• C-Band Transmitter Experimental (CTrEX) Test at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR)

      Nevarez, Jesus; Dannhaus, Joshua; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The Department of Defense (DoD) anticipated the eventual sell off of a portion of the Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT) frequency spectrum (from 1755-1780 and 2155-2180 MHz), prompting the telemetry (TM) community to start designing and testing systems capable of operating in a portion of the C-Band spectrum (4400-4940 MHz and 5091-5150 MHz) several years ago. On December 17, 2014 the NAVY targets office at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) launched the first in a series of C-band and S-band instrumented Orion vehicles to provide RF transmitted data products for ground system collection and in-depth analysis. This paper presents the first C-band Transmitter Experimental (CTrEX) high-dynamic, spinning vehicle test at WSMR and summarizes the initial findings along with a path forward for future CTrEX rocket tests.
    • Combining a Reed-Solomon Block Code with a Blind Equalizer: Synchronization and Bit Error Rate Performance

      Skrzypczak, Alexandre; Blanc, Grégory; Le Bournault, Tangi; Zodiac Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The performance of telemetry systems may be strongly affected by diverse sources of perturbations. Among them, multipath channels and transmission noise are the most critical. While the effects due to the multipath channels can be attenuated thanks to equalization, the effects of the noise are limited if forward error correction is used. This paper first proves that the combination of blind equalization and forward error correction can strongly improve bit error rates. The other objective of the paper is to show that reasonably powerful codes like Reed-Solomon codes are sufficient to enable quasi-error free transmissions in a large majority of propagation channel scenarios.
    • Advanced Telemetry Tracking System for High Dynamic Targets

      Minschwaner, Nathan; Leide, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Viasat, Inc.; IPEV-EPD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      A new advanced 2.4 meter telemetry tracking antenna system allows for successful autotracking of high dynamic targets. The system is designed to work at C, S, and L bands. One of these systems at L/S-band was recently implemented and tested in the field. The testing included tracking aircraft during maneuvers such as rolls, spins, and antenna tower fly-by at high rates of speed. This paper examines test results and some of the features of the new system that allow for continuous tracking.
    • Telemetry System Architecture for a Solar Car

      Walter, Eric; Glover, Nicholas; Cureton, Jesse; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper discusses the telemetry system used to monitor the performance of a solar-powered vehicle during testing and competitions. Car-side systems collect and transmit data onboard over an ISO 11898 / CAN bus. A bridge then converts this data into TCP/IP packets, which are transmitted via Ethernet to a Wi-Fi access point. The data is distributed through an IEEE 802.11N 5GHz mesh network to provide real time data to remote computers running telemetry software. This software displays and logs data from the car, allowing team members to monitor the vehicle.
    • B-2 Flight Test Implementation of an Ethernet Based Network System for Data Acquisition

      Hochner, William "Bill"; Northrop Grumman Aerospace (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Northrop Grumman Corporation's B-2 Flight Test Instrumentation team is revamping its entire Data Acquisition System (DAS) to be an Ethernet based network (EBN) system that will provide simplified wiring, higher speeds, greater capacity, and control over the data. The old system became obsolete in terms of capability and maintainability. New on-board avionic systems also demand that the Flight Test Instrumentation group (INSTR) accommodate fiber and high speed Ethernet data. In addition, the footprint and location for INSTR systems and components will be moved to remote areas. INSTR engineering selected the Teletronics Technology Corporation's Ethernet networked Data Acquisition Units (DAUs), known as MnDAUs, as the core system. Prior to the first flight utilization of the new INSTR DAS will undergo extensive lab and field testing to assure flight test effectiveness and the accuracy of all necessary data products. The goal is to acquire and employ the best system available while avoiding costly lessons.
    • Can Space Time Encoding and Adaptive Equalization Benefit Rotary-Wing Missions at the Yuma Proving Ground?

