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  • Lipedema: friend and foe

    Torre, Yanira Sanchez-De la; Wadeea, Rita; Rosas, Victoria; Herbst, Karen L; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, TREAT Program (WALTER DE GRUYTER GMBH, 2018-03-09)
    Background: Lipedema is a chronic disorder presenting in women during puberty or other times of hormonal change such as childbirth or menopause, characterized by symmetric enlargement of nodular, painful subcutaneous adipose tissue (fat) in the limbs, sparing the hands, feet and trunk. Healthcare providers underdiagnose or misdiagnose lipedema as obesity or lymphedema. Materials and methods: The benefits (friend) and negative aspects (foe) of lipedema were collected from published literature, discussions with women with lipedema, and institutional review board approved evaluation of medical charts of 46 women with lipedema. Results: Lipedema is a foe because lifestyle change does not reduce lipedema fat, the fat is painful, can become obese, causes gait and joint abnormalities, fatigue, lymphedema and psychosocial distress. Hypermobility associated with lipedema can exacerbate joint disease and aortic disease. In contrast, lipedema fat can be a friend as it is associated with relative reductions in obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. In new data collected, lipedema was associated with a low risk of diabetes (2%), dyslipidemia (11.7%) and hypertension (13%) despite an obese average body mass index (BMI) of 35.3 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2). Conclusion: Lipedema is a painful psychologically distressing fat disorder, more foe than friend especially due to associated obesity and lymphedema. More controlled studies are needed to study the mechanisms and treatments for lipedema.
  • A Comparison of the Diel Cycle of Modeled and Measured Latent Heat Flux During the Warm Season in a Colorado Subalpine Forest

    Burns, Sean P.; Swenson, Sean C.; Wieder, William R.; Lawrence, David M.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Knowles, John F.; Blanken, Peter D.; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev, Coll Social & Behav Sci (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018-03-08)
    Precipitation changes the physiological characteristics of an ecosystem. Because land-surface models are often used to project changes in the hydrological cycle, modeling the effect of precipitation on the latent heat flux lambda E is an important aspect of land-surface models. Here we contrast conditionally sampled diel composites of the eddy-covariance fluxes from the Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest AmeriFlux tower with the Community Land Model (CLM, version 4.5). With respect to measured lambda E during the warm season: for the day following above-average precipitation, lambda E was enhanced at midday by approximate to 40 W m(-2) (relative to dry conditions), and nocturnal lambda E increased from approximate to 10 W m(-2) in dry conditions to over 20 W m(-2) in wet conditions. With default settings, CLM4.5 did not successfully model these changes. By increasing the amount of time that rainwater was retained by the canopy/needles, CLM was able to match the observed midday increase in lambda E on a dry day following a wet day. Stable nighttime conditions were problematic for CLM4.5. Nocturnal CLM lambda E had only a small (approximate to 3 W m(-2)) increase during wet conditions, CLM nocturnal friction velocity u(*) was smaller than observed u(*), and CLM canopy air temperature was 2 degrees C less than those measured at the site. Using observed u(*) as input to CLM increased lambda E; however, this caused CLM lambda E to be increased during both wet and dry periods. We suggest that sloped topography and the ever-present drainage flow enhanced nocturnal u(*) and lambda E. Such phenomena would not be properly captured by topographically blind land-surface models, such as CLM.
  • Opiate Use and Escalation of Care in Hospitalized Adults with Acute Heart Failure and Sleep-disordered Breathing (OpiatesHF Study)

