• Maximum Likelihood Detection from Multiple Bit Sources

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper deals with the problem of producing the best bit stream from a number of input bit streams with varying degrees of reliability. The best source selector and smart source selector are recast as detectors, and the maximum likelihood bit detector (MLBD) is derived from basic principles under the assumption that each bit value is accompanied by a quality measure proportional to its probability of error. We show that both the majority voter and the best source selector are special cases of the MLBD and define the conditions under which these special cases occur. We give a mathematical proof that the MLBD is the same as or better than the best source selector.
    • C-Band Transmitter Experimental (CTrEX) Test at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR)

      Nevarez, Jesus; Dannhaus, Joshua; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The Department of Defense (DoD) anticipated the eventual sell off of a portion of the Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT) frequency spectrum (from 1755-1780 and 2155-2180 MHz), prompting the telemetry (TM) community to start designing and testing systems capable of operating in a portion of the C-Band spectrum (4400-4940 MHz and 5091-5150 MHz) several years ago. On December 17, 2014 the NAVY targets office at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) launched the first in a series of C-band and S-band instrumented Orion vehicles to provide RF transmitted data products for ground system collection and in-depth analysis. This paper presents the first C-band Transmitter Experimental (CTrEX) high-dynamic, spinning vehicle test at WSMR and summarizes the initial findings along with a path forward for future CTrEX rocket tests.
    • Frequency Domain Equalizer for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; Afran, Md. Shah; The University of Texas at Dallas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper presents a frequency domain equalization (FDE) technique for aeronautical telemetry channels. The FDE has significantly lower computational complexity compared to its time-domain counterpart, however both are found to exhibit almost identical performance. A cyclic prefix is generally needed to implement the FDE. In this paper, we exploit the repetition of iNET preamble and ASM bits in place of cyclic prefix.
    • Efficient AOA Estimation Techniques for GPS Signal

      Hwang, Suk-seung; Shynk, John J.; Lee, Hua; Chosun University; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Global Positioning System (GPS) interference signals are suppressed using angle-of-arrival (AOA) techniques, while at the same time the power of the GPS signal is enhanced. After estimating all AOAs from the received signal, we must determine which AOA corresponds to the GPS signal of interest, and in the presence of high-power interference signals. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for selecting the GPS AOA by first comparing all AOAs derived from the received signals before despreading. Although this approach has excellent performance, it has a high computational complexity. In order to overcome this drawback, we introduce a modification that yields an efficient GPS AOA estimation algorithm, which is based on a modified despreader and the constant modulus (CM) array cost function. The CM array is capable of selecting signals that have a constant modulus while rejecting non-CM interference signals. The modified despreader is the mechanism that allows this to be achieved, where unlike the interference signals, the GPS signal of interest maintains a constant modulus.
    • Telemetry System Architecture for a Solar Car

      Walter, Eric; Glover, Nicholas; Cureton, Jesse; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper discusses the telemetry system used to monitor the performance of a solar-powered vehicle during testing and competitions. Car-side systems collect and transmit data onboard over an ISO 11898 / CAN bus. A bridge then converts this data into TCP/IP packets, which are transmitted via Ethernet to a Wi-Fi access point. The data is distributed through an IEEE 802.11N 5GHz mesh network to provide real time data to remote computers running telemetry software. This software displays and logs data from the car, allowing team members to monitor the vehicle.
    • Advances in the Development of Missile Telemetry Test Sets: Utilizing 3D Printing for Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing

      Apalboym, Maxim; Kujiraoka, Scott; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Functionally testing missiles in the All Up Round (AUR), a configuration that consists of a complete system packaged in its flight worthy state, requires the use of test sets along with constituent conformal equipment for interfacing. During developmental testing, telemetry (TM) sections are integrated within an AUR missile. These test sets monitor TM unit performance while maintaining form, fit, and function; therefore, resulting in complete data confidence. Initiating TM functional tests permit a capability in verifying that TM sections have been integrated properly. Safety being a priority, in order to attenuate RF radiation leakage while providing repeatable test capabilities in the near-field, antenna couplers are fabricated as a shielding interface between the user and radiating source and a coupling interface between an AUR missile and the test set. Generally, antenna couplers are composed of metallic bodies which require machine shop fabrication. The process of getting machined parts can take up to several months which can delay delivery schedules. With the availability of 3D printing capabilities and methods in metalizing various materials, a novel approach to fabricating antenna couplers has been explored. The use of modeling Software Packages (Computer Aided Design and Electromagnetic Solvers) and additive printing play key roles in reducing the development cycle time while saving costs, decreasing weight, and sustaining performance. This paper will detail the efforts using 3D printing capabilities in the development and fabrication of an antenna coupler with several examples cited herein.
    • Semantic Validation of T&E XML Data

