Adapting Fourier Analysis for Predicting Earth, Mars and Lunar Orbiting Satellite's Telemetry Behavior
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AbstractPrognostic technology uses a series of algorithms, combined forms a prognostic-based inference engine (PBIE) for the identification of deterministic behavior embedded in completely normal appearing telemetry from fully functional equipment. The algorithms used to define normal behavior in the PBIE from which deterministic behavior is identified can be adapted to quantify normal spacecraft telemetry behavior while in orbit about a moon or planet or during interplanetary travel. Time-series analog engineering data (telemetry) from orbiting satellites and interplanetary spacecraft are defined by harmonic and non-harmonic influences, which shape it behavior. Spectrum analysis can be used to understand and quantify the fundamental behavior of spacecraft analog telemetry and relate the behavior's frequency and phase to its time-series behavior through Fourier analysis.
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An Anomaly Behavior Analysis Methodology for the Internet of Things: Design, Analysis, and EvaluationPacheco Ramirez, Jesus Horacio (The University of Arizona., 2017)Advances in mobile and pervasive computing, social network technologies and the exponential growth in Internet applications and services will lead to the development of the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT services will be a key enabling technology to the development of smart infrastructures that will revolutionize the way we do business, manage critical services, and how we secure, protect, and entertain ourselves. Large-scale IoT applications, such as critical infrastructures (e.g., smart grid, smart transportation, smart buildings, etc.) are distributed systems, characterized by interdependence, cooperation, competition, and adaptation. The integration of IoT premises with sensors, actuators, and control devices allows smart infrastructures to achieve reliable and efficient operations, and to significantly reduce operational costs. However, with the use of IoT, we are experiencing grand challenges to secure and protect such advanced information services due to the significant increase in the attack surface. The interconnections between a growing number of devices expose the vulnerability of IoT applications to attackers. Even devices which are intended to operate in isolation are sometimes connected to the Internet due to careless configuration or to satisfy special needs (e.g., they need to be remotely managed). The security challenge consists of identifying accurately IoT devices, promptly detect vulnerabilities and exploitations of IoT devices, and stop or mitigate the impact of cyberattacks. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is in charge of monitoring the behavior of protected systems and is looking for malicious activities or policy violations in order to produce reports to a management station or even perform proactive countermeasures against the detected threat. Anomaly behavior detection is a technique that aims at creating models for the normal behavior of the network and detects any significant deviation from normal operations. With the ability to detect new and novel attacks, the anomaly detection is a promising IDS technique that is actively pursued by researchers. Since each IoT application has its own specification, it is hard to develop a single IDS which works properly for all IoT layers. A better approach is to design customized intrusion detection engines for different layers and then aggregate the analysis results from these engines. On the other hand, it would be cumbersome and takes a lot of effort and knowledge to manually extract the specification of each system. So it will be appropriate to formulate our methodology based on machine learning techniques which can be applied to produce efficient detection engines for different IoT applications. In this dissertation we aim at formalizing a general methodology to perform anomaly behavior analysis for IoT. We first introduce our IoT architecture for smart infrastructures that consists of four layers: end nodes (devices), communications, services, and application. Then we show our multilayer IoT security framework and IoT architecture that consists of five planes: function specification or model plane, attack surface plane, impact plane, mitigation plane, and priority plane. We then present a methodology to develop a general threat model in order to recognize the vulnerabilities in each layer and the possible countermeasures that can be deployed to mitigate their exploitation. In this scope, we show how to develop and deploy an anomaly behavior analysis based intrusion detection system (ABA-IDS) to detect anomalies that might be triggered by attacks against devices, protocols, information or services in our IoT framework. We have evaluated our approach by launching several cyberattacks (e.g. Sensor Impersonation, Replay, and Flooding attacks) against our testbeds developed at the University of Arizona Center for Cloud and Autonomic Computing. The results show that our approach can be used to deploy effective security mechanisms to protect the normal operations of smart infrastructures integrated to the IoT. Moreover, our approach can detect known and unknown attacks against IoT with high detection rate and low false alarms.
Benjamin Britten's "Cantata Misericordium", Opus 69: A theoretical analysis and a conductor's guide to gestural analysis.Osborn, Lawrence David. (The University of Arizona., 1993)A complete theoretical and gestural analysis of Benjamin Britten's Opus 69 has usually been treated in a separate and, in terms of choral-orchestral synthesis, exclusive manner. Twentieth-century music reveals more technical complexities than music from earlier periods. For the professional conductor it is becoming increasingly impractical to limit oneself to the choral or instrumental area at the exclusion of the other. There are mutually complementary features and advantages in both the choral and instrumental area that can only serve to enhance and refine conducting gesture and technical artistry. These factors can be realized through the study and analysis of a delicate balanced work that requires, on the conductor's part, this synthesis of choral and instrumental technique. The choral-instrumental works of Benjamin Britten help provide this necessary synthesis and discipline. The Cantata Misericordium, in particular, admirably serves this necessary balance of choral-instrumental integration. The modest scoring for small string orchestra, string quartet, piano, harp, timpani, SATB chorus, and tenor and baritone soloists provides the conductor with a rich array of diversity in choral and instrumental technique. According to the Peter Evens article on Benjamin Britten in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians: Twentieth-Century English Masters, The Composer Biography Series, the Cantata Misericordium is "one of Britten's most beautifully realized works"¹ Writings on this work are few and provide only a limited theoretical analysis with no practical application pertaining to the technical aspects of gestural analysis. This project is designed to present a thorough theoretical and practical performance guide leading to performance through mastery of gesture and the integration of choral and orchestral forces. The purpose of the following Lecture-Recital Document is thereby twofold: (I) To provide a detailed compositional analysis and style summary of Benjamin Britten's work from the time of the War Requiem through the Cantata Misericordium. (II) To present a practical performance analysis that presents a study of the more subjective area of gestural analysis and the application of it in the context of the score itself. It is the application of a variety of gestural patterns that shape and refine a conductor's technical expertise. This score, along with other choral works of Benjamin Britten, provides a wealth of gestural analysis and application necessary for today's conductor. ¹The New Grove, "Twentieth Century English Masters", (New York & London: W. W. Norton & Company, 1986), p. 267.
Analysis of HY5 phosphorylation and upstream signaling using phosphomimetics and double mutant analysisFriedrich, Virginia (The University of Arizona., 2017)ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) is a transcription factor that coordinates nitrogen uptake in the roots with carbon fixation in the shoot in Arabidopsis thaliana. HY5 is regulated by phosphorylation, but much about this process remains unknown. Two receptors involved in nitrogen responses may be involved: the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) receptor, which is involved in regulating lateral root initiation in response to nitrogen, and XYLEM INTERMIXED WITH PHLOEM (XIP1), a receptor that is involved in activating nitrogen uptake. In this study, epistasis analysis determined that XIP1 and HY5 most likely function in interconnected pathways involving sucrose. Once identified, hy5 clv1 double mutants will be used in an additional epistasis test to determine how HY5 interacts with CLV1 and XIP1. In addition, this study has focused on using phosphomimetics to analyze two phosphorylation sites, S23 and S36. I have completed the first step of site-directed mutagenesis by successfully piecing together the gene with the substituted amino acid. In the future, lateral root growth assays of the resulting mutants can be employed in order to determine whether the change had phenotypic effects. This study reveals information about the signaling pathways that regulate HY5, a gene involved in the vital process of nitrogen uptake.