• Next Generation Feature Roadmap for IP-Based Range Architectures

      Kovach, Bob; Superior Access Solutions, Inc. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The initial efforts that resulted in the migration of range application traffic to an IP infrastructure largely focused on the challenge of obtaining reliable transport for range application streams including telemetry and digital video via IP packet-based network technology. With the emergence of architectural elements that support robust Quality of Service, multicast routing, and redundant operation, these problems have largely been resolved, and a large number of ranges are now successfully utilizing IP-based network topology to implement their backbone transport infrastructure. The attention now turns to the need to provide supplemental features that provide enhanced functionality in addition to raw stream transport. These features include: *Stream monitoring and native test capability, usually called Service Assurance *Extended support for Ancillary Data / Metadata *Archive and Media Asset Management integration into the workflow *Temporal alignment of application streams This paper will describe a number of methods to implement these features utilizing an approach that leverages the features offered by IP-based technology, emphasizes the use of standards-based COTS implementations, and supports interworking between features.
    • Detection and Imaging of Micro-Periodic Motion with FMCW Sensing Systems

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent R.; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Motion estimation is a problem that is encountered in a diverse range of technical fields. This paper demonstrates the development of a solution to the motion estimation problem in the context of imaging systems. First the general case of motion estimation is outlined followed by the special case of micro-periodic motion. The design of an FMCW microwave imaging system optimized for micro-periodic motion is then presented along with experiments and results that support the theory.
    • Passive Acoustic Sensing for the Assessment of Knee Conditions

      Lee, Hua; Radzicki, Vincent; Matsuura, Koki; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Early detection and diagnosis of knee related health disease is critical in mitigating the long term health risks of such ailments. Passive acoustic sensing is an under-utilized monitoring system that can be used in the assessment and potential diagnosis of knee health that has many potential benefits when compared to current medical technology. Developing accurate acoustic models and procedures for analyzing acoustic sensor data in these applications is of great importance. This paper presents the design and development of passive acoustic sensing system for characterizing knees along with data analysis techniques towards this end.
    • SOQPSK Software Defined Radio

      Rice, Michael; Nash, Christopher; Hogstrom, Christopher; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments using a commercial-off-the-shelf software defined radio to demodulate SOQPSK-TG for aeronautical telemetry. Using the NI USRP N210 and Zynq™ processor, we achieved 900 kbits/s demodulation and found that the USRP N210 has a signal sensitivity of -71 dBm at a BER of 10⁻⁶.
    • Evaluation of FLDPC Coding Scheme for Adaptive Coding in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Luo, Qinghua; Peng, Yu; Wan, Wei; Huang, Tao; Fan, YaNing; Peng, Xiyuan; Harbin Institute of Technology at WeiHai; Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China Ltd (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The aeronautical telemeter channel is characterized by Multipath interference, Doppler shift and rapid changes in channel behavior. In addition to transmission error during aeronautical telemeter, transmission losing also exists. In this paper, we investigate the correction of transmission error and processing of telemetry transmission losing, and propose an adaptive coding scheme, which organic combines Fountain code and low density parity check (LDPC) code. We call it fountain LDPC (FLDPC) coding. In the coding scheme, The LDPC code is explored to perform transmission error correction, while, the problem of transmission losing is resorted to fountain code. So FLDPC is robust for transmission losing and transmission error. Moreover, without knowing any of these the channel information, FLDPC can adapt the data link and avoid the interference through adjusting the transmission rate. Experimental results illustrated that a signification improvement in transmission reliability and transmitting efficiency can be achieved by using the FLDPC coding.
    • Results for Precise GPS Trajectography Computation without Base Station

      Morán, Guillermo Martinez; Airbus Defence and Space (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The use of differential GPS post-procesing for precise trajectography computation has been widely used since early 90s. Up to recent dates, installation of a GPS receiver in a well known position (base station) has been mandatory. Operating range from this base station varies from 50 km up to 100 km, depending on the accuracy required, which impose single or dual frequency GPS technique. Nowadays, the huge amount of GPS base stations continuous logging data worldwide have allowed to improve the error models a lot. Using these precise models, it is possible to achieve centimeter accuracy in GPS trajectography by using only one GPS receiver without range to a base station restrictions. This technique is called Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The performance results for PPP obtained after a real 10 flights campaign will be presented.
    • Performance Study of Precoding Techniques on Generalized Spatial Modulation with Correlated Antennas