      Moskal, Jakub; Kokar, Mieczyslaw; Morgan, John; VIStology, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      It is anticipated that XML will heavily dominate the next generation of telemetry systems. The syntax of XML-based languages can be constrained by a schema that describes the structure of valid documents. However, the schemas cannot express all dependencies between XML elements and attributes, both within a single document and across multiple documents. This prohibits the XML validation process from being fully automated with standard schema processors. This paper presents an approach that is based on the W3C Semantic Web technologies and allows different vendors and system integrators to independently develop their own semantic validation rules. The rules are equipped with powerful semantics, which allows for specification and validation of complex types of constraints. The approach is not specific to a particular T&E standard and is entirely standards-based.
    • Ultrasonic Transmitter Implemented on Arduino with Direct Digital Synthesis

      Owen, Jonathan; Ravenscroft, Brandon; Gustafson, Kai; Hellberg, Amanda; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Ultrasonic frequency signals can be employed in a manner similar to radio frequency signals for target detection and ranging by utilizing concepts from radar systems. This project uses components operating in the ultrasonic frequency spectrum to transmit and receive signals for detection and ranging. The project concept contains a single channel ultrasonic transmitter and a single channel ultrasonic receiver. An Arduino Due microcontroller is used to coordinate the radar system. The radar transmitter is continuously transmitting chirp waveforms in a frequency sweep pattern from 30 kHz to 50 kHz. Chirp echoes are received by the ultrasonic microphone. The echoes are mixed with the originally transmitted chirp, which creates a beat frequency response. The beat frequency is used to calculate the range of the target.
    • 3D Printable Multilayer RF Integrated System

      Wicker, Ryan; MacDonald, Eric; Xin, Hao; Yu, Xiaoju; Liang, Min; Shemelya, Corey; University of Arizona; University of Texas at El Paso (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      In this work, a 3D-printable multilayer phased array system is designed to demonstrate the applicability of additive manufacturing technique combining dielectric and conductor processes at room temperature for RF systems. Phased array systems normally include feeding networks, antennas, and active components such as switches, phase shifters and amplifiers. To make the integrated system compact, the array system here uses multilayer structure that can fully utilize the 3D space. The vertical interconnections between layers are carefully designed to reduce the loss between layers. Simulated results show good impedance matching and high-directive scanning beam. This multilayer phased array will finally be 3D printed by integrating thermal / ultrasound wire mesh embedding method (for metal) and fused-deposition-modeling technique (for dielectric).
    • An Evaluation System for Airplane's Power Supply

      Song, Jian; Luo, Ni; Cao, Liu; Xu, Min; Beijing Zoweetech Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Power supply is the most critical unit in an airplane. A defect in a power supply might lead to a crash. Therefore, it is very useful and important to monitor the status of the airplane's power supply during flight. This paper presents a real-time evaluation system constructed by a central process unit for processing and detecting defects and several remote units for acquiring parameters. Because of the huge amount of data acquired, a combination of Ethernet and time division multiplexing technique has been applied for constructing a 2.5Gbps synchronous data transportation network for the system.
    • Results for Precise GPS Trajectography Computation without Base Station

      Morán, Guillermo Martinez; Airbus Defence and Space (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The use of differential GPS post-procesing for precise trajectography computation has been widely used since early 90s. Up to recent dates, installation of a GPS receiver in a well known position (base station) has been mandatory. Operating range from this base station varies from 50 km up to 100 km, depending on the accuracy required, which impose single or dual frequency GPS technique. Nowadays, the huge amount of GPS base stations continuous logging data worldwide have allowed to improve the error models a lot. Using these precise models, it is possible to achieve centimeter accuracy in GPS trajectography by using only one GPS receiver without range to a base station restrictions. This technique is called Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The performance results for PPP obtained after a real 10 flights campaign will be presented.
    • JASON3, a Story of Telemetry and Telecommand Interference Handling

      Loisel, Céline; Zaouche, Gérard; Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper describes the methodology and the results of the interferences analysis that the JASON3 spacecraft has to deal with, as part of the PROTEUS platform series, sharing frequencies, modulation schemes and ground network.
    • Using C# and WPF to Create a Dynamic 3D Telemetry Theater and Trajectory Visualization Tool

      Reff, Mark; O'Neal, John; Raytheon Missile Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Telemetry data from flight tests are normally plotted using MatLab™ or other third party software. For most of the trajectory and flight parameters, a static 2D or 3D line graph does not provide the proper data visualization that can be accomplished with 3D software. Commercial 3D software can be expensive and difficult to customize, and writing custom software using Direct3D or OpenGL can be complex and time consuming. These problems were overcome using C# and Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) to quickly and easily create a 3D Telemetry Theater and Trajectory Visualization Tool to dynamically display actual and simulated flight tests.
    • Logistics Regression Model on Antenna Control Unit Autotracking Mode

      Laird, Daniel T. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Over the past several years DoD imposed constraints on test deliverables, requiring objective measures of test results, i.e., statistically defensible test and evaluation (SDT&E) methods and results. These constraints force testers to employ statistical hypotheses, analyses and modeling to assess test results objectively, i.e., based on statistical metrics, analytical methods, probability of confidence complemented by, rather than solely on expertise, which is too subjective. In this and companion papers we discuss methods of objectifying testing. We employ an earth coordinate model and statistical modeling of telemetry (TM) tracking antenna employing time-space position information (TSPI) and derived statistical measures for tracking-error and auto-tracking mode. Test data were statistically analyzed via analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) which revealed that the antenna control unit (ACU) under test (AUT) does not track statistically identically, nor as practically or efficiently in C-band while receiving data carriers in both S- and C-bands. The conclusions of this paper add support to that hypothesis. In this third of three papers we use data from a range test, but make no reference to the systems under test as the purpose of this paper is to present an example of tools useful for employing a SDT&E methodology.
    • A Simple and Cost Effective Raman-Fluorescence Spectrometer