      Diehl, Michael; Swain, Jason; Wilcox, Tab; U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) utilizes telemetry in several critical ways. Data, video, and voice from test aircraft provides YPG the information necessary to effectively execute missions. This information must be displayed real-time for efficient use of available flight time, making a robust telemetry link vital. In seeking an increased telemetry downlink capability, YPG considered three new technologies: Space Time Coding (STC), Adaptive Equalization (EQ), and Low Density Parity Check (LDPC). These technologies have shown reduced multipath and increased datalink reliability on fixed-wing aircraft; however, YPG's concern was the technology's benefits on rotary wing aircraft tested here. To assess potential benefits of these technologies, YPG conducted flight tests using representative flight profiles and vendor-supplied equipment to collect quantitative and qualitative data.
    • Maximum Likelihood Detection from Multiple Bit Sources

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper deals with the problem of producing the best bit stream from a number of input bit streams with varying degrees of reliability. The best source selector and smart source selector are recast as detectors, and the maximum likelihood bit detector (MLBD) is derived from basic principles under the assumption that each bit value is accompanied by a quality measure proportional to its probability of error. We show that both the majority voter and the best source selector are special cases of the MLBD and define the conditions under which these special cases occur. We give a mathematical proof that the MLBD is the same as or better than the best source selector.
    • A High Assurance Firewall in a Cloud Environment Using Hardware and Software

      Dean, Richard; Astatke, Yacob; Moazzami, Farzad; Golriz, Arya; Jaber, Nur; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper will focus on analyzing the characteristics of firewalls and implementing them in a virtual environment as both software-and hardware-based solutions that retain the security features of a traditional firewall.
    • Semantic Validation of T&E XML Data

      Moskal, Jakub; Kokar, Mieczyslaw; Morgan, John; VIStology, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      It is anticipated that XML will heavily dominate the next generation of telemetry systems. The syntax of XML-based languages can be constrained by a schema that describes the structure of valid documents. However, the schemas cannot express all dependencies between XML elements and attributes, both within a single document and across multiple documents. This prohibits the XML validation process from being fully automated with standard schema processors. This paper presents an approach that is based on the W3C Semantic Web technologies and allows different vendors and system integrators to independently develop their own semantic validation rules. The rules are equipped with powerful semantics, which allows for specification and validation of complex types of constraints. The approach is not specific to a particular T&E standard and is entirely standards-based.
    • 3D Printable Multilayer RF Integrated System

      Wicker, Ryan; MacDonald, Eric; Xin, Hao; Yu, Xiaoju; Liang, Min; Shemelya, Corey; University of Arizona; University of Texas at El Paso (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      In this work, a 3D-printable multilayer phased array system is designed to demonstrate the applicability of additive manufacturing technique combining dielectric and conductor processes at room temperature for RF systems. Phased array systems normally include feeding networks, antennas, and active components such as switches, phase shifters and amplifiers. To make the integrated system compact, the array system here uses multilayer structure that can fully utilize the 3D space. The vertical interconnections between layers are carefully designed to reduce the loss between layers. Simulated results show good impedance matching and high-directive scanning beam. This multilayer phased array will finally be 3D printed by integrating thermal / ultrasound wire mesh embedding method (for metal) and fused-deposition-modeling technique (for dielectric).
    • Ultrasonic Transmitter Implemented on Arduino with Direct Digital Synthesis

