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Recent Submissions

  • Persistent sex disparities in clinical outcomes with percutaneous coronary intervention: Insights from 6.6 million PCI procedures in the United States.

    Potts, Jessica; Sirker, Alex; Martinez, Sara C; Gulati, Martha; Alasnag, Mirvat; Rashid, Muhammad; Kwok, Chun Shing; Ensor, Joie; Burke, Danielle L; Riley, Richard D; Holmvang, Lene; Mamas, Mamas A; Univ Arizona, Div Cardiol (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018-09-04)
    Prior studies have reported inconsistencies in the baseline risk profile, comorbidity burden and their association with clinical outcomes in women compared to men. More importantly, there is limited data around the sex differences and how these have changed over time in contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) practice. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify all PCI procedures based on ICD-9 procedure codes in the United States between 2004-2014 in adult patients. Descriptive statistics were used to describe sex-based differences in baseline characteristics and comorbidity burden of patients. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to investigate the association between these differences and in-hospital mortality, complications, length of stay and total hospital charges. Among 6,601,526 patients, 66% were men and 33% were women. Women were more likely to be admitted with diagnosis of NSTEMI (non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction), were on average 5 years older (median age 68 compared to 63) and had higher burden of comorbidity defined by Charlson score ≥3. Women also had higher in-hospital crude mortality (2.0% vs 1.4%) and any complications compared to men (11.1% vs 7.0%). These trends persisted in our adjusted analyses where women had a significant increase in the odds of in-hospital mortality men (OR 1.20 (95% CI 1.16,1.23) and major bleeding (OR 1.81 (95% CI 1.77,1.86). In this national unselected contemporary PCI cohort, there are significant sex-based differences in presentation, baseline characteristics and comorbidity burden. These differences do not fully account for the higher in-hospital mortality and procedural complications observed in women.
  • Origin and residence time of groundwater based on stable and radioactive isotopes in the Heihe River Basin, northwestern China

    Zhao, L.J.; Eastoe, C.J.; Liu, X.H.; Wang, L.X.; Wang, N.L.; Xie, C.; Song, Y.X.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2018-08)
    Study region: The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is one of several arid basins in which runoff from the Qilian Mountain recharges basin aquifers. Study focus: A basin-wide dataset (delta O-18, D, H-3 and C-14) is used to determine the present and past relationships between precipitation, surface runoff and recharge, to constrain groundwater residence times, and to infer Holocene climate change. New hydrological insights for the region: Groundwater in the upper region (UR) of HRB has (delta O-18, delta D) clustered near (-8.0, -46%), consistent with present-day Qilian Mountain precipitation. Tritium of groundwater > 26 TU indicates post-bomb recharge. Mountain runoff provides recharge to alluvial-fluvial aquifers in the Middle Region (MR) and Lower Region (LR) along the main river of the HRB. Between 1986 and 2001, anthropogenic tritium releases affected north-central China, affecting HRB precipitation. Irrigation reflux strongly affects isotopes in basin groundwater, generating anomalous samples with low tritium and post-bomb C-14, or high tritium and pre-bomb C-14. Stable isotopes in Qilian Mountain runoff have evolved in response to climate change. A 1% shift in delta O-18 since 1960 coincides with drying of the Aral Sea, possibly affecting moisture advected from the west. A 6-8% shift before 12 ka may indicate the former extent of the South Asian monsoon.
  • Optical harmonic generation in monolayer group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides

    Autere, Anton; Jussila, Henri; Marini, Andrea; Saavedra, J. R. M.; Dai, Yunyun; Säynätjoki, Antti; Karvonen, Lasse; Yang, He; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Lipsanen, Harri; Kieu, Khanh; de Abajo, F. Javier García; Sun, Zhipei; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018-09-17)
    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) exhibit high nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities. Experiments on MoS2 have indeed revealed very large second-order (chi((2))) and third-order (chi((3)))optical susceptibilities. However, third-harmonic generation results of other layered TMDs have not been reported. Furthermore, the reported chi((2)) and chi((3)) of MoS2 vary by several orders of magnitude, and a reliable quantitative comparison of optical nonlinearities across different TMDs has remained elusive. Here, we investigate second- and third-harmonic generation, and three-photon photoluminescence in TMDs. Specifically, we present an experimental study of chi((2)) and chi((3)) of four common TMD materials (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2) by placing different TMD flakes in close proximity to each other on a common substrate, allowing their NLO properties to be accurately obtained from a single measurement. chi((2)) and chi((3)) of the four monolayer TMDs have been compared, indicating that they exhibit distinct NLO responses. We further present theoretical simulations of these susceptibilities in qualitative agreement with the measurements. Our comparative studies of the NLO responses of different two-dimensional layered materials allow us to select the best candidates for atomic-scale nonlinear photonic applications, such as frequency conversion and all-optical signal processing.
  • Novelty and Foreseeing Research Trends: The Case of Astrophysics and Astronomy

