• 3D Printable Multilayer RF Integrated System

      Wicker, Ryan; MacDonald, Eric; Xin, Hao; Yu, Xiaoju; Liang, Min; Shemelya, Corey; University of Arizona; University of Texas at El Paso (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      In this work, a 3D-printable multilayer phased array system is designed to demonstrate the applicability of additive manufacturing technique combining dielectric and conductor processes at room temperature for RF systems. Phased array systems normally include feeding networks, antennas, and active components such as switches, phase shifters and amplifiers. To make the integrated system compact, the array system here uses multilayer structure that can fully utilize the 3D space. The vertical interconnections between layers are carefully designed to reduce the loss between layers. Simulated results show good impedance matching and high-directive scanning beam. This multilayer phased array will finally be 3D printed by integrating thermal / ultrasound wire mesh embedding method (for metal) and fused-deposition-modeling technique (for dielectric).
    • 3D Printed Antennas for Wireless Communication

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Xin, Hao; Johnson, Brent; Madrid, Colin; Yiin, Kevin; Wang, Hanwen; Li, Chengxi; Tan, Xizhi; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper describes the details of design and critical analysis of the process of 3D printing antennas for wireless communications applications. The subjective testing methods utilized were chosen specifically based on project scope and researcher capability. Our results indicate that more work is necessary in this field but that the basic idea is feasible.
    • Advanced Network Tap Application for Flight Test Instrumentation Systems

      Holmeide, Øeyvind; Schmitz, Markus; OnTime Networks AS (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Digital data distribution systems are widely used in Aerospace and Defense products to allow devices to communicate with one another. In many cases it is desirable to monitor the data traffic flowing between two points in a copper or fiber based Operational or Onboard Network System (ONS) for Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI) purposes because these ONS systems may carry important data which can be used without duplicating/installing a specific FTI data acquisition system to receive this data. The two types of network taps that can be used are Inline Network Taps and network end-point taps. This paper examines the usage of Inline Network Taps for FTI applications and how they can support network access strategies and objectives. An Inline Network Tap is a hardware device which allows access to data flowing across a network. These devices are typically active/powered and have a number of ports: a first tap port, a second tap port, and one or more mirror ports. An in-line network tap inserted between the first and second tap port passes all data traffic through unimpeded but also copies that same data to one or more mirror ports. Some Inline Network Tap devices may also pass packets when the tap is not powered or a malfunction is detected on the device via an integrated by-pass function. If the Inline Network Tap device goes offline the unit automatically bypasses the tap connection and data traffic is directed through the bypass directly to network devices. This capability is crucial for inline usage on mission critical network segments that cannot afford the risk of losing the network connection. An in-line network tap can either be based on copper or fiber technology and as a "filterable" network tap can also provide advanced packet filtering capabilities. These filterable network taps can selectively pass data, e.g., based on VLAN ID or other parameters, to a mirror port for deep analysis, monitoring and recording. Another advanced tap function that is presented in this paper is the support for inserting time stamps at the tap level in monitored packets which provides a reference time when the data content of a given packet was generated at a data source. This capability is a significant feature for FTI applications as most ONS systems do not provide time stamped data.
    • Advanced Telemetry Tracking System for High Dynamic Targets

      Minschwaner, Nathan; Leide, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Viasat, Inc.; IPEV-EPD (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      A new advanced 2.4 meter telemetry tracking antenna system allows for successful autotracking of high dynamic targets. The system is designed to work at C, S, and L bands. One of these systems at L/S-band was recently implemented and tested in the field. The testing included tracking aircraft during maneuvers such as rolls, spins, and antenna tower fly-by at high rates of speed. This paper examines test results and some of the features of the new system that allow for continuous tracking.
    • Advances in the Development of Missile Telemetry Test Sets: Utilizing 3D Printing for Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing

      Apalboym, Maxim; Kujiraoka, Scott; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Functionally testing missiles in the All Up Round (AUR), a configuration that consists of a complete system packaged in its flight worthy state, requires the use of test sets along with constituent conformal equipment for interfacing. During developmental testing, telemetry (TM) sections are integrated within an AUR missile. These test sets monitor TM unit performance while maintaining form, fit, and function; therefore, resulting in complete data confidence. Initiating TM functional tests permit a capability in verifying that TM sections have been integrated properly. Safety being a priority, in order to attenuate RF radiation leakage while providing repeatable test capabilities in the near-field, antenna couplers are fabricated as a shielding interface between the user and radiating source and a coupling interface between an AUR missile and the test set. Generally, antenna couplers are composed of metallic bodies which require machine shop fabrication. The process of getting machined parts can take up to several months which can delay delivery schedules. With the availability of 3D printing capabilities and methods in metalizing various materials, a novel approach to fabricating antenna couplers has been explored. The use of modeling Software Packages (Computer Aided Design and Electromagnetic Solvers) and additive printing play key roles in reducing the development cycle time while saving costs, decreasing weight, and sustaining performance. This paper will detail the efforts using 3D printing capabilities in the development and fabrication of an antenna coupler with several examples cited herein.
    • Analysis of Covariance with Linear Regression Error Model on Antenna Control Unit Tracking

      Laird, Daniel T. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Over the past several years DoD imposed constraints on test deliverables, requiring objective measures of test results, i.e., statistically defensible test and evaluation (SDT&E) methods and results. These constraints force the tester to employ statistical hypotheses, analyses and perhaps modeling to assess test results objectively, i.e., based on statistical metrics, probability of confidence and logical inference to supplement rather than rely solely on expertise, which is too subjective. Experts often disagree on interpretation. Numbers, although interpretable, are less variable than opinion. Logic, statistical inference and belief are the bases of testable, repeatable and refutable hypothesis and analyses. In this paper we apply linear regression modeling and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to time-space position information (TSPI) to determine if a telemetry (TM) antenna control unit (ACU) under test (AUT) tracks statistically, thus as efficiently, in C-band while receiving both C- and S-band signals. Together, regression and ANOVA compose a method known as analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). In this, the second of three papers, we use data from a range test, but make no reference to the systems under test, nor to causes of error. The intent is to present examples of tools and techniques useful for SDT&E methodologies in testing.
    • Autonomous Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

      Marcellin, Michael; Hibbs, Jeremy; Kibler, Travis; Odle, Jesse; Powers, Rachel; Schucker, Thomas; Warren, Alex; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
    • B-2 Flight Test Implementation of an Ethernet Based Network System for Data Acquisition

      Hochner, William "Bill"; Northrop Grumman Aerospace (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Northrop Grumman Corporation's B-2 Flight Test Instrumentation team is revamping its entire Data Acquisition System (DAS) to be an Ethernet based network (EBN) system that will provide simplified wiring, higher speeds, greater capacity, and control over the data. The old system became obsolete in terms of capability and maintainability. New on-board avionic systems also demand that the Flight Test Instrumentation group (INSTR) accommodate fiber and high speed Ethernet data. In addition, the footprint and location for INSTR systems and components will be moved to remote areas. INSTR engineering selected the Teletronics Technology Corporation's Ethernet networked Data Acquisition Units (DAUs), known as MnDAUs, as the core system. Prior to the first flight utilization of the new INSTR DAS will undergo extensive lab and field testing to assure flight test effectiveness and the accuracy of all necessary data products. The goal is to acquire and employ the best system available while avoiding costly lessons.
    • A Brave New C Band Architecture

      Guadiana, Juan M.; Uhl, Brecken; Rigil Corporation; Scientific Value LLC (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper looks at the migration paradox from a holistic perspective, revisits the Smarter Antenna concept and looks for synergetic solutions. The architecture presented also builds on the momentum of the relentless migration to network technology (that has already transformed telemetry data centers) and pushes it to the vehicle. The results are reduced costs and exciting new functionality, such as better situational awareness for mission conduct and range safety. Spatial and temporal domains are harnessed as aggressively as the frequency domain to enable denser spectral utilization and other exciting benefits. Imagine a Test Range no longer reliant on tracking systems (almost)!
    • C-Band Transmitter Experimental (CTrEX) Test at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR)