      Sun, Yafei; Borah, Deva K.; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Spatial modulation (SM) reduces transceiver complexity and inter-channel interference over traditional multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. It has been shown recently in the literature that the use of a precoder in an SM or a generalized spatial modulation (GSM) system can significantly improve error performance. This paper investigates two issues related to precoders: 1) the use of a precoder in Alamouti-GSM systems, and 2) the effects of power constraints on the precoder design. The results in this paper show that Alamouti-GSM can improve system performance by several dB. On power constraint issues, the paper shows that there is a trade-off between limiting antenna power fluctuations and the potential gain due to precoders.
    • The Performance Test of an Initial iNET-Like RF Network Using a Tethered Aerostat in Japan

      Tanaka, Toshihisa; Aoyama, Daiki; Ito, Sei; Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Through the use of early iNET-prototype IP Transceiver technology, Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd. (KHI) has been able to communicate with flight test vehicles during a recent research program. This technology provides a two-way high-capacity communication that has not been achieved with conventional telemetry and can be used not only for flight testing, but also for rescue work. KHI has been authorized to use S-band IP Transceivers since last year in Japan, and various communication tests have been performed. This paper describes Japan's first simulation of an iNET RF network which incorporated testing that performed data backfill, voice communication and video transmission. A data backfilling test was performed using retransmit of lock-off data (which is lost as the aircraft maneuvers) on command from the ground station. Moreover, a tethered aerostat is considered a very useful communication relay platform in the event of a large-scale disaster which results in the destruction of infrastructure. Also, the silence of an aerostat can be very important for search and rescue work.
    • A Low Cost Open-Air Tracking System Based on an Empirical Path-Loss Model

      Marcellin, Michael W.; Melde, Kathleen; Niu, Kayla; Shahidullah, Asif; Bilarasau, Andrea; Ringle, James; Sorrell, Michaelina; Zurmehly, Luke; University of Arizona (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Tracking small marmosets over a large area represents a significant challenge for researchers. The native habitat for such animals are generally unsuitable for GPS based location systems, and the size of the animals prevents large, feature-rich collars from being utilized. Additionally, costs and feasibility prevent researchers from continuously monitoring these animals on the ground. This paper proposes a new system of tracking that offsets complexity from the collar onto fixed Base Stations (BS). The simplified collars emit a ping that multiple BSs then log along with the power of the signal. Combining the data from different BSs allows for the determination of the Signal of Interest (SOI). It was found that using three BSs provided enough accuracy to determine the location of an SOI within an accuracy of 2 m² over a roughly 450 m² area.
    • Exploiting Bluetooth Low Energy Pairing Vulnerability in Telemedicine

      Dean, Richard A.; Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Zegeye, Wondimu K.; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Telemetry has potentially large contributions to future medical applications. In the past decade wireless devices have invaded the medical area with a wide range of capability as components of a wireless personal area network (WPAN) and Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). These applications in medical telemetry are not only improving the quality of life of patients and doctor-patient efficiency, but also enabling medical personnel to monitor patients remotely and give them timely health information, reminders, and support-potentially extending the reach of health care by making it available anywhere, anytime. This paper exploits the pairing vulnerability in Bluetooth Low energy (Bluetooth Smart) for HealthCare devices used in medical telemetry applications and demonstrates the key role security plays in telemetry.
    • A Model for Cyber Attack Risks in Telemetry Networks

      Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Shourabi, Neda Bazyar; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper develops a method for analyzing, modeling and simulating cyber threats in a networked telemetry environment as part of a risk management model. The paper includes an approach for incorporating a Monte Carlo computer simulation of this modeling with sample results.
    • Spatial Diversity Combining Using Blind Estimation Techniques