      Kosbar, Kurt; Grubbs, Garry; Mormile, Melanie; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael; Marshall, Frank E.; Brinker, Katelyn R.; Chiaventone, Owen; Pride, Michael A.; Walker, Zachary; Rojo, Michelle; et al. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Research, design, construction, and operation of a portable mixed Raman and Fluorescence type spectrometer will be presented. The spectrometer was used on a wheeled vehicle which competed in the University Rover Challenge sponsored by the Mars Society. It uses a 50 mW, 532 nm continuous wave laser to probe a sample of soil for bacteria or biomarkers. The device costs 2,000 USD, weighs 1.4 kg and is 23 cm x 23 cm x 10 cm in size. Results from the competition, complications of analyzing mixed Raman-Fluorescence spectra via digital signal processing, and future ideas and improvements will also be discussed.
    • Statistical Characterization of Multipath Propagation at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB)

      Rice, Michael; Gagakuma, Edem C.; Hogstrom, Christopher; Nash, Christopher; Thompson, Kieth; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper describes the use of scattering functions to characterize time-varying multipath radio channels. Channel Impulse responses were measured at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) and a process is outlined for generating scattering functions from the impulse response data. From the scattering function we compute the corresponding Doppler power spectrum and multipath intensity profile. These functions completely characterize the signal delay and the time varying nature of the channel in question and are used by systems engineers to design reliable communications links. We observe from our results that flight paths that had ample reflectors exhibited significant multipath events.
    • Wireless Data Acquisition in Flight Test Networks

      Collins, Diarmuid; Curtiss-Wright Corporation (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The use of wireless data networks is ubiquitous in the consumer world. They have gained significant traction due to advantages afforded by the lack of wires. These same advantages can prove valuable in Flight Test for data acquisition. Sensor nodes are ideal candidates for low bandwidth wireless networks. Located in remote, hard to reach and hostile environments, wirelessly acquiring data from such sensor can solve a number of existing issues for FTI engineers. Implementing such wireless communication introduces a number of challenges such as guaranteeing reliable transfer of the sensor data and time synchronization of the remote nodes. This paper addresses wireless sensor acquisition, the associated challenges and discusses approaches and solutions to these problems.
    • Spectrum Sharing: Overview and Challenges of Small Cells Innovation in the Proposed 3.5 GHz Band

      Moazzami, Farzad; Oyediran, David; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Spectrum sharing between Federal and commercial users is a technique proposed by the FCC and NTIA to open up the 3.5 GHz band for wireless broadband use and small cell technology is one of the candidates for its' realization. The traffic on small cells is temporal and their chances of interfering with other services in shared spectrum are limited. DoD has a documented requirement of 865 MHz by 2025 to support telemetry but only 445 MHz is presently available. DoD is conducting researches to realize test and evaluation spectrum efficient technology with the aim to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate technology components required to enable flight and ground test telemetry operations. This paper will provide an overview on spectrum sharing using small cell technology for LTE-Advanced and dynamic spectrum access would be briefly described. Research challenges for protocols and algorithms would be addressed for future studies.
    • A Modular Scheme to Detect and Combat Sinusoidal Variation in Fading Channels

      Sastry, Sushruth; Kosbar, Kurt; Missouri University of Science and Technology (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Fading estimation in wireless communication systems depend on an expected fading model and assumptions about the channel itself. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the communication system is affected by how closely the assumptions made in de- signing the estimation technique match the deployment environment. Any unforeseen disturbances or hindrances in the environment deteriorate the BER performance of the system when the estimation system is not designed to combat the same. To combat such obstacles, estimation techniques must either be reinforced with modular systems which combat such observed types of disturbances, or be redesigned as a whole considering such observations of disturbances. In this paper a modular scheme to detect and combat sinusoidal variation in fading power is developed and tested by employing the developed scheme in a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication system which adopts Space-Time Block Coding (STBC) techniques.
    • Interoperability Standards for Network Based Airborne Video Systems

      Buckley, Mark; Berard, Alfredo; Butler, Michael; Telspan Data; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The deployment of network-based airborne instrumentation is leading to cost efficient replacement of legacy systems. One application of airborne instrumentation systems that has to this point been developed and maintained separately from traditional avionics and orange-wire data acquisition systems is video and imagery. The development of network-based video and imagery systems has led to an opportunity to unify these two previously distinct airborne data acquisition activities using standards for plug-n-play interoperability across airframes and organizations. This paper describes standards based network-based video and imagery instrumentation systems which, are being implemented to replace existing proprietary systems.