    Varga, Attila; Univ Arizona, Sch Sociol (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-05)
    Metrics based on reference lists of research articles or on keywords have been used to predict citation impact. The concept behind such metrics is that original ideas stem from the reconfiguration of the structure of past knowledge, and therefore atypical combinations in the reference lists, keywords, or classification codes indicate future high impact research. The current paper serves as an introduction to this line of research for astronomers and also addresses some of the methodological questions in this field of innovation studies. It is still not clear if the choice of particular indexes, such as references to journals, articles, or specific bibliometric classification codes affects the relationship between atypical combinations and citation impact. To understand more aspects of the innovation process, a new metric has been devised to measure to what extent researchers are able to anticipate the changing combinatorial trends of the future. Results show that the variant of the latter anticipation scores that is based on paper combinations is a good predictor of the future citation impact of scholarly works. The study also shows that the effects of tested indexes vary with the aggregation levels that were used to construct them. A detailed analysis of combinatorial novelty in the field reveals that certain sub-fields of astronomy and astrophysics have different roles in the reconfiguration of past knowledge.
  • MMARGE: Motif Mutation Analysis for Regulatory Genomic Elements

    Link, Verena M; Romanoski, Casey E; Metzler, Dirk; Glass, Christopher K; Univ Arizona, Dept Cellular & Mol Med (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-08-21)
    Cell-specific patterns of gene expression are determined by combinatorial actions of sequence specific transcription factors at cis-regulatory elements. Studies indicate that relatively simple combinations of lineage-determining transcription factors (LDTFs) play dominant roles in the selection of enhancers that establish cell identities and functions. LDTFs require collaborative interactions with additional transcription factors to mediate enhancer function, but the identities of these factors are often unknown. We have shown that natural genetic variation between individuals has great utility for discovering collaborative transcription factors. Here, we introduce MMARGE (Motif Mutation Analysis of Regulatory Genomic Elements), the first publicly available suite of software tools that integrates genome-wide genetic variation with epigenetic data to identify collaborative transcription factor pairs. MMARGE is optimized to work with chromatin accessibility assays (such as ATAC-seq or DNase I hypersensitivity), as well as transcription factor binding data collected by ChIP-seq. Herein, we provide investigators with rationale for each step in the MMARGE pipeline and key differences for analysis of datasets with different experimental designs. We demonstrate the utility of MMARGE using mouse peritoneal macrophages, liver cells, and human lymphoblastoid cells. MMARGE provides a powerful tool to identify combinations of cell type-specific transcription factors while simultaneously interpreting functional effects of non-coding genetic variation.
  • Mapping saguaro cacti using digital aerial imagery in Saguaro National Park

    Carter, Forest; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog & Dev; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (SPIE-SOC PHOTO-OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS, 2018-09-10)
    Population research on the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) has historically been limited to repeat monitoring efforts in small plots with areas of 1 to 4 hectares. Large extent saguaro censuses of areas >2.59 km(2) have not been undertaken. This research developed an automated shadow detection method for mapping mature saguaros in digital aerial imagery using saguaro shadows as proxies for saguaro locations. The shadow method detected 446,092 saguaro shadows in aerial imagery of 231 km(2) of the Saguaro National Park (SNP) near Tucson, Arizona. The results were validated against saguaro location data in 11 small plots provided by SNP staff. The shadow method correctly identified 58% of mature saguaros in these 11 plots. Twenty-one percent of the saguaros in the plots did not produce a shadow signature in the imagery. Fieldwork was conducted in two plot locations to investigate reasons why these mature saguaros failed to produce shadow signatures in the aerial imagery, which showed that vegetation interference, rocky slopes, and shadow alignments were the primary factors that precluded shadow signatures from appearing in the imagery. This research provides a methodology for automated large-area saguaro mapping, which will be useful in long-term population monitoring and saguaro ecology research. (C) 2018 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
  • Machine-learning-based Brokers for Real-time Classification of the LSST Alert Stream