      Nevarez, Jesus; Dannhaus, Joshua; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The Department of Defense (DoD) anticipated the eventual sell off of a portion of the Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT) frequency spectrum (from 1755-1780 and 2155-2180 MHz), prompting the telemetry (TM) community to start designing and testing systems capable of operating in a portion of the C-Band spectrum (4400-4940 MHz and 5091-5150 MHz) several years ago. On December 17, 2014 the NAVY targets office at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) launched the first in a series of C-band and S-band instrumented Orion vehicles to provide RF transmitted data products for ground system collection and in-depth analysis. This paper presents the first C-band Transmitter Experimental (CTrEX) high-dynamic, spinning vehicle test at WSMR and summarizes the initial findings along with a path forward for future CTrEX rocket tests.
    • Can Space Time Encoding and Adaptive Equalization Benefit Rotary-Wing Missions at the Yuma Proving Ground?

      Diehl, Michael; Swain, Jason; Wilcox, Tab; U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) utilizes telemetry in several critical ways. Data, video, and voice from test aircraft provides YPG the information necessary to effectively execute missions. This information must be displayed real-time for efficient use of available flight time, making a robust telemetry link vital. In seeking an increased telemetry downlink capability, YPG considered three new technologies: Space Time Coding (STC), Adaptive Equalization (EQ), and Low Density Parity Check (LDPC). These technologies have shown reduced multipath and increased datalink reliability on fixed-wing aircraft; however, YPG's concern was the technology's benefits on rotary wing aircraft tested here. To assess potential benefits of these technologies, YPG conducted flight tests using representative flight profiles and vendor-supplied equipment to collect quantitative and qualitative data.
    • The Challenges of Data Acquisition in Harsh Remote Places

      Buckley, Dave; Curtiss-Wright Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      In modern flight test installations there is a continuing trend to move the data acquisition closer to the sensors. As a consequence the data acquisition chassis needs to be mounted in locations that are small, inaccessible and subject to harsh environmental conditions. On top of this there are an increasing number of measurements required for each new flight test campaign. This paper discusses the challenges of designing a small lightweight data acquisition chassis which can provide hundreds of channels of measurement capability while operating in tight spaces which are exposed to fluids, high vibration and extremes of temperature. The paper suggests ways of designing and installing the data acquisition chassis in order to optimize the available installation space while mitigating the effects of the harsh environmental conditions.
    • CMA Equalization of Measured SOQPSK-TG Data Transmitted Using iNET Packet Structure

      Cole-Rhodes, Arlene; Moazzami, Farzad; Dossongui, Itie Serge Kone; Taiwo, Peter; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      In this work we consider the problem of recovering shaped offset quadrature-phase shift keying (SOQPSK)-TG modulated data, which has been transmitted over an unknown channel, using the iNET data packet structure. Previous work has shown the effectiveness of a block processing CMA equalizer which uses the known data bits contained in the iNET packet structure (i.e. the preamble and ASM bits) to provide an alternative method of initialization. In this research we apply a CMA equalizer, which has been initialized by the minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalizer to measure data that was transmitted using the iNET packet structure in a laboratory experiment. Since the CMA equalizer does not determine the correct phase shift for each data packet, the known data bits contained in each iNET packet will be used to determine the phase correction. The total number of bit errors will be used as a basis to evaluate the performance of our MMSE-initialized CMA equalizer for this experimental data.
    • Combining a Reed-Solomon Block Code with a Blind Equalizer: Synchronization and Bit Error Rate Performance

      Skrzypczak, Alexandre; Blanc, Grégory; Le Bournault, Tangi; Zodiac Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The performance of telemetry systems may be strongly affected by diverse sources of perturbations. Among them, multipath channels and transmission noise are the most critical. While the effects due to the multipath channels can be attenuated thanks to equalization, the effects of the noise are limited if forward error correction is used. This paper first proves that the combination of blind equalization and forward error correction can strongly improve bit error rates. The other objective of the paper is to show that reasonably powerful codes like Reed-Solomon codes are sufficient to enable quasi-error free transmissions in a large majority of propagation channel scenarios.
    • A Comparison of Coherent Detectors for SOQPSK-TG

