A Case for Waste Fraud and Abuse: Stopping the Air Force from Purchasing Spacecraft That Fail Prematurely
Launch Vehicle Failure
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AbstractSpacecraft and launch vehicle reliability is dominated by premature equipment failures and surprise equipment failures that increase risk and decrease safety, mission assurance and effectiveness. Large, complex aerospace systems such as aircraft, launch vehicle and satellites are first subjected to most exhaustive and comprehensive acceptance testing program used in any industry and yet suffer from the highest premature failure rates. Desired/required spacecraft equipment performance is confirmed during factory testing using telemetry, however equipment mission life requirement is not measured but calculated manually and so the equipment that will fail prematurely are not identified and replaced before use. Spacecraft equipment mission-life is not measured and confirmed before launch as performance is but calculated using stochastic equations from probability reliability analysis engineering standards such as MIL STD 217. The change in the engineering practices used to manufacture and test spacecraft necessary to identify the equipment that will fail prematurely include using a prognostic and health management (PHM) program. A PHM includes using predictive algorithms to convert equipment telemetry into a measurement of equipment remaining usable life. A PHM makes the generation, collection, storage and engineering and scientific analysis of equipment performance data "mission critical" rather than just nice-to-have engineering information.
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STOPPING LAUNCH PAD DELAYS, LAUNCH FAILURES, SATELLITE INFANT MORTALITIES AND ON ORBIT SATELLITE FAILURES USING TELEMETRY PROGNOSTIC TECHNOLOGYLosik, Len (International Foundation for Telemetering, 2007-10)Telemetry Prognostics is Failure Prediction using telemetry for launch vehicle and satellite space flight equipment to stop launch failures, launch pad delays, satellite infant mortalities and satellite on orbit failures. This technology characterizes telemetry behaviors that are latent, transient, and go undetected by the most experienced engineering personnel and software diagnostic tools during integration and test, launch operations and on orbit activities stopping launch pad delays, launch failures, infant mortalities and on orbit failures. Telemetry prognostics yield a technology with state-of-the-art innovative techniques for determining critical on-board equipment remaining useful life taking into account system states, attitude reorientations, equipment usage patterns, failure modes and piece part failure characteristics to increase the reliability, usability, serviceability, availability and safety of our nation’s space systems.
An application of adolescent ego-development theory to a parenting model in the examination of failure to thrive.Callor, Suzanne. (The University of Arizona., 1996)This dissertation examined the processes underlying mother-child relationship disturbances among families who had a child with failure to thrive. Belsky's (1984) model of the determinants of parenting was utilized to determine the constructs important in understanding the parenting process. These constructs included mothers' remembered developmental history, personal psychological resources, and the reported difficulty of their child. Adolescent ego-development theory was used to identify the personal psychological resources of the mother. Two samples were used to examine mother-child relationship disturbances, mothers of failure to thrive children (N = 26) and mothers of comparison children (N = 24). The findings were: (1) Remembered developmental history of respondents predicted psychosocial health and individuation in mothers from both groups; (2) Remembered developmental history predicted sense of identity in the failure to thrive group and autonomy in the comparison group; (3) Identity and psychosocial health predicted maternal distress in the failure to thrive group; and (4) Identity and child difficulty predicted mother-child relationship disturbances in both groups. Logistic regression revealed that mothers who rated their children as more difficult were 16 times more likely to have a child with failure to thrive.