• Frequency Domain Equalizer for Aeronautical Telemetry

      Saquib, Mohammad; Rice, Michael; Afran, Md. Shah; The University of Texas at Dallas; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper presents a frequency domain equalization (FDE) technique for aeronautical telemetry channels. The FDE has significantly lower computational complexity compared to its time-domain counterpart, however both are found to exhibit almost identical performance. A cyclic prefix is generally needed to implement the FDE. In this paper, we exploit the repetition of iNET preamble and ASM bits in place of cyclic prefix.
    • Maximum Likelihood Detection from Multiple Bit Sources

      Rice, Michael; Perrins, Erik; Brigham Young University; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper deals with the problem of producing the best bit stream from a number of input bit streams with varying degrees of reliability. The best source selector and smart source selector are recast as detectors, and the maximum likelihood bit detector (MLBD) is derived from basic principles under the assumption that each bit value is accompanied by a quality measure proportional to its probability of error. We show that both the majority voter and the best source selector are special cases of the MLBD and define the conditions under which these special cases occur. We give a mathematical proof that the MLBD is the same as or better than the best source selector.
    • On the Performance of Equalizers in an Aeronautical Telemetry Environment

      Gagakuma, Edem C.; Rice, Michael; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper examines the bit error rate (BER) performance of four equalization techniques with Forney and matched filter observation models for BPSK operating over multipath channels measured at Edwards AFB. The maximum likelihood sequence estimator is able to eliminate all the ISI induced by the multipath channel. For the filter-based equalizers (zero-forcing, minimum mean-squared error, and decision-feedback), the depth of the nulls defines the performance of the filter-based equalizers. Generally speaking, the matched filter observation model produces a channel with deeper nulls than the Forney observation model. But this advantage is achieved at the cost of a noise whitening filter. For flight-line channels the Forney observation model is the best choice for any filter-based equalizer. For low-elevation angle up-and-away channels the decision-feedback equalizer with either observation model yields excellent performance.
    • An Evaluation System for Airplane's Power Supply

      Song, Jian; Luo, Ni; Cao, Liu; Xu, Min; Beijing Zoweetech Ltd. (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Power supply is the most critical unit in an airplane. A defect in a power supply might lead to a crash. Therefore, it is very useful and important to monitor the status of the airplane's power supply during flight. This paper presents a real-time evaluation system constructed by a central process unit for processing and detecting defects and several remote units for acquiring parameters. Because of the huge amount of data acquired, a combination of Ethernet and time division multiplexing technique has been applied for constructing a 2.5Gbps synchronous data transportation network for the system.
    • IPCM Telemetry System: Experimental Results

      d'Amore, Roberto; Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo (IPEV); Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA) (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The aeronautical industries have been suffering financial cutbacks and the market has to face new challenges associated with new companies. Telemetry community has been facing the increase of the electromagnetic spectrum usage for a variety of applications (e.g. 4G), after all telemetry is everywhere. In view of these issues and focused on the inherent requirements of the Flight Test application, the IPEV R&D group proposes the iPCM Telemetry architecture as solution for the existing reliability and bandwidth issues associated with the telemetry link. In this article, as a proof-of-concept of the iPCM architecture, it has been performed an experimental assembly. The results demonstrate the iPCM's ability to regenerate corrupted data providing the required data integrity and reliability, besides the capability to dynamically select the FTI transmitted parameter list to optimize the bandwidth link.
    • Ultrasonic Transmitter Implemented on Arduino with Direct Digital Synthesis

      Owen, Jonathan; Ravenscroft, Brandon; Gustafson, Kai; Hellberg, Amanda; University of Kansas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Ultrasonic frequency signals can be employed in a manner similar to radio frequency signals for target detection and ranging by utilizing concepts from radar systems. This project uses components operating in the ultrasonic frequency spectrum to transmit and receive signals for detection and ranging. The project concept contains a single channel ultrasonic transmitter and a single channel ultrasonic receiver. An Arduino Due microcontroller is used to coordinate the radar system. The radar transmitter is continuously transmitting chirp waveforms in a frequency sweep pattern from 30 kHz to 50 kHz. Chirp echoes are received by the ultrasonic microphone. The echoes are mixed with the originally transmitted chirp, which creates a beat frequency response. The beat frequency is used to calculate the range of the target.
    • C-Band Transmitter Experimental (CTrEX) Test at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR)

      Nevarez, Jesus; Dannhaus, Joshua; White Sands Missile Range (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The Department of Defense (DoD) anticipated the eventual sell off of a portion of the Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT) frequency spectrum (from 1755-1780 and 2155-2180 MHz), prompting the telemetry (TM) community to start designing and testing systems capable of operating in a portion of the C-Band spectrum (4400-4940 MHz and 5091-5150 MHz) several years ago. On December 17, 2014 the NAVY targets office at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) launched the first in a series of C-band and S-band instrumented Orion vehicles to provide RF transmitted data products for ground system collection and in-depth analysis. This paper presents the first C-band Transmitter Experimental (CTrEX) high-dynamic, spinning vehicle test at WSMR and summarizes the initial findings along with a path forward for future CTrEX rocket tests.
    • Spatial Diversity Combining Using Blind Estimation Techniques