    Niroula, Abesh; Garvia, Veronica; Rives-Sanchez, Marisela; Quintos, Abigail; Decker, Meredith; Willes, Leslee; Quan, Stuart F; Sharma, Sunil; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Arizona Resp Ctr (AMER THORACIC SOC, 2019-09-01)
    Rationale: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in adults hospitalized with acute heart failure. Data are limited on the implications of inadvertent opiate use in this population.Objectives: To determine the prevalence and impact of in-hospital opiate use in adults hospitalized for acute heart failure.Methods: From a prospective sleep registry, we selected a sequential group of adult participants who were admitted to the hospital for acute heart failure and received a portable sleep study (PSS) after screening for SDB using the STOP-BANG questionnaire. A retrospective review of charts was performed to assess use of opiates, need for escalation of care (defined as transfer to the intensive care unit [ICU]), 30-day readmission, and length of stay. A logistic regression model was used to calculate propensity scores for each participant with a screening apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) greater than or equal to 10/h. Study endpoints, including escalation of care to the ICU and 30-day hospital readmission, were compared using a χ2 test with stabilized inverse probability-weighted propensity scores to control for potential confounding variables. Results: A total of 301 consecutive adults admitted with acute heart failure between November 2016 and October 2017 underwent PSS after SDB screening. Overall, 125 of 301 (41.5%) received opiates in the hospital, and 149 (49.5%) patients had an AHI greater than or equal to 10/h by PSS (high risk of SDB). In this high-risk group, 47 of 149 (32%) received opiates. Among those with an AHI greater than or equal to 10/h, escalation of care occurred in 12 of 47 (26%) of those who received opiates versus 4 of 102 (4%) of those who did not (P < 0.001; weighted estimate of treatment difference, 23.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.9 to 37.2). Similarly, readmission within 30 days occurred in 7 of 47 (15%) of those who received opiates versus 9 of 102 (9%) of those who did not (P = 0.14; weighted estimate of treatment difference, 8.3%; 95% CI, -4.0 to 20.6). Mean length of stay (days) did not differ between groups (P = 0.61; weighted estimate of treatment difference, -0.3 d; 95% CI, -1.4 to 0.8). Conclusions: In adults admitted with acute heart failure and found to be at high risk of SDB, opiate use in the hospital was highly prevalent and was associated with a greater likelihood of escalation of care.
  • Marco legislativo para la gestión de sedimentos en los Estados Unidos

    Garcia-Chevesich, P. A.; Jones, S. L.; Daniels, J. M.; Valdés-Pineda, R.; Venegas-Quiñones, H.; Pizarro, R.; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (UNIV POLITECNICA VALENCIA, EDITORIAL UPV, 2018-04-30)
    Sediment erosion is a serious issue, with approximately 75 billion tons of soil is eroded annually around the world (Pimentel and Kounang, 1998). Although erosion is a natural process, it can accelerate due to human activity and land use changes. Increasing soil erosion beyond its natural threshold can result in significant environmental degradation and decreased economic productivity. Implementing sediment management laws and practices is critical to significantly decrease soil erosion and preserve environmental resources. In the United States, there is a comprehensive system of laws and regulations at national, state, county, and city level that govern erosion and sediment control. The laws and voluntary incentives outlined in our paper have significantly reduced the negative impacts of sediment carried in urban and storm-generated runoff, have reduced chemical and biological pollutants in sediment transported in aquatic ecosystems, and have improved the air quality in several cities with air pollution problems. Having a multi-faceted approach to monitoring erosion and improving soil management is important for a healthy, productive environment and economy.
  • Search for High-Mass Resonances Decaying to tau nu in pp Collisions at root s=13 TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    Cheu, E; Delitzsch, C M; Johns, K A; Jones, S; Lampl, W; LeBlanc, M; Leone, R; Loch, P; Nayyar, R; Rutherfoord, J P; et al. (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018-04-20)
    A search for high-mass resonances decaying to tau nu using proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV produced by the Large Hadron Collider is presented. Only tau-lepton decays with hadrons in the final state are considered. The data were recorded with the ATLAS detector and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb(-1). No statistically significant excess above the standard model expectation is observed; model-independent upper limits are set on the visible tau nu production cross section. Heavy W' bosons with masses less than 3.7 TeV in the sequential standard model and masses less than 2.2-3.8 TeV depending on the coupling in the nonuniversal Go(221) model are excluded at the 95% credibility level.
  • A search for resonances decaying into a Higgs boson and a new particle X in the XH -> qqbb final state with the ATLAS detector