      Xingwen, Ding; Wantao, Zhai; Jianyong, Song; Ming, Chen; Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      SOQPSK-TG is a highly bandwidth-efficient constant-envelope modulation so that it has been applied in airspace telemetry widely. We compare four types of coherent detectors for SOQPSK-TG, which are optimal detector, pulse truncation (PT) detector, standard OQPSK detector and modified OQPSK detector. The simulation and analysis results indicate that PT detector has the advantages of low complexity and good performance, so it has more practicality value.
    • Computer Vision Analysis for Vehicular Safety Applications

      Wang, Yuan-Fang; University of California (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      In this paper, we present our research on using computer-vision analysis for vehicular safety applications. Our research has potential applications for both autonomous vehicles and connected vehicles. In particular, for connected vehicles, we propose three image analysis algorithms that enhance the quality of a vehicle's on-board video before inter-vehicular information exchange takes place. For autonomous vehicles, we are investigating a visual analysis scheme for collision avoidance during back up and an algorithm for automated 3D map building. These algorithms are relevant to the telemetering domain as they involve determining the relative pose between a vehicle and other vehicles on the road, or between a vehicle and its 3D driving environment, or between a vehicle and obstacles surrounding the vehicle.
    • Data Protection and Data Elimination

      Budd, Chris; SMART High Reliability Solutions (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Data security is becoming increasingly important in all areas of storage. The news services frequently have stories about lost or stolen storage devices and the panic it causes. Data security in an SSD usually involves two components: data protection and data elimination. Data protection includes passwords to protect against unauthorized access and encryption to protect against recovering data from the flash chips. Data elimination includes erasing the encryption key and erasing the flash. Telemetry applications frequently add requirements such as write protection, external erase triggers, and overwriting the flash after the erase. This presentation will review these data security features.
    • Detection and Imaging of Micro-Periodic Motion with FMCW Sensing Systems

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent R.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Motion estimation is a problem that is encountered in a diverse range of technical fields. This paper demonstrates the development of a solution to the motion estimation problem in the context of imaging systems. First the general case of motion estimation is outlined followed by the special case of micro-periodic motion. The design of an FMCW microwave imaging system optimized for micro-periodic motion is then presented along with experiments and results that support the theory.
    • A Development of Real Time Video Compression Module Based on Embedded Motion JPEG 2000

      Park, Min Jee; Yu, Jae Taeg; Hyun, Myung Han; Ra, Sung Woong; Agency for Defense Development; Chungnam National University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      In this paper, we develop a miniaturized real time video compression module (VCM) based on embedded motion JPEG 2000 using ADV212 and FPGA. We consider layout of components, values of damping resistors, and lengths of the pattern lines for optimal hardware design. For software design, we consider compression steps to monitor the status of the system and make the system robust. The weight of the developed VCM is approximately 4 times lighter than the previous development. Furthermore, experimental results show that the PSNR is increased about 3dB and the compression processing time is approximately 2 times faster than the previous development.
    • Efficient AOA Estimation Techniques for GPS Signal

      Hwang, Suk-seung; Shynk, John J.; Lee, Hua; Chosun University; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Global Positioning System (GPS) interference signals are suppressed using angle-of-arrival (AOA) techniques, while at the same time the power of the GPS signal is enhanced. After estimating all AOAs from the received signal, we must determine which AOA corresponds to the GPS signal of interest, and in the presence of high-power interference signals. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for selecting the GPS AOA by first comparing all AOAs derived from the received signals before despreading. Although this approach has excellent performance, it has a high computational complexity. In order to overcome this drawback, we introduce a modification that yields an efficient GPS AOA estimation algorithm, which is based on a modified despreader and the constant modulus (CM) array cost function. The CM array is capable of selecting signals that have a constant modulus while rejecting non-CM interference signals. The modified despreader is the mechanism that allows this to be achieved, where unlike the interference signals, the GPS signal of interest maintains a constant modulus.