      Ardrey, David; Gimler, Gregory; Pippitt, Mark; MIT Lincoln Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper proposes a spatial diversity combining approach by which spatially diverse telemetry signals from multiple antennas are combined before they are demodulated. The combined signal is guaranteed to at least replicate and in many cases improve upon the performance of any single antenna. By taking advantage of blind channel estimation, the combined signal can be computed as a time varying weighted sum of digital I and Q samples from multiple antennas. Multiple antenna combining is enabled by improved computation capability, high speed network connectivity, and accurate clock synchronization. The algorithm will be demonstrated at the Reagan Test Site (RTS), whose modernization program encompasses multiple antenna sites with network capability and a state of the art software defined radio back end. This paper details the spatial diversity combining algorithm and discusses its merits and challenges. Index Terms - Telemetry, Reagan Test Site, blind estimation, multiple antenna combining, best source selection, spatial diversity combining.
    • Optimized Automatic Calibration Tool for Flight Test Analogue Parameters

      Torralbo, Pilar Vicaria; Airbus Defense & Space (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The calibration processes consume a big quantity of resources: equipment and people, time and cost. As the number of calibration points increase the resources increase in the same extent. This automatic tool, aimed to reduce these resources, has been designed for commanding, managing and analyzing in real time a large number of acquired data points coming from the specimen under calibration and the standards used in the calibration process, applying at the same time the metrological algorithms which validate the calibration point. Its greatest achievement is the implementation of the rules for accepting or discarding the data point and the level of automation of the process. In the last flight test campaign its usage has been crucial for providing on time the data with the high accuracy required. It was achieved the commissioning of almost 200 temperature parameters in a short period of time taking advantage of equipment which nominal accuracy was not high enough for their direct application.
    • Geometric Model for Tracker-Target Look Angles and Line of Sight Distance

      Laird, Daniel T. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      To determine the tracking abilities of a Telemetry (TM) antenna control unit (ACU) requires 'truth data' to analyze the accuracy of measured, or observed tracking angles. This requires we know the actual angle, i.e., that we know where the target is above the earth. The positional truth is generated from target time-space position information (TSPI), which implicitly places the target's global positioning system (GPS) as the source of observational accuracy. In this paper we present a model to generate local look-angles (LA) and line-of-sight (LoS) distance with respect to (w.r.t.) target global GPS. We ignore inertial navigation system (INS) data in generating relative position at time T; thus we model the target as a global point in time relative to the local tracker's global fixed position in time. This is the first of three companion papers on tracking This is the first of three companion papers on tracking analyses employing Statistically Defensible Test & Evaluation (SDT&E) methods.
    • Advances in the Development of Missile Telemetry Test Sets: Utilizing 3D Printing for Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing

      Apalboym, Maxim; Kujiraoka, Scott; NAVAIR (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Functionally testing missiles in the All Up Round (AUR), a configuration that consists of a complete system packaged in its flight worthy state, requires the use of test sets along with constituent conformal equipment for interfacing. During developmental testing, telemetry (TM) sections are integrated within an AUR missile. These test sets monitor TM unit performance while maintaining form, fit, and function; therefore, resulting in complete data confidence. Initiating TM functional tests permit a capability in verifying that TM sections have been integrated properly. Safety being a priority, in order to attenuate RF radiation leakage while providing repeatable test capabilities in the near-field, antenna couplers are fabricated as a shielding interface between the user and radiating source and a coupling interface between an AUR missile and the test set. Generally, antenna couplers are composed of metallic bodies which require machine shop fabrication. The process of getting machined parts can take up to several months which can delay delivery schedules. With the availability of 3D printing capabilities and methods in metalizing various materials, a novel approach to fabricating antenna couplers has been explored. The use of modeling Software Packages (Computer Aided Design and Electromagnetic Solvers) and additive printing play key roles in reducing the development cycle time while saving costs, decreasing weight, and sustaining performance. This paper will detail the efforts using 3D printing capabilities in the development and fabrication of an antenna coupler with several examples cited herein.
    • Efficient AOA Estimation Techniques for GPS Signal