    Cheu, E; Delitzsch, C M; Johns, K A; Jones, S; Lampl, W; LeBlanc, M; Lei, X; Leone, R; Loch, P; Nayyar, R; et al. (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-02-03)
    A search for heavy resonances decaying into a Higgs boson (H) and a new particle (X) is reported, utilizing 36.1 fb(-1) of proton-proton collision data at root s = 13 TeV collected during 2015 and 2016 with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The particle Xis assumed to decay to a pair of light quarks, and the fully hadronic final state XH -> q (q) over bar 'b (b) over bar is analysed. The search considers the regime of high XH resonance masses, where the X and H bosons are both highly Lorentz-boosted and are each reconstructed using a single jet with large radius parameter. A two-dimensional phase space of XH mass versus X mass is scanned for evidence of a signal, over a range of XH resonance mass values between 1 TeV and 4 TeV, and for X particles with masses from 50 GeV to 1000 GeV. All search results are consistent with the expectations for the background due to Standard Model processes, and 95% CL upper limits are set, as a function of XH and X masses, on the production cross-section of the XH -> q (q) over bar 'b (b) over bar resonance. (c) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • A porcine model of neurofibromatosis type 1 that mimics the human disease

    White, Katherine A; Swier, Vicki J; Cain, Jacob T; Kohlmeyer, Jordan L; Meyerholz, David K; Tanas, Munir R; Uthoff, Johanna; Hammond, Emily; Li, Hua; Rohret, Frank A; et al. (AMER SOC CLINICAL INVESTIGATION INC, 2018-06-21)
    Loss of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene causes the autosomal dominant condition, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Children and adults with NF1 suffer from pathologies including benign and malignant tumors to cognitive deficits, seizures, growth abnormalities, and peripheral neuropathies. NF1 encodes neurofibromin, a Ras-GTPase activating protein, and NF1 mutations result in hyperactivated Ras signaling in patients. Existing NF1 mutant mice mimic individual aspects of NF1, but none comprehensively models the disease. We describe a potentially novel Yucatan miniswine model bearing a heterozygotic mutation in NF1 (exon 42 deletion) orthologous to a mutation found in NF1 patients. NF1(+/ex42del) miniswine phenocopy the wide range of manifestations seen in NF1 patients, including cafe au lait spots, neurofibromas, axillary freckling, and neurological defects in learning and memory. Molecular analyses verified reduced neurofibromin expression in swine NF1(+/ex42del) fibroblasts, as well as hyperactivation of Ras, as measured by increased expression of its downstream effectors, phosphorylated ERK1/2, SIAH, and the checkpoint regulators p53 and p21. Consistent with altered pain signaling in NF1, dysregulation of calcium and sodium channels was observed in dorsal root ganglia expressing mutant NF1. Thus, these NF1(+/ex42del) miniswine recapitulate the disease and provide a unique, much-needed tool to advance the study and treatment of NF1.
  • Evidence for the associated production of the Higgs boson and a top quark pair with the ATLAS detector

    Cheu, E; Delitzsch, C M; Johns, K A; Jones, S; Lampl, W; LeBlanc, M; Leone, R; Loch, P; Nayyar, R; Rutherfoord, J P; et al. (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018-04-09)
    A search for the associated production of the Higgs boson with a top quark pair ((tt) over barH) is reported. The search is performed in multilepton final states using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb(-1) of proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at a center-of-mass energy root s = 13 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. Higgs boson decays to WW*, tau tau, and ZZ* are targeted. Seven final states, categorized by the number and flavor of charged-lepton candidates, are examined for the presence of the Standard Model Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeVand a pair of top quarks. An excess of events over the expected background from Standard Model processes is found with an observed significance of 4.1 standard deviations, compared to an expectation of 2.8 standard deviations. The best fit for the (tt) over barH production cross section is sot (tt) over barH) = 790(-210)(+230) fb, in agreement with the Standard Model prediction of 507(-50)(+35) fb. The combination of this result with other t <overline> tH searches from the ATLAS experiment using the Higgs boson decay modes to b (b) over bar, gamma gamma and ZZ* -> 4l, has an observed significance of 4.2 standard deviations, compared to an expectation of 3.8 standard deviations. This provides evidence for the (tt) over barH production mode.
  • Trackable CEMB-Klean Cotton Transgenic Technology: Afforadable Climate Neutral Agri-biotech Industrialization for Developing Countries

