• Telemetry, Command and Control of Uas in the National Airspace

      Jackson, Barry R. P.; Cahon Systems Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This presentation summarizes the current draft of the Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) generated by the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA). It will be referenced by the FAA in its Technical Standard Order (TSO) to allow Unmanned Aircraft (UA) to fly in the US National Airspace (NAS). The TSO permits vendors to certify that their product meets the UA Systems (UAS) Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) link standard, and if appropriate, the Detect And Avoid (DAA) standard. A TSO certified unit will simplify the certification process. This presentation deals with the CNPC link only.
    • Analysis of Covariance with Linear Regression Error Model on Antenna Control Unit Tracking

      Laird, Daniel T. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Over the past several years DoD imposed constraints on test deliverables, requiring objective measures of test results, i.e., statistically defensible test and evaluation (SDT&E) methods and results. These constraints force the tester to employ statistical hypotheses, analyses and perhaps modeling to assess test results objectively, i.e., based on statistical metrics, probability of confidence and logical inference to supplement rather than rely solely on expertise, which is too subjective. Experts often disagree on interpretation. Numbers, although interpretable, are less variable than opinion. Logic, statistical inference and belief are the bases of testable, repeatable and refutable hypothesis and analyses. In this paper we apply linear regression modeling and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to time-space position information (TSPI) to determine if a telemetry (TM) antenna control unit (ACU) under test (AUT) tracks statistically, thus as efficiently, in C-band while receiving both C- and S-band signals. Together, regression and ANOVA compose a method known as analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). In this, the second of three papers, we use data from a range test, but make no reference to the systems under test, nor to causes of error. The intent is to present examples of tools and techniques useful for SDT&E methodologies in testing.
    • Estimation of Angle of Arrival with Two-Dimensional Circular and Nonuniform Arrays

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent R.; Johnson, Melissa; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Positioning systems tasked with performing geolocation of objects have grown in importance in recent years as the demand for accurate position and spatial data has increased. Parameter estimation of the angle of arrival is a common approach used in positioning systems that has had great success. This paper presents the design and development of a computationally efficient angle of arrival estimation technique that is reconfigurable for changing requirements that different applications may impose. The theory explaining the method is outlined, along with field experiments and simulations to provide validation for the effectiveness and accuracy of the approach.
    • The Challenges of Data Acquisition in Harsh Remote Places

      Buckley, Dave; Curtiss-Wright Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      In modern flight test installations there is a continuing trend to move the data acquisition closer to the sensors. As a consequence the data acquisition chassis needs to be mounted in locations that are small, inaccessible and subject to harsh environmental conditions. On top of this there are an increasing number of measurements required for each new flight test campaign. This paper discusses the challenges of designing a small lightweight data acquisition chassis which can provide hundreds of channels of measurement capability while operating in tight spaces which are exposed to fluids, high vibration and extremes of temperature. The paper suggests ways of designing and installing the data acquisition chassis in order to optimize the available installation space while mitigating the effects of the harsh environmental conditions.
    • Wireless Data Acquisition in Flight Test Networks

      Collins, Diarmuid; Curtiss-Wright Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The use of wireless data networks is ubiquitous in the consumer world. They have gained significant traction due to advantages afforded by the lack of wires. These same advantages can prove valuable in Flight Test for data acquisition. Sensor nodes are ideal candidates for low bandwidth wireless networks. Located in remote, hard to reach and hostile environments, wirelessly acquiring data from such sensor can solve a number of existing issues for FTI engineers. Implementing such wireless communication introduces a number of challenges such as guaranteeing reliable transfer of the sensor data and time synchronization of the remote nodes. This paper addresses wireless sensor acquisition, the associated challenges and discusses approaches and solutions to these problems.
    • Rule-Based Constraints for Metadata Validation and Verification in a Multi-Vendor Environment