      Hwang, Suk-seung; Shynk, John J.; Lee, Hua; Chosun University; University of California, Santa Barbara (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Global Positioning System (GPS) interference signals are suppressed using angle-of-arrival (AOA) techniques, while at the same time the power of the GPS signal is enhanced. After estimating all AOAs from the received signal, we must determine which AOA corresponds to the GPS signal of interest, and in the presence of high-power interference signals. In this paper, we describe an algorithm for selecting the GPS AOA by first comparing all AOAs derived from the received signals before despreading. Although this approach has excellent performance, it has a high computational complexity. In order to overcome this drawback, we introduce a modification that yields an efficient GPS AOA estimation algorithm, which is based on a modified despreader and the constant modulus (CM) array cost function. The CM array is capable of selecting signals that have a constant modulus while rejecting non-CM interference signals. The modified despreader is the mechanism that allows this to be achieved, where unlike the interference signals, the GPS signal of interest maintains a constant modulus.
    • A Smartphone-Based Gait Data Collection System for the Prediction of Falls in Elderly Adults

      Martinez, Matthew; De Leon, Phillip L.; New Mexico State University; Sandia National Laboratories (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Falls prevention efforts for older adults have become increasingly important and are now a significant research effort. As part of the prevention effort, analysis of gait has become increasingly important. Data is typically collected in a laboratory setting using 3-D motion capture, which can be time consuming, invasive and requires expensive and specialized equipment as well as trained operators. Inertial sensors, which are smaller and more cost effective, have been shown to be useful in falls research. Smartphones now contain Micro Electro-Mechanical (MEM) Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), which make them a compelling platform for gait data acquisition. This paper reports the development of an iOS app for collecting accelerometer data and an offline machine learning system to classify a subject, based on this data, as faller or non-faller based on their history of falls. The system uses the accelerometer data captured on the smartphone, extracts discriminating features, and then classifies the subject based on the feature vector. Through simulation, our preliminary and limited study suggests this system has an accuracy as high as 85%. Such a system could be used to monitor an at-risk person's gait in order to predict an increased risk of falling.
    • Performance Limits on Joint Estimation of Frequency Offset, Channel and Noise Variance in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Afran, Md. Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Brigham Young University; The University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Modern digital communication techniques leverage the capabilities of advanced digital signal processing to improve the bit error rate performance of modulated carrier in harsh radio frequency (RF) environments. This improvement requires the knowledge of the RF environment (e.g., frequency offset, multipath channel coefficients, noise variance). In this paper we derive the theoretical performance bound of the joint frequency offset, channel and noise variance estimators. Performance of the joint maximum likelihood estimators are compared with this bound for two of the measured aeronautical telemetry channels with iNET-formatted SOQPSK-TG samples.
    • Interoperability Standards for Network Based Airborne Video Systems

      Buckley, Mark; Berard, Alfredo; Butler, Michael; Telspan Data; Eglin Air Force Base (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The deployment of network-based airborne instrumentation is leading to cost efficient replacement of legacy systems. One application of airborne instrumentation systems that has to this point been developed and maintained separately from traditional avionics and orange-wire data acquisition systems is video and imagery. The development of network-based video and imagery systems has led to an opportunity to unify these two previously distinct airborne data acquisition activities using standards for plug-n-play interoperability across airframes and organizations. This paper describes standards based network-based video and imagery instrumentation systems which, are being implemented to replace existing proprietary systems.
    • Study of Aircraftshadowing Effects During Maneuvers for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Umashankar, B.; Aswathy, S.; Nishad, F.; Apantha, K. P.; Aeronautical Development Agency (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Typical aeronautical telemetry instrumentation for a fighter aircraft comprises of multiple antennas on the aircraft, with typical placement of one antenna on the spine of the aircraft and the other on the aircraft belly. Complimentary to the aircraft instrumentation, is the fixed ground station equipped with a tracking antenna. Air to ground channel for this telemetry link is considered as line of sight propagation. But there is a link loss observed at the ground station for a certain instant of time. Possible causes of link loss/attenuation in the case are due to aircraft manoeuvring. The main objective of this paper is to study and analyze masking patterns of the aircraft instrumentation scheme. Polarization diversity combining at the RF receiver and frequency diversity combining at the tracking receiver were explored at the ground station to mitigate the effect of RF fading due to antenna masking. The RF signal levels at the ground station are analyzed with respect to different aircraft attitudes. This paper also brings out the possible causes of the RF level drop and the solutions which can be explored to overcome it.