Now showing items 10588-10607 of 20719

    • Knowing the Land: A Review of Local Knowledge Revealed in Ranch Memoirs

      Knapp, Corrine Noel; Fernandez-Giminez, Maria (Society for Range Management, 2008-03-01)
      Lack of long-term ecological monitoring presents a challenge for sustainable rangeland management in many areas of the western United States. Ranchers and other land managers have local knowledge gained from ongoing experience in specific places that could be useful for understanding ecological change and best management practices. Local knowledge is defined as knowledge gained by daily contact with the natural world and ecological processes. Unfortunately, little is known about ranchers’ local knowledge, and few studies have systematically examined the types, depth, and validity of this knowledge. Ranch memoirs offer an unexplored entry into rancher knowledge acquisition, categories, and context. In this study, we coded and analyzed eighteen ranch memoirs from the western United States to investigate the specific types, depth, and quality of local land knowledge. We found that ranchers possess knowledge of both management and ecology, and that these knowledge realms are intertwined and often inseparable. In addition to learning from experience, social interactions are an important part of rancher education and create a shared knowledge culture. In most of the memoirs, ranchers revealed very little knowledge of long-term patterns of vegetation change. In all the memoirs reviewed, ranchers articulated a deep sense of responsibility and connectedness to the landscapes they manage and steward. This review of ranch memoirs provides a framework for future studies of local knowledge by identifying how ranchers gain their knowledge of the landscapes they manage, describing some of the distinctive types of knowledge that ranchers possess, and challenging conventional classifications of rancher knowledge. 
    • Knowledge in Practice: Documenting Rancher Local Knowledge in Northwest Colorado

      Knapp, Corrine Noel; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E. (Society for Range Management, 2009-11-01)
      For more than 150 years, ranchers in the West have gained insight about natural systems through daily interaction and management of landscapes, but this knowledge has never been systematically documented and analyzed. We interviewed 26 ranchers from a single watershed to understand how ranchers acquire their knowledge, document what they know about rangeland ecosystems, and explore how this knowledge varies within the ranching community. This exploratory study offers insight into the types of knowledge ranchers possess without attempting to survey all rancher knowledge or ascribe this set of knowledge to all ranchers. We identified three major knowledge categories in interviews: active knowledge applied to management decisions, embedded knowledge from living in place, and integrative knowledge that links ecological, economic, and social aspects of rangeland systems. We found rancher knowledge complemented scientific knowledge in its ability to provide site-specific information on management practices and ecological responses, and insight regarding potential indicators of rangeland health. Knowledge varies widely within the ranching community, and knowledgeable ranchers are readily identified through community referrals. Ranchers gained their knowledge primarily through experience and social interactions, and this knowledge is an untapped source of context-specific information. We did find that economic constraints, social norms, and proximity to the system might limit application of knowledge to practice. There is also a danger that this accumulated and dynamic knowledge base will be lost over the next generation, as many family ranches are sold to new ranchers or for nonranching uses. Based on our findings, we propose that more dialogue within ranching communities and between ranchers and scientists may lead to more sustainable land management practices and effective outreach efforts, and could expand and strengthen the informal social networks through which much rancher knowledge is shared and on which the social sustainability of ranching communities depends. 
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-12
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1980
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-06
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-03
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1984-03
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1981
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-09
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1983-06
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1980
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-09
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1982-03
    • Knowledge in the Making

      College of Agriculture, University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 1980
    • Kochia scoparia emergence from saline soil under various water regimes

      Steppuhn, H.; Wall, K. (Society for Range Management, 1993-11-01)
      Kochia scoparia (L.) Schrad. invades disturbed soils and serves as a pioneer species on saline rangelands and sodic mine spoils. The percent germination of kochia seeds declined with increasing salinity, averaging -3.3%/dS/m between 12 and 30 dS/m. The emergence and early survival of kochia seeded into 2 media whose respective saturated-paste extracts averaged 1 and 18 dS/m in electrical conductivity (ECe) were investigated in a greenhouse under simulated rainfall regimes. Water was applied according to 3 average rates: 0.6 mm/day (low); 1.2 mm/day (medium); 2.5 mm/day (high). These rates were administered in 2 phases. Phase I (14 days) involved low and medium on the nonsaline seedbeds, and medium and high on the saline seedbeds. Phase II (42 days) followed sequentially on only the saline soil in Phase-I:II combinations of high-high, high-medium, medium-medium, and medium-high. Kochia seedlings did not emerge under the low rate. Seedlings did emerge from the nonsaline seedbeds when watered at the medium rate, but failed to emerge from the saline seedbeds treated only at this rate. Seedlings emerged from the saline soil under all regimes that included the high rainfall rate. About 30 plants successfully emerged from every 100 seeds sown in the seedbeds where ECe decreased to 15.7 dS/m or less. Despite the severely saline seedbed, kochia emerged within 3 days at a rate of 8 plants/day under the Phase I high regime because the water apparently diluted saline seedbed-solutions sufficiently for germination to occur. Phase II of the medium-high regime stimulated a similar response but only after 13 days under the wetter rate. Kochia's germination and emergence favor its addition to seed mixtures designed to establish forages in saline soils.
    • Kochia – Poor Man's Alfalfa – Shows Potential as Feed

      Foster, Charlotte (Society for Range Management, 1980-02-01)
    • Komondor Guard Dogs Reduce Sheep Losses to Coyotes: A Preliminary Evaluation

      Linhart, S. B.; Sterner, R. T.; Carrigan, T. C.; Henne, D. R. (Society for Range Management, 1979-05-01)
      Four Komondor dogs were trained to attack captive coyotes and to stay within fenced sheep pastures. The dogs, used in pairs, were then evaluated on three ranches (65 to 330-ha pastures) to determine their potential in protecting sheep from coyote predation. Daily checks of sheep losses were made on each ranch for three consecutive 20-day periods: preceding placement of the dogs, during their time in pastures, and after their removal. Sheep kills by coyotes decreased significantly during and following use of the dogs, suggesting some potential for the deterrence of coyote predation-at least under fenced-grazing conditions.