    Narayan, Gautham; Zaidi, Tayeb; Soraisam, Monika D.; Wang, Zhe; Lochner, Michelle; Matheson, Thomas; Saha, Abhijit; Yang, Shuo; Zhao, Zhenge; Kececioglu, John; Scheidegger, Carlos; Snodgrass, Richard T.; Axelrod, Tim; Jenness, Tim; Maier, Robert S.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Seaman, Robert L.; Evans, Eric Michael; Singh, Navdeep; Taylor, Clark; Toeniskoetter, Jackson; Welch, Eric; Zhu, Songzhe; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ; Univ Arizona, Dept Math; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-05)
    The unprecedented volume and rate of transient events that will be discovered by the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) demand that the astronomical community update its follow-up paradigm. Alert-brokers-automated software system to sift through, characterize, annotate, and prioritize events for follow-up-will be critical tools for managing alert streams in the LSST era. The Arizona-NOAO Temporal Analysis and Response to Events System (ANTARES) is one such broker. In this work, we develop a machine learning pipeline to characterize and classify variable and transient sources only using the available multiband optical photometry. We describe three illustrative stages of the pipeline, serving the three goals of early, intermediate, and retrospective classification of alerts. The first takes the form of variable versus transient categorization, the second a multiclass typing of the combined variable and transient data set, and the third a purity-driven subtyping of a transient class. Although several similar algorithms have proven themselves in simulations, we validate their performance on real observations for the first time. We quantitatively evaluate our pipeline on sparse, unevenly sampled, heteroskedastic data from various existing observational campaigns, and demonstrate very competitive classification performance. We describe our progress toward adapting the pipeline developed in this work into a real-time broker working on live alert streams from time-domain surveys.
  • Increases in plasma corin levels following experimental myocardial infarction reflect the severity of ischemic injury

    Wang, Dong; Gladysheva, Inna P.; Sullivan, Ryan D.; Fan, Tai-Hwang M.; Mehta, Radhika M.; Tripathi, Ranjana; Sun, Yao; Reed, Guy L.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Internal Med (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018-09-07)
    Following acute myocardial infarction, clinical studies show alterations in the blood levels of corin, a cardiac-selective activator of the natriuretic peptides pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (pro-ANP) and pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP). However, the temporal changes in circulating and cardiac corin levels and their relationships to the severity of myocardial infarction have not been studied. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between cardiac and circulating corin levels and their association with cardiac systolic function and infarct size during the early phase of acute myocardial infarction (<72 h) in a translationally relevant induced coronary ligation mouse model. This acute phase timeline was chosen to correlate with the clinical practice within which blood samples are collected from myocardial infarction patients. Heart and plasma samples were examined at 3, 24, and 72 hours post acute myocardial infarction. Plasma corin levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, transcripts of cardiac corin, pro-ANP and pro-BNP by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, cardiac corin expression by immunohistology, infarct size by histology and heart function by echocardiography. Plasma corin levels were significantly increased at 3 (P<0.05), 24 (P<0.001), and 72 hours (P<0.01) post-acute myocardial infarction. In contrast, cardiac corin transcript levels dropped by 5% (P>0.05), 69% (P<0.001) and 65% (P<0.001) and immunoreactive cardiac corin protein levels dropped by 30% (P<0.05), 76% (P<0.001) and 75% (P<0.001), while cardiac pro-ANP and pro-BNP transcript levels showed an opposite pattern. Plasma corin levels were negatively correlated with immunoreactive cardiac corin (P<0.01), ejection fraction (P<0.05) and fractional shortening (P<0.05), but positively correlated with infarct size (P<0.01). In conclusion, acute myocardial infarction induces rapid increases in plasma corin and decreases in cardiac corin levels. In the early phase of acute myocardial infarction, plasma corin levels are inversely correlated with heart function and may reflect the severity of myocardial damage.
  • Imaging-based clusters in current smokers of the COPD cohort associate with clinical characteristics: the SubPopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS)

    Haghighi, Babak; Choi, Sanghun; Choi, Jiwoong; Hoffman, Eric A.; Comellas, Alejandro P.; Newell, John D.; Graham Barr, R.; Bleecker, Eugene; Cooper, Christopher B.; Couper, David; Han, Mei Lan; Hansel, Nadia N.; Kanner, Richard E.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Kleerup, Eric A. C.; Martinez, Fernando J.; O’Neal, Wanda; Rennard, Stephen I.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Lin, Ching-Long; Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Div Genet Genom & Precis Med (BMC, 2018-09-18)
    Background: Classification of COPD is usually based on the severity of airflow, which may not sensitively differentiate subpopulations. Using a multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA), we aim to identify subpopulations for current smokers with COPD. Methods: Among the SPIROMICS subjects, we analyzed computed tomography images at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) of 284 current smokers. Functional variables were derived from registration of TLC and RV images, e.g. functional small airways disease (fSAD%). Structural variables were assessed at TLC images, e.g. emphysema and airway wall thickness and diameter. We employed an unsupervised method for clustering. Results: Four clusters were identified. Cluster 1