Now showing items 5862-5881 of 20709

    • E-Commerce in Chile: Best Practices, Self-Regulation, and Integration [Article]

      Saldivia, Juan Pablo Prieto (The University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law (Tucson, AZ), 2016)
    • E-Commerce Law and the Prospects for Uniform E-Commerce Rules on the Privacy and Security of Electronic Communications [Article]

      Takasugi, Naoshi (The University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law (Tucson, AZ), 2016)
    • E-Commerce Laws and Practices in China [Article]

      Luo, Kevin (The University of Arizona James E. Rogers College of Law (Tucson, AZ), 2016)
    • E-Z-2-Rite: A Clipboard Holder

      Kadish, A.; Powell, R. (Society for Range Management, 1955-09-01)
    • E. O. Wooton: New Mexico's Pioneer Botanist

      Allred, Kelly (Society for Range Management, 2008-10-01)
    • Eagles and Sheep: A Viewpoint

      Bolen, E. G. (Society for Range Management, 1975-01-01)
      The controversy regarding golden eagle predation on lambs in the Southwest was addressed using winter eagle population data from Texas and eastern New Mexico, eagle food habits information, and lamb mortality data. The sum of this review indicates that too few lambs are eaten as prey to justify presecution of golden eagles for the presumptive enhancement of livestock production. An inquiry concerning brush cover and carnivore food habits suggests that lagomorphs, a staple in golden eagle diets, decline as usable food for carnivores where brush prevails on lambing ranges.
    • Early Allotments in South Dakota Revisited

      Wester, Dave; Bakken, Teri (Society for Range Management, 1992-08-01)
    • Early Arizona Court Experiences

      Baker, A. C. (Arizona State Historian (Phoenix, AZ), 1929-10)
    • Early Bronze Age Chronology: Radiocarbon Dates and Chronological Models from Tel Yarmuth (Israel)

      Regev, Johanna; de Miroschedji, Pierre; Boaretto, Elisabetta (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2012-10-15)
      Over the years, 40 radiocarbon samples (charcoal and seeds) have been measured from the site of Tel Yarmuth. These samples originate from 3 major archaeological periods: Final Early Bronze Age (henceforth EB) I, EB II, and EB IIIB-C. The samples are further on divided into 8 separate archaeological phases. Bayesian modeling analyses were performed on the data. Separate models were run with seeds and charcoals to detect a possible old-wood effect. Outliers were detected, and finally models with gaps were run to account for the lack of samples from 2 archaeological layers. The results suggest that at Tel Yarmuth the end of the EB II occurred ~2950–2880 BC, and that the EB III ended at the latest ~2450 BC, perhaps before 2500 BC. Although these dates are somewhat earlier than traditionally assumed, they are in close accordance with the new analysis of other 14C dates for the Early Bronze Age in the southern Levant (Regev et al., these proceedings).
    • Early Bronze Age Strata at Tell Ghanem al-Ali along the Middle Euphrates in Syria: A Preliminary Report of 14C Dating Results

      Nakamura, T.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, T.; Yoshida, H.; Saito, T.; Tsukada, K.; Katsurada, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Ohta, T.; Hasegawa, A.; et al. (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 2010-01-01)
      We collected charcoal fragments during an archaeological excavation at the Tell Ghanem al-Ali site, located on the lowest terrace of the middle Euphrates River, and measured their radiocarbon ages with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Two trenches, Square-1 and Square-2, were dug on the slope of the tell; 8 building levels were detected in the Square-2 trench. In total, 31 charcoal samples were collected from the 2 trenches, and their calibrated ages ranged from 3100-2900 cal BC at the lowest building level to 2400-2050 cal BC at the uppermost layers of the mound, and concentrated in the period 2650-2450 cal BC. The pottery fragments collected on the surface of the mound before the excavation survey was started, as well as those collected from the sediment layers during the excavation, were assigned on the basis of typological sequences to the Early Bronze Age (EB)-III and EB-IV periods. Thus, the concentrated dates (2650-2450 cal BC) obtained by 14C dating are consistent with the age estimated by archaeological contexts. However, the oldest dates of the lowest level (level-7) go back to 3100-2900 cal BC, and these dates may suggest the existence of the human residence prior to the EB period at the site, and may therefore lead to a revision of the oldest age limit of the EB period currently accepted in the region.
    • Early Bronze Jericho: High-Precision 14C Dates of Short-Lived Palaeobotanic Remains

      Bruins, Hendrik J.; van der Plicht, Johannes (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1998-01-01)
      Reliable series of high-precision radiocarbon dates in a stratified archaeological context are of great importance for interdisciplinary chronological and historical studies. The Early Bronze Age in the Near East is characterized by the beginning of the great civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia, as well as by urbanization in the Levant. We present stratified high-precision dates of short-lived material of Tell es-Sultan (Jericho), covering Late Proto-Urban/EB I, EB II and EB III layers from Trench III. Our calibrated dates, refined by Bayesian sequence analysis involving Gibbs sampling, are ca. 150-300 yr older than conventional archaeological age assessments. The corpus of 14C dates measured in the first decades after the discovery of 14C dating should not be taken too seriously. The 14C dates of Jericho measured by the British Museum 14C laboratory in 1971 appear to be erroneous.
    • Early Chronologies in the San Juan Basin

      Schulman, Edmund (Tree-Ring Society, 1949-04)
    • Early Days in Arizona

      Hunter, Thomas Thompson (Arizona State Historian (Phoenix, AZ), 1930-04)
    • Early days of dendrochronology in the Hudson Valley of New York: Some reminiscences and reflections