    Qamar, Zahida; Tariq, Muhammad; Rehman, Tahir; Iqbal, Muhammad Shahzad; Sarwar, Muhammad Bilal; Sharif, Muhammad Nauman; Hassan, Zohalb; Ahmad, Ayesha; Zahra, Aiman; Latif, Ayesha; et al. (CENTRE EXCELLENCE MOLECULAR BIOLOGY-CEMB, 2019-05-25)
    Background: Transgenic technology reflects the incorporation of novel useful traits in crop plants like cotton for economic benefits by overcoming the problems including insects' pests and weeds in special. The present study is the success story of the continuous effort of CEMB team started back in the 1990s. Methods: This study includes characterization of a large number of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains taken from local soil and subjected to direct transformation of isolated BT genes into local cotton cultivars. Protocols for transformation into cotton plants were optimized and validated by the development of double gene codon optimized (Cry1Ac and Cry2A) transgenic cotton varieties. Results: The resulting GMOs in the form of CEMB-33, CA-12, CEMB-66 have been approved by Punjab Seed Council in 2013 and 2016 respectively. Double Bt and weedicide resistant cotton harboring CEMB-Modified and codon optimized cp4EPSPS (GTGene). These varieties can tolerate glyphosate spray @ 1900ml per acre without the appearance of necrotic spots/shedding and complete removal of all surrounding weeds in the cotton field is a significant advance to boost cotton production without spending much on insecticides and herbicides. Conclusion: In the current report, two unique sets of primers which amplify 1.1 Kb for CEMB-double Bt genes and 660 bp product for CEMB-Modified cp4EPSPS (GTGene) were tested. CEMB cotton variety CKC-01 is specially designed as low cost and easy to use by local farmer's technology has the potential to revolutionize the cotton growing culture of the country.
  • Search for long-lived, massive particles in events with displaced vertices and mlissing transverse momentum in root S=13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Cheu, E; Delitzsch, C M; Johns, K A; Jones, S; Lampl, W; Lei, X; Leone, R; Loch, P; Nayyar, R; Rutherfoord, J P; et al. (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018-03-28)
    A search for long-lived, massive particles predicted by many theories beyond the Standard Model is presented. The search targets final states with large missing transverse momentum and at least one highmass displaced vertex with five or more tracks, and uses 32.8 fb(-1) of root s = 13 TeV pp collision data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The observed yield is consistent with the expected background. The results are used to extract 95% C.L. exclusion limits on the production of long-lived gluinos with masses up to 2.37 TeV and lifetimes of O(10(-2)) - O(10) ns in a simplified model inspired by split supersymmetry.
  • Allele-specific differences in transcriptome, miRNome, and mitochondrial function in two hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mouse models

    Vakrou, Styliani; Fukunaga, Ryuya; Foster, D Brian; Sorensen, Lars; Liu, Yamin; Guan, Yufan; Woldemichael, Kirubel; Pineda-Reyes, Roberto; Liu, Ting; Tardiff, Jill C; et al. (AMER SOC CLINICAL INVESTIGATION INC, 2018-03-22)
    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) stems from mutations in sarcomeric proteins that elicit distinct biophysical sequelae, which in turn may yield radically different intracellular signaling and molecular pathologic profiles. These signaling events remain largely unaddressed by clinical trials that have selected patients based on clinical HCM diagnosis, irrespective of genotype. In this study, we determined how two mouse models of HCM differ, with respect to cellular/mitochondrial function and molecular biosignatures, at an early stage of disease. We show that hearts from young R92W-TnT and R403Q-αMyHC mutation–bearing mice differ in their transcriptome, miRNome, intracellular redox environment, mitochondrial antioxidant defense mechanisms, and susceptibility to mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Pathway analysis of mRNA-sequencing data and microRNA profiles indicate that R92W-TnT mutants exhibit a biosignature consistent with activation of profibrotic TGF-β signaling. Our results suggest that the oxidative environment and mitochondrial impairment in young R92W-TnT mice promote activation of TGF-β signaling that foreshadows a pernicious phenotype in young individuals. Of the two mutations, R92W-TnT is more likely to benefit from anti–TGF-β signaling effects conferred by angiotensin receptor blockers and may be responsive to mitochondrial antioxidant strategies in the early stage of disease. Molecular and functional profiling may therefore serve as aids to guide precision therapy for HCM.
  • Costs and benefits of alternative food handling tactics help explain facultative exploitation of pollination mutualisms

    Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Irwin, Rebecca E; Bronstein, Judith L; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (WILEY, 2018-05-25)
    Many mutualisms are taken advantage of by organisms that take rewards from their partners but provide no benefit in return. In the absence of traits that limit exploitation, facultative exploiters (partners that can either exploit or cooperate) are widely predicted by mutualism theory to choose an exploitative strategy, potentially threatening mutualism stability. However, it is unknown whether facultative exploiters choose to exploit, and, if so, make this choice because it is the most beneficial strategy for them. We explored these questions in a subalpine plant‐insect community in which individuals of several bumble bee species visit flowers both “legitimately” (entering via the flower opening, picking up and depositing pollen, and hence behaving mutualistically) and via nectar robbing (creating holes through corollas or using an existing hole, bypassing stigmas and anthers). We applied foraging theory to (1) quantify handling costs, benefits and foraging efficiencies incurred by three bumble bee species as they visited flowers legitimately or robbed nectar in cage experiments, and (2) determine whether these efficiencies matched the food handling tactics these bee species employed in the field. Relative efficiencies of legitimate and robbing tactics depended on the combination of bee and plant species. In some cases (Bombus mixtus visiting Corydalis caseana or Mertensia ciliata), the robbing tactic permitted more efficient nectar removal. As both mutualism and foraging theory would predict, in the field, B. mixtus visiting C. caseana were observed more frequently robbing than foraging legitimately. However, for Bombus flavifrons visiting M. ciliata, the expectation from mutualism theory did not hold: legitimate visitation was the more efficient tactic. Legitimate visitation to M. ciliata was in fact more frequently observed in free‐flying B. flavifrons. Free‐flying B. mixtus also frequently visited M. ciliata flowers legitimately. This may reflect lower nectar volumes in robbed than unrobbed flowers in the field. These results suggest that a foraging ecology perspective is informative to the choice of tactics facultative exploiters make. In contrast, the simple expectation that exploiters should always have an advantage, and hence could threaten mutualism persistence unless they are deterred or punished, may not be broadly applicable.
  • The GFDL Global Ocean and Sea Ice Model OM4.0: Model Description and Simulation Features

    Adcroft, Alistair; Anderson, Whit; Balaji, V.; Blanton, Chris; Bushuk, Mitchell; Dufour, Carolina O.; Dunne, John P.; Griffies, Stephen M.; Hallberg, Robert; Harrison, Matthew J.; et al. (AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019-10-18)
    We document the configuration and emergent simulation features from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) OM4.0 ocean/sea ice model. OM4 serves as the ocean/sea ice component for the GFDL climate and Earth system models. It is also used for climate science research and is contributing to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project version 6 Ocean Model Intercomparison Project. The ocean component of OM4 uses version 6 of the Modular Ocean Model and the sea ice component uses version 2 of the Sea Ice Simulator, which have identical horizontal grid layouts (Arakawa C-grid). We follow the Coordinated Ocean-sea ice Reference Experiments protocol to assess simulation quality across a broad suite of climate-relevant features. We present results from two versions differing by horizontal grid spacing and physical parameterizations: OM4p5 has nominal 0.5 degrees spacing and includes mesoscale eddy parameterizations and OM4p25 has nominal 0.25 degrees spacing with no mesoscale eddy parameterization. Modular Ocean Model version 6 makes use of a vertical Lagrangian-remap algorithm that enables general vertical coordinates. We show that use of a hybrid depth-isopycnal coordinate reduces the middepth ocean warming drift commonly found in pure z* vertical coordinate ocean models. To test the need for the mesoscale eddy parameterization used in OM4p5, we examine the results from a simulation that removes the eddy parameterization. The water mass structure and model drift are physically degraded relative to OM4p5, thus supporting the key role for a mesoscale closure at this resolution.
  • Modulation of subsets of cardiac B lymphocytes improves cardiac function after acute injury

