 1987-10-01)