      Hamilton, John; Darr, Timothy; Fernandes, Ronald; Jones, Dave; Morgan, Jon; Knowledge Based Systems, Inc.; Edwards Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper describes a method in which users realize the benefits of a standards-based method for capturing and evaluating verification and validation (V&V) rules within and across metadata instance documents. The method uses a natural language based syntax for the T&E metadata V&V rule set in order to abstract the highly technical rule languages to a domain-specific syntax. As a result, the domain expert can easily specify, validate and manage the specification and validation of the rules themselves. Our approach is very flexible in that under the hood, the method automatically translates rules to a host of target rule languages. We validated our method in a multi-vendor scenario involving Metadata Description Language (MDL) and Instrumentation Hardware Abstraction Language (IHAL) instance documents, user constraints, and domain constraints. The rules are captured in natural language, and used to perform V&V within a single metadata instance document and across multiple metadata instance documents.
    • An On-Board Instrumentation System for High-Rate Medium Caliber Projectiles

      Bukowski, Edward; Don, Michael; Grzybowski, David; Harkins, Thomas; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory developed an on-board telemetry instrumentation system to obtain measurements of the in-flight dynamics of medium caliber projectiles. The small size, high launch acceleration, and extremely high spin rates of these projectiles created many design challenges. Particularly challenging were the high spin rates, necessitating the development of a data compression scheme for solar sensors. Flight tests successfully captured data for spin rates exceeding 1000 Hertz (1 kHz).
    • Using Agile Methods for Software Development in R&D Scenario

      Guarino de Vasconcelos, Luis Eduardo; Kusumoto, André Yoshimi; Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Lopes, Cristina Moniz Araújo; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo; Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica; Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Due to the quick change of business processes in organizations, software needs to adapt quickly to meet new requirements by implementing new business rules. In Research and Development (R&D) scenario, the research is highly non-linear and changes are inevitable. In this context, it is known that traditional methodologies (e.g. waterfall) may lead to the detection of failures late, increase the time and cost of development and maintenance of software. On the other hand, agile methodologies are based on Test- Driven Development (TDD), maintain the technical debt under control, maximize the Return on Investment and reduce the risks for customers and companies. In this paper, we show the use of Scrum and TDD in the development of an experimental tool that aims to make the calibration in real time of the rudder of a fighter aircraft. The preliminary results allowed to increase the coverage testing of the software and hence the quality of the tool.
    • Study of Aircraftshadowing Effects During Maneuvers for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Umashankar, B.; Aswathy, S.; Nishad, F.; Apantha, K. P.; Aeronautical Development Agency (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Typical aeronautical telemetry instrumentation for a fighter aircraft comprises of multiple antennas on the aircraft, with typical placement of one antenna on the spine of the aircraft and the other on the aircraft belly. Complimentary to the aircraft instrumentation, is the fixed ground station equipped with a tracking antenna. Air to ground channel for this telemetry link is considered as line of sight propagation. But there is a link loss observed at the ground station for a certain instant of time. Possible causes of link loss/attenuation in the case are due to aircraft manoeuvring. The main objective of this paper is to study and analyze masking patterns of the aircraft instrumentation scheme. Polarization diversity combining at the RF receiver and frequency diversity combining at the tracking receiver were explored at the ground station to mitigate the effect of RF fading due to antenna masking. The RF signal levels at the ground station are analyzed with respect to different aircraft attitudes. This paper also brings out the possible causes of the RF level drop and the solutions which can be explored to overcome it.
    • Logistics Regression Model on Antenna Control Unit Autotracking Mode

      Laird, Daniel T. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Over the past several years DoD imposed constraints on test deliverables, requiring objective measures of test results, i.e., statistically defensible test and evaluation (SDT&E) methods and results. These constraints force testers to employ statistical hypotheses, analyses and modeling to assess test results objectively, i.e., based on statistical metrics, analytical methods, probability of confidence complemented by, rather than solely on expertise, which is too subjective. In this and companion papers we discuss methods of objectifying testing. We employ an earth coordinate model and statistical modeling of telemetry (TM) tracking antenna employing time-space position information (TSPI) and derived statistical measures for tracking-error and auto-tracking mode. Test data were statistically analyzed via analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) which revealed that the antenna control unit (ACU) under test (AUT) does not track statistically identically, nor as practically or efficiently in C-band while receiving data carriers in both S- and C-bands. The conclusions of this paper add support to that hypothesis. In this third of three papers we use data from a range test, but make no reference to the systems under test as the purpose of this paper is to present an example of tools useful for employing a SDT&E methodology.
    • A Simple and Cost Effective Raman-Fluorescence Spectrometer

      Kosbar, Kurt; Grubbs, Garry; Mormile, Melanie; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael; Marshall, Frank E.; Brinker, Katelyn R.; Chiaventone, Owen; Pride, Michael A.; Walker, Zachary; Rojo, Michelle; Missouri University of Science and Technology; Harvey Mudd College (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Research, design, construction, and operation of a portable mixed Raman and Fluorescence type spectrometer will be presented. The spectrometer was used on a wheeled vehicle which competed in the University Rover Challenge sponsored by the Mars Society. It uses a 50 mW, 532 nm continuous wave laser to probe a sample of soil for bacteria or biomarkers. The device costs 2,000 USD, weighs 1.4 kg and is 23 cm x 23 cm x 10 cm in size. Results from the competition, complications of analyzing mixed Raman-Fluorescence spectra via digital signal processing, and future ideas and improvements will also be discussed.
    • Spectrum Sharing: Overview and Challenges of Small Cells Innovation in the Proposed 3.5 GHz Band

      Moazzami, Farzad; Oyediran, David; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Spectrum sharing between Federal and commercial users is a technique proposed by the FCC and NTIA to open up the 3.5 GHz band for wireless broadband use and small cell technology is one of the candidates for its' realization. The traffic on small cells is temporal and their chances of interfering with other services in shared spectrum are limited. DoD has a documented requirement of 865 MHz by 2025 to support telemetry but only 445 MHz is presently available. DoD is conducting researches to realize test and evaluation spectrum efficient technology with the aim to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate technology components required to enable flight and ground test telemetry operations. This paper will provide an overview on spectrum sharing using small cell technology for LTE-Advanced and dynamic spectrum access would be briefly described. Research challenges for protocols and algorithms would be addressed for future studies.
    • Can Space Time Encoding and Adaptive Equalization Benefit Rotary-Wing Missions at the Yuma Proving Ground?

      Diehl, Michael; Swain, Jason; Wilcox, Tab; U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) utilizes telemetry in several critical ways. Data, video, and voice from test aircraft provides YPG the information necessary to effectively execute missions. This information must be displayed real-time for efficient use of available flight time, making a robust telemetry link vital. In seeking an increased telemetry downlink capability, YPG considered three new technologies: Space Time Coding (STC), Adaptive Equalization (EQ), and Low Density Parity Check (LDPC). These technologies have shown reduced multipath and increased datalink reliability on fixed-wing aircraft; however, YPG's concern was the technology's benefits on rotary wing aircraft tested here. To assess potential benefits of these technologies, YPG conducted flight tests using representative flight profiles and vendor-supplied equipment to collect quantitative and qualitative data.
    • Using C# and WPF to Create a Dynamic 3D Telemetry Theater and Trajectory Visualization Tool

      Reff, Mark; O'Neal, John; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Telemetry data from flight tests are normally plotted using MatLab™ or other third party software. For most of the trajectory and flight parameters, a static 2D or 3D line graph does not provide the proper data visualization that can be accomplished with 3D software. Commercial 3D software can be expensive and difficult to customize, and writing custom software using Direct3D or OpenGL can be complex and time consuming. These problems were overcome using C# and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) to quickly and easily create a 3D Telemetry Theater and Trajectory Visualization Tool to dynamically display actual and simulated flight tests.
    • A Software Defined Radio Based Architecture for the Reagan Test Site Telemetry Modernization (RTM) Program

      Ardrey, David; Gimler, Gregory; Pippitt, Mark; MIT Lincoln Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed a Software Defined Radio based architecture for the Reagan Test Site Telemetry Modernization (RTM) program, which will enhance the current operations of the ground based telemetry systems and enable new modes of operation. There are three main objectives of the RTM program; increasing overall system performance, improving reliability and maintainability, and enabling future customer needs. RTM provides a fully integrated system that can be configured and remotely controlled from a single location. This centralized command and control provides a way to automate certain functions and frees up operator resources, especially for more complex mission scenarios. Software modules, running on general-purpose computers perform signal and data processing that have been traditionally performed in special purpose hardware based components. This provides the flexibility to scale and adapt to future needs, such as spectrum change, increased need for capacity, and changes to modulation, encoding, and compression. Index Terms - Software Defined Radio (SDR), Open systems architecture, telemetry receiver architecture, Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT)
    • A Model for Cyber Attack Risks in Telemetry Networks

      Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Shourabi, Neda Bazyar; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper develops a method for analyzing, modeling and simulating cyber threats in a networked telemetry environment as part of a risk management model. The paper includes an approach for incorporating a Monte Carlo computer simulation of this modeling with sample results.
    • Exploring Vulnerabilities in Networked Telemetry

      Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Shonubi, Felix; Lynton, Ciara; Odumosu, Joshua; Moten, Daryl; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The implementation of Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) in telemetry applications provides significant enhancements to telemetry operations. Unfortunately such networking brings the potential for devastating cyber-attacks and networked telemetry is also susceptible to these attacks. This paper demonstrates a worked example of a social engineering attack carried out on a test bed network, analyzing the attack process from launch to detection. For this demonstration, a penetration-testing tool is used to launch the attack. This attack will be monitored to detect its signature using a network monitoring tool, and this signature will then be used to create a rule which will trigger an alert in an Intrusion Detection System. This work highlights the importance of network security in telemetry applications and is critical to current and future telemetry networks as cyber threats are widespread and potentially devastating.
    • A Low-Cost Software-Defined Telemetry Receiver

      Don, Michael L.; Aberdeen Proving Grounds (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The Army Research Laboratories has developed a PCM/FM telemetry receiver using a low-cost commercial software-defined radio (SDR). Whereas traditional radio systems are implemented in hardware, much of the functionality of software-defined radios is defined in software. This gives them the flexibility to accommodate military telemetry standards as well as other specialized functions. After a brief review of telecommunication theory, this paper describes the receiver implementation on a commercial SDR platform. Data rates up to 10 Mbs were obtained through the customization the SDR's field programmable gate array.
    • An Evaluation System for Airplane's Power Supply

      Song, Jian; Luo, Ni; Cao, Liu; Xu, Min; Beijing Zoweetech Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Power supply is the most critical unit in an airplane. A defect in a power supply might lead to a crash. Therefore, it is very useful and important to monitor the status of the airplane's power supply during flight. This paper presents a real-time evaluation system constructed by a central process unit for processing and detecting defects and several remote units for acquiring parameters. Because of the huge amount of data acquired, a combination of Ethernet and time division multiplexing technique has been applied for constructing a 2.5Gbps synchronous data transportation network for the system.
    • Performance Limits on Joint Estimation of Frequency Offset, Channel and Noise Variance in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Afran, Md. Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Brigham Young University; The University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Modern digital communication techniques leverage the capabilities of advanced digital signal processing to improve the bit error rate performance of modulated carrier in harsh radio frequency (RF) environments. This improvement requires the knowledge of the RF environment (e.g., frequency offset, multipath channel coefficients, noise variance). In this paper we derive the theoretical performance bound of the joint frequency offset, channel and noise variance estimators. Performance of the joint maximum likelihood estimators are compared with this bound for two of the measured aeronautical telemetry channels with iNET-formatted SOQPSK-TG samples.