      Ardrey, David; Gimler, Gregory; Pippitt, Mark; MIT Lincoln Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper proposes a spatial diversity combining approach by which spatially diverse telemetry signals from multiple antennas are combined before they are demodulated. The combined signal is guaranteed to at least replicate and in many cases improve upon the performance of any single antenna. By taking advantage of blind channel estimation, the combined signal can be computed as a time varying weighted sum of digital I and Q samples from multiple antennas. Multiple antenna combining is enabled by improved computation capability, high speed network connectivity, and accurate clock synchronization. The algorithm will be demonstrated at the Reagan Test Site (RTS), whose modernization program encompasses multiple antenna sites with network capability and a state of the art software defined radio back end. This paper details the spatial diversity combining algorithm and discusses its merits and challenges. Index Terms - Telemetry, Reagan Test Site, blind estimation, multiple antenna combining, best source selection, spatial diversity combining.
    • JASON3, a Story of Telemetry and Telecommand Interference Handling

      Loisel, Céline; Zaouche, Gérard; Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper describes the methodology and the results of the interferences analysis that the JASON3 spacecraft has to deal with, as part of the PROTEUS platform series, sharing frequencies, modulation schemes and ground network.
    • Performance Limits on Joint Estimation of Frequency Offset, Channel and Noise Variance in Aeronautical Telemetry

      Rice, Michael; Afran, Md. Shah; Saquib, Mohammad; Brigham Young University; The University of Texas at Dallas (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Modern digital communication techniques leverage the capabilities of advanced digital signal processing to improve the bit error rate performance of modulated carrier in harsh radio frequency (RF) environments. This improvement requires the knowledge of the RF environment (e.g., frequency offset, multipath channel coefficients, noise variance). In this paper we derive the theoretical performance bound of the joint frequency offset, channel and noise variance estimators. Performance of the joint maximum likelihood estimators are compared with this bound for two of the measured aeronautical telemetry channels with iNET-formatted SOQPSK-TG samples.
    • INCA Cubesat: A Design Analysis of the Telemetering System

      Burgett, Taylor; New Mexico State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The goal of this project is maximize the performance of the telemetering system for the INCA cubesat mission using what we are learning in class to develop tests to figure out the optimal selection of frame scheme, data rate, and modulation technique based on the requirements of the mission. This project will help me learn about different modulation techniques and give me real world experience testing a telemetry system. I will evaluate my results through a comparison of the error rates for the different modulation schemes and do statistical analysis to show the reliability of the data. The results will be useful to any future mission that implements the same satellite communication system including future missions at NMSU.
    • SOQPSK Software Defined Radio

      Rice, Michael; Nash, Christopher; Hogstrom, Christopher; Brigham Young University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments using a commercial-off-the-shelf software defined radio to demodulate SOQPSK-TG for aeronautical telemetry. Using the NI USRP N210 and Zynq™ processor, we achieved 900 kbits/s demodulation and found that the USRP N210 has a signal sensitivity of -71 dBm at a BER of 10⁻⁶.
    • A Low-Cost Software-Defined Telemetry Receiver

      Don, Michael L.; Aberdeen Proving Grounds (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The Army Research Laboratories has developed a PCM/FM telemetry receiver using a low-cost commercial software-defined radio (SDR). Whereas traditional radio systems are implemented in hardware, much of the functionality of software-defined radios is defined in software. This gives them the flexibility to accommodate military telemetry standards as well as other specialized functions. After a brief review of telecommunication theory, this paper describes the receiver implementation on a commercial SDR platform. Data rates up to 10 Mbs were obtained through the customization the SDR's field programmable gate array.
    • A Software Defined Radio Based Architecture for the Reagan Test Site Telemetry Modernization (RTM) Program

      Ardrey, David; Gimler, Gregory; Pippitt, Mark; MIT Lincoln Laboratory (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      MIT Lincoln Laboratory has developed a Software Defined Radio based architecture for the Reagan Test Site Telemetry Modernization (RTM) program, which will enhance the current operations of the ground based telemetry systems and enable new modes of operation. There are three main objectives of the RTM program; increasing overall system performance, improving reliability and maintainability, and enabling future customer needs. RTM provides a fully integrated system that can be configured and remotely controlled from a single location. This centralized command and control provides a way to automate certain functions and frees up operator resources, especially for more complex mission scenarios. Software modules, running on general-purpose computers perform signal and data processing that have been traditionally performed in special purpose hardware based components. This provides the flexibility to scale and adapt to future needs, such as spectrum change, increased need for capacity, and changes to modulation, encoding, and compression. Index Terms - Software Defined Radio (SDR), Open systems architecture, telemetry receiver architecture, Aeronautical Mobile Telemetry (AMT)
    • A Model for Cyber Attack Risks in Telemetry Networks

      Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Shourabi, Neda Bazyar; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      This paper develops a method for analyzing, modeling and simulating cyber threats in a networked telemetry environment as part of a risk management model. The paper includes an approach for incorporating a Monte Carlo computer simulation of this modeling with sample results.
    • Exploring Vulnerabilities in Networked Telemetry

      Dean, Richard; Moazzami, Farzad; Astatke, Yacob; Shonubi, Felix; Lynton, Ciara; Odumosu, Joshua; Moten, Daryl; Morgan State University (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The implementation of Integrated Network Enhanced Telemetry (iNET) in telemetry applications provides significant enhancements to telemetry operations. Unfortunately such networking brings the potential for devastating cyber-attacks and networked telemetry is also susceptible to these attacks. This paper demonstrates a worked example of a social engineering attack carried out on a test bed network, analyzing the attack process from launch to detection. For this demonstration, a penetration-testing tool is used to launch the attack. This attack will be monitored to detect its signature using a network monitoring tool, and this signature will then be used to create a rule which will trigger an alert in an Intrusion Detection System. This work highlights the importance of network security in telemetry applications and is critical to current and future telemetry networks as cyber threats are widespread and potentially devastating.
    • Results for Precise GPS Trajectography Computation without Base Station

      Morán, Guillermo Martinez; Airbus Defence and Space (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The use of differential GPS post-procesing for precise trajectography computation has been widely used since early 90s. Up to recent dates, installation of a GPS receiver in a well known position (base station) has been mandatory. Operating range from this base station varies from 50 km up to 100 km, depending on the accuracy required, which impose single or dual frequency GPS technique. Nowadays, the huge amount of GPS base stations continuous logging data worldwide have allowed to improve the error models a lot. Using these precise models, it is possible to achieve centimeter accuracy in GPS trajectography by using only one GPS receiver without range to a base station restrictions. This technique is called Precise Point Positioning (PPP). The performance results for PPP obtained after a real 10 flights campaign will be presented.
    • On-Board Data Processing and Filtering

      Faber, Marc; Zodiac Data Systems (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      One of the requirements resulting from mounting pressure on flight test schedules is the reduction of time needed for data analysis, in pursuit of shorter test cycles. This requirement has ramifications such as the demand for record and processing of not just raw measurement data but also of data converted to engineering units in real time, as well as for an optimized use of the bandwidth available for telemetry downlink and ultimately for shortening the duration of procedures intended to disseminate pre-selected recorded data among different analysis groups on ground. A promising way to successfully address these needs consists in implementing more CPU-intelligence and processing power directly on the on-board flight test equipment. This provides the ability to process complex data in real time. For instance, data acquired at different hardware interfaces (which may be compliant with different standards) can be directly converted to more easy-to-handle engineering units. This leads to a faster extraction and analysis of the actual data contents of the on-board signals and busses. Another central goal is the efficient use of the available bandwidth for telemetry. Real-time data reduction via intelligent filtering is one approach to achieve this challenging objective. The data filtering process should be performed simultaneously on an all-data-capture recording and the user should be able to easily select the interesting data without building PCM formats on board nor to carry out decommutation on ground. This data selection should be as easy as possible for the user, and the on-board FTI devices should generate a seamless and transparent data transmission, making a quick data analysis viable. On-board data processing and filtering has the potential to become the future main path to handle the challenge of FTI data acquisition and analysis in a more comfortable and effective way.
    • An On-Board Instrumentation System for High-Rate Medium Caliber Projectiles

      Bukowski, Edward; Don, Michael; Grzybowski, David; Harkins, Thomas; Aberdeen Proving Ground (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      The U.S. Army Research Laboratory developed an on-board telemetry instrumentation system to obtain measurements of the in-flight dynamics of medium caliber projectiles. The small size, high launch acceleration, and extremely high spin rates of these projectiles created many design challenges. Particularly challenging were the high spin rates, necessitating the development of a data compression scheme for solar sensors. Flight tests successfully captured data for spin rates exceeding 1000 Hertz (1 kHz).
    • Using Agile Methods for Software Development in R&D Scenario

      Guarino de Vasconcelos, Luis Eduardo; Kusumoto, André Yoshimi; Leite, Nelson Paiva Oliveira; Lopes, Cristina Moniz Araújo; Instituto de Pesquisas e Ensaios em Voo; Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica; Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2015-10)
      Due to the quick change of business processes in organizations, software needs to adapt quickly to meet new requirements by implementing new business rules. In Research and Development (R&D) scenario, the research is highly non-linear and changes are inevitable. In this context, it is known that traditional methodologies (e.g. waterfall) may lead to the detection of failures late, increase the time and cost of development and maintenance of software. On the other hand, agile methodologies are based on Test- Driven Development (TDD), maintain the technical debt under control, maximize the Return on Investment and reduce the risks for customers and companies. In this paper, we show the use of Scrum and TDD in the development of an experimental tool that aims to make the calibration in real time of the rudder of a fighter aircraft. The preliminary results allowed to increase the coverage testing of the software and hence the quality of the tool.