      Cook, E.R. (Tree-Ring Society, 2014-07)
      A brief and personal history of the development of dendrochronology in the Hudson Valley of New York in the 1970s and the quantitative reconstruction of climate from tree rings there is provided. Two people stand out in allowing that to happen. Marvin Stokes at the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research sparked within me a deep and enduring interest in dendrochronology, and Daniel Smiley of Mohonk supported my interest in pursuing tree-ring research in the Shawangunk Mountains through his deep and curious love of its natural environment. The discovery of ancient trees growing in the Shawangunk Mountains, and their use in successfully reconstructing past drought there, truly launched my career as a dendroclimatologist and proved beyond doubt that dendroclimatology and the reconstruction of past climate could be successfully conducted in the northeastern United States.
    • Early Decomposition of Ashe Juniper (Juniperus ashei) Wood in Open and Shaded Habitat

      Lyons, Kelly G.; McCarthy, Whitney A. (Society for Range Management, 2010-05-01)
      Grasslands of the Edwards Plateau of central Texas have been extensively altered through woody species encroachment, particularly as a result of increasing abundance of the invasive native shrub, Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei). Over the last several decades there has been widespread mechanical removal of the species. The wood is often left in place to decompose, either mulched or not. Where the wood is left to decompose might have some bearing on its rate of decomposition. This study was conducted to determine the rates of Ashe juniper wood decomposition as a function of open vs. shaded habitat and the potential effect of wood decomposition on nutrient inputs into this system. Wood decomposition in this arid ecosystem might be expected to occur more rapidly in shaded habitat where the moisture and temperature regimes would be more favorable for wood- decomposing fungi. On the other hand, during times of low rainfall we might expect wood to decompose more rapidly when exposed to high levels of ultraviolet radiation. In our experiment, we found no difference between open and shaded treatments. Wood biomass loss occurred rapidly over the first 3-4 mo of the study and slowed for the remaining 2 yr. Wood carbon (C) increased only slightly (7.3%), but nitrogen (N) increased significantly (176%). As a consequence of changes in wood nitrogen, C:N decreased through time. Results of this study suggest that the wood decomposition process in open and shaded habitats in this arid ecosystem during a time of low rainfall do not differ. Our findings also suggest that land managers aiming to establish native species following felling of Ashe juniper should do so in the first year when nutrient release from decomposing wood is the highest. 
    • Early Detection & Treatment of Phymatotrichum Root Rot in Fruit Trees

      Bloss, H. E.; Streets, R. B. Sr.; Plant Pathology Department; Plant Pathology Department (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1972)
    • Early Development of Range Grass Inflorescence

      Cable, Dwight R.; Rocky Mountain Forest & Range Experiment Station (College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1974)
    • Early English Boats

      Switsur, Roy (Department of Geosciences, The University of Arizona, 1989-01-01)
      A large number of early boats discovered in the waterways of England are presently displayed in museums and as public monuments. In some cases conservation practices have caused problems in the radiocarbon dating of these otherwise undated artifacts. Specimen pretreatments are described and the chronology of the boats in different regions of England are presented with approximate calibration to calendar date ranges.
    • Early establishment of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine in grassland seedbeds

      Bai, Y.; Thompson, D.; Broersma, K. (Society for Range Management, 2000-09-01)
      Grassland of interior British Columbia are being encroached upon by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.). A pot experiment placed in the field was conducted to determine the effect of forest and grassland seedbeds on seedling emergence and early establishment of the 2 species with 2 seed collections each. For these seedbeds, structural characteristics were evaluated and the effect of seedbeds water extracts on seed germination was determined. Seedling emergence of both species was significantly reduced by Douglas-fir needles and enhanced by fescue litter and cattle manure compared to mineral soil. The rate of emergence was reduced by Douglas-fir needles and sagebrush litter, and for some collections, by ponderosa pine needles, but was always enhanced by manure compared to mineral soil. Seedling survival was generally not affected by seedbeds. Douglas-fir seedlings emerging earlier in the season survived better, and both Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine seedlings emerging earlier lived longer than these emerging later. Seed germination of ponderosa pine was not affected by the water extract while that of Douglas-fir was reduced by the water extract from sagebrush litter. Therefore, differences in seedling emergence of the 2 species among seedbeds were related more to structural than to chemical characteristics of seedbeds. Successful establishment of the 2 species in grasslands within this region likely relies on the ability of seeds to germinate early in the growing season on seedbeds in which soil moisture is conserved, as summer droughts are severe.
    • Early fracturing and impact residue emplacement: Can modelling help to predict their location in major craters?

      Kearsley, A.; Graham, G.; McDonnell, T.; Bland, P.; Hough, R.; Helps, P. (The Meteoritical Society, 2004-01-01)
      Understanding the nature and composition of larger extraterrestrial bodies that may collide with the Earth is important. One source of information lies in the record of ancient impact craters, some of which have yielded chemical information as to the impacting body. Many deeply eroded craters have no remaining melt sheet or ejecta yet may contain impactor residue within basement fractures. The emplacement mechanism for fractionated siderophile residues is likely to be gaseous, although, melt droplets and some solid materials may survive. For breccia- and melt-filled fractures to contain extraterrestrial material, they must form very early in the impact process. Most current numerical models do not dwell on the formation and location of early major fractures, although, fractures in and around small craters on brittle glass exposed to hypervelocity impact in low Earth orbit have been successfully simulated. Modelling of fracture development associated with larger craters may help locate impact residues and test the models themselves.