    Adamo, Luigi; Staloch, Lora J; Rocha-Resende, Cibele; Matkovich, Scot J; Jiang, Wenlong; Bajpai, Geetika; Weinheimer, Carla J; Kovacs, Attila; Schilling, Joel D; Barger, Philip M; et al. (AMER SOC CLINICAL INVESTIGATION INC, 2018-06-07)
    Despite the long-standing recognition that the immune response to acute myocardial injury contributes to adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling, it has not been possible to effectively target this clinically. Using 2 different in vivo models of acute myocardial injury, we show that pirfenidone confers beneficial effects in the murine heart through an unexpected mechanism that depends on cardiac B lymphocytes. Naive hearts contained a large population of CD19+CD11b–CD23–CD21–IgD+IgMlo lymphocytes, and 2 smaller populations of CD19+CD11b+ B1a and B1b cells. In response to tissue injury, there was an increase in neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, as well as an increase in CD19+ CD11b– B lymphocytes. Treatment with pirfenidone had no effect on the number of neutrophils, monocytes, or macrophages, but decreased CD19+CD11b– lymphocytes. B cell depletion abrogated the beneficial effects of pirfenidone. In vitro studies demonstrated that stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and extracts from necrotic cells activated CD19+ lymphocytes through a TIRAP-dependent pathway. Treatment with pirfenidone attenuated this activation of B cells. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity of myocardial B lymphocytes within the inflammatory infiltrate triggered by cardiac injury and suggest that pirfenidone exerts beneficial effects in the heart through a unique mechanism that involves modulation of cardiac B lymphocytes.
  • Chikungunya: important lessons from the Jamaican experience

    Duncan, Jacqueline; Gordon-Johnson, Kelly Ann; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Ernst, Kacey; McMorris, Nathlee; Grant, Andriene; Graham, Marcia; Chin, Daisylyn; Webster-Kerr, Karen; et al. (PAN AMER HEALTH ORGANIZATION, 2017-08-21)
    Objectives. To describe the clinical presentation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) illness in adults during the 2014 outbreak in Jamaica and to determine the predictive value of the case definition. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using clinical data from suspected cases of CHIKV that were reported to the Ministry of Health in April - December 2014. In addition, charts were reviewed of all individuals over 15 years of age with suspected CHIKV based on a diagnosis of CHIKV or "acute viral illness" that presented to four major health centers in Jamaica during the week prior to and the peak week of the epidemic. Data abstracted from these charts using a modified CHIKV Case Investigation Form included demographics, clinical findings, and laboratory tests. Results. In 2014, the Ministry of Health of Jamaica received 4 447 notifications of CHIKV infection. PCR testing was conducted on 137 suspected CHIKV cases (56 men and 81 women; median age 28 years) and was positive for 89 (65%) persons. In all, 205 health charts were identified that met the selection criteria (51 men and 154 women, median age 43 years). The most commonly reported symptoms were arthralgia (86%) and fever (76%). Of those who met the epidemiologic case definition for CHIKV as defined by the Pan American Health Organization, only 34% had this diagnosis recorded. Acute viral illness was the most frequently recorded diagnosis (n = 79; 58%). Conclusions. Broader case definitions for acute CHIKV illness may be needed to identify suspected cases during an outbreak. Standardized data collection forms and validation of case definitions may be useful for future outbreaks.
  • Variation in range size and dispersal capabilities of microbial taxa