      Owen, Jonathan; Ravenscroft, Brandon; Gustafson, Kai; Hellberg, Amanda; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Ultrasonic frequency signals can be employed in a manner similar to radio frequency signals for target detection and ranging by utilizing concepts from radar systems. This project uses components operating in the ultrasonic frequency spectrum to transmit and receive signals for detection and ranging. The project concept contains a single channel ultrasonic transmitter and a single channel ultrasonic receiver. An Arduino Due microcontroller is used to coordinate the radar system. The radar transmitter is continuously transmitting chirp waveforms in a frequency sweep pattern from 30 kHz to 50 kHz. Chirp echoes are received by the ultrasonic microphone. The echoes are mixed with the originally transmitted chirp, which creates a beat frequency response. The beat frequency is used to calculate the range of the target.
    • Evaluation of FLDPC Coding Scheme for Adaptive Coding in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Luo, Qinghua; Peng, Yu; Wan, Wei; Huang, Tao; Fan, YaNing; Peng, Xiyuan; Harbin Institute of Technology at WeiHai; Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China Ltd (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The aeronautical telemeter channel is characterized by Multipath interference, Doppler shift and rapid changes in channel behavior. In addition to transmission error during aeronautical telemeter, transmission losing also exists. In this paper, we investigate the correction of transmission error and processing of telemetry transmission losing, and propose an adaptive coding scheme, which organic combines Fountain code and low density parity check (LDPC) code. We call it fountain LDPC (FLDPC) coding. In the coding scheme, The LDPC code is explored to perform transmission error correction, while, the problem of transmission losing is resorted to fountain code. So FLDPC is robust for transmission losing and transmission error. Moreover, without knowing any of these the channel information, FLDPC can adapt the data link and avoid the interference through adjusting the transmission rate. Experimental results illustrated that a signification improvement in transmission reliability and transmitting efficiency can be achieved by using the FLDPC coding.
    • Advanced Network Tap Application for Flight Test Instrumentation Systems

      Holmeide, Øeyvind; Schmitz, Markus; OnTime Networks AS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Digital data distribution systems are widely used in Aerospace and Defense products to allow devices to communicate with one another. In many cases it is desirable to monitor the data traffic flowing between two points in a copper or fiber based Operational or Onboard Network System (ONS) for Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) purposes because these ONS systems may carry important data which can be used without duplicating/installing a specific FTI data acquisition system to receive this data. The two types of network taps that can be used are Inline Network Taps and network end-point taps. This paper examines the usage of Inline Network Taps for FTI applications and how they can support network access strategies and objectives. An Inline Network Tap is a hardware device which allows access to data flowing across a network. These devices are typically active/powered and have a number of ports: a first tap port, a second tap port, and one or more mirror ports. An in-line network tap inserted between the first and second tap port passes all data traffic through unimpeded but also copies that same data to one or more mirror ports. Some Inline Network Tap devices may also pass packets when the tap is not powered or a malfunction is detected on the device via an integrated by-pass function. If the Inline Network Tap device goes offline the unit automatically bypasses the tap connection and data traffic is directed through the bypass directly to network devices. This capability is crucial for inline usage on mission critical network segments that cannot afford the risk of losing the network connection. An in-line network tap can either be based on copper or fiber technology and as a "filterable" network tap can also provide advanced packet filtering capabilities. These filterable network taps can selectively pass data, e.g., based on VLAN ID or other parameters, to a mirror port for deep analysis, monitoring and recording. Another advanced tap function that is presented in this paper is the support for inserting time stamps at the tap level in monitored packets which provides a reference time when the data content of a given packet was generated at a data source. This capability is a significant feature for FTI applications as most ONS systems do not provide time stamped data.
    • Computer Vision Analysis for Vehicular Safety Applications

      Wang, Yuan-Fang; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      In this paper, we present our research on using computer-vision analysis for vehicular safety applications. Our research has potential applications for both autonomous vehicles and connected vehicles. In particular, for connected vehicles, we propose three image analysis algorithms that enhance the quality of a vehicle's on-board video before inter-vehicular information exchange takes place. For autonomous vehicles, we are investigating a visual analysis scheme for collision avoidance during back up and an algorithm for automated 3D map building. These algorithms are relevant to the telemetering domain as they involve determining the relative pose between a vehicle and other vehicles on the road, or between a vehicle and its 3D driving environment, or between a vehicle and obstacles surrounding the vehicle.
    • IPCM Telemetry System: Experimental Results

      d'Amore, Roberto; Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV); Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The aeronautical industries have been suffering financial cutbacks and the market has to face new challenges associated with new companies. Telemetry community has been facing the increase of the electromagnetic spectrum usage for a variety of applications (e.g. 4G), after all telemetry is everywhere. In view of these issues and focused on the inherent requirements of the Flight Test application, the IPEV R&D group proposes the iPCM Telemetry architecture as solution for the existing reliability and bandwidth issues associated with the telemetry link. In this article, as a proof-of-concept of the iPCM architecture, it has been performed an experimental assembly. The results demonstrate the iPCM's ability to regenerate corrupted data providing the required data integrity and reliability, besides the capability to dynamically select the FTI transmitted parameter list to optimize the bandwidth link.
    • 3D Printed Antennas for Wireless Communication