    Choudoir, Mallory J; Barberán, Albert; Menninger, Holly L; Dunn, Rob R; Fierer, Noah; Univ Arizona, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci (WILEY, 2017-11-21)
    Geographic range size can span orders of magnitude for plant and animal species, with the study of why range sizes vary having preoccupied biogeographers for decades. In contrast, there have been few comparable studies of how range size varies across microbial taxa and what traits may be associated with this variation. We determined the range sizes of 74,134 bacterial and archaeal taxa found in settled dust collected from 1,065 locations across the United States. We found that most microorganisms have small ranges and few have large ranges, a pattern similar to the range size distributions commonly observed for macrobes. However, contrary to expectations, those microbial taxa that were locally abundant did not necessarily have larger range sizes. The observed differences in microbial range sizes were generally predictable from taxonomic identity, phenotypic traits, genomic attributes, and habitat preferences, findings that provide insight into the factors shaping patterns of microbial biogeography.
  • Nuclear physics with an effective field theory around the unitarity limit

    van Kolck, U; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (SOC ITALIANA FISICA, 2019-03)
    I outline the first steps in the process of describing nuclear ground states with an expansion around two-body unitarity. At leading order, the effective field theory displays discrete scale invariance with a single dimensionful parameter, which determines all ground-state and low-lying excitation energies. Sub-leading corrections are smaller and perturbative. Results for light nuclei, large bosonic clusters at unitarity, and nuclear matter are reported.
  • Teacher learning under co-construction: Affordances of digital social annotated reading

    Michelson, Kristen; Dupuy, Beatrice; Univ Arizona, French & Appl Linguist (ADALSIC, 2018-09)
    Following calls for more extensive professional development (PD) opportunities for novice L2 teaching assistants (TA), this article reports on a PD activity implemented with six French TAs who read and discussed scholarly literature related to multiliteracies pedagogies through a digital social annotated reading (DSAR) platform in a discussion section concurrent to their methods course. Using the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework developed by Garrison et al. (2000), participants' margin dialogues around academic articles were analyzed for indicators of cognitive, social, and teaching presence in order to examine the type and quality of knowledge co-construction that could emerge within this community of TAs. Findings reveal notably high levels of cognitive presence with respect to social and teaching presence, and compared to prior studies examining cognitive presence in more traditional types of digitally mediated discussion environments, such as discussion forums.
  • Short-Term Longitudinal Relationships Between Smartphone Use/Dependency and Psychological Well-Being Among Late Adolescents

    Lapierre, Matthew A; Zhao, Pengfei; Custer, Benjamin E; Univ Arizona (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2019-11-01)
    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the short-term longitudinal pathways between smartphone use, smartphone dependency, depressive symptoms, and loneliness among late adolescents. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal survey was used using adolescents between the ages of 17 and 20 years. The interval between wave 1 and wave 2 was between 2.5 and 3 months. Using convenience sampling, the total number of participants who completed both waves of data collection was 346. Validated measures assessed smartphone dependency, smartphone use, depressive symptoms, and loneliness. The longitudinal model was tested using path modeling techniques. Results: Among the 346 participants (33.6% male, mean [standard deviation] age at wave 1, 19.11 [.75] years, 56.9% response rate), longitudinal path models revealed that wave 1 smartphone dependency predicted loneliness (beta = .08, standard error [SE] = .05, p = .043) and depressive symptoms (beta = .11, SE = .05, p = .010) at wave 2, loneliness at wave 1 predicted depressive symptoms at wave 2 (beta = .21, SE = .05, p < .001), and smartphone use at wave 1 predicted smartphone dependency at wave 2 (beta = .08, SE = .05, p = .011). Conclusions: Considering the rates of smartphone ownership/use among late adolescents (95%), the association between smartphone use and smartphone dependency, and the deleterious effects of loneliness and depression within this population, health practitioners should communicate with patients and parents about the links between smartphone engagement and psychological well-being. (C) 2019 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

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