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Xin, Hao; Johnson, Brent; Madrid, Colin; Yiin, Kevin; Wang, Hanwen; Li, Chengxi; Tan, Xizhi; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper describes the details of design and critical analysis of the process of 3D printing antennas for wireless communications applications. The subjective testing methods utilized were chosen specifically based on project scope and researcher capability. Our results indicate that more work is necessary in this field but that the basic idea is feasible.
    • Analysis of Covariance with Linear Regression Error Model on Antenna Control Unit Tracking

      Laird, Daniel T. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Over the past several years DoD imposed constraints on test deliverables, requiring objective measures of test results, i.e., statistically defensible test and evaluation (SDT&E) methods and results. These constraints force the tester to employ statistical hypotheses, analyses and perhaps modeling to assess test results objectively, i.e., based on statistical metrics, probability of confidence and logical inference to supplement rather than rely solely on expertise, which is too subjective. Experts often disagree on interpretation. Numbers, although interpretable, are less variable than opinion. Logic, statistical inference and belief are the bases of testable, repeatable and refutable hypothesis and analyses. In this paper we apply linear regression modeling and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to time-space position information (TSPI) to determine if a telemetry (TM) antenna control unit (ACU) under test (AUT) tracks statistically, thus as efficiently, in C-band while receiving both C- and S-band signals. Together, regression and ANOVA compose a method known as analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). In this, the second of three papers, we use data from a range test, but make no reference to the systems under test, nor to causes of error. The intent is to present examples of tools and techniques useful for SDT&E methodologies in testing.
    • Telemetry, Command and Control of Uas in the National Airspace

      Jackson, Barry R. P.; Cahon Systems Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This presentation summarizes the current draft of the Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS) generated by the Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA). It will be referenced by the FAA in its Technical Standard Order (TSO) to allow Unmanned Aircraft (UA) to fly in the US National Airspace (NAS). The TSO permits vendors to certify that their product meets the UA Systems (UAS) Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) link standard, and if appropriate, the Detect And Avoid (DAA) standard. A TSO certified unit will simplify the certification process. This presentation deals with the CNPC link only.
    • Exploring Vulnerabilities in Networked Telemetry

      Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Shonubi, Felix; Lynton, Ciara; Odumosu, Joshua; Moten, Daryl; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The implementation of Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) in telemetry applications provides significant enhancements to telemetry operations. Unfortunately such networking brings the potential for devastating cyber-attacks and networked telemetry is also susceptible to these attacks. This paper demonstrates a worked example of a social engineering attack carried out on a test bed network, analyzing the attack process from launch to detection. For this demonstration, a penetration-testing tool is used to launch the attack. This attack will be monitored to detect its signature using a network monitoring tool, and this signature will then be used to create a rule which will trigger an alert in an Intrusion Detection System. This work highlights the importance of network security in telemetry applications and is critical to current and future telemetry networks as cyber threats are widespread and potentially devastating.
    • A Low-Cost Software-Defined Telemetry Receiver

      Don, Michael L.; Aberdeen Proving Grounds (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The Army Research Laboratories has developed a PCM/FM telemetry receiver using a low-cost commercial software-defined radio (SDR). Whereas traditional radio systems are implemented in hardware, much of the functionality of software-defined radios is defined in software. This gives them the flexibility to accommodate military telemetry standards as well as other specialized functions. After a brief review of telecommunication theory, this paper describes the receiver implementation on a commercial SDR platform. Data rates up to 10 Mbs were obtained through the customization the SDR's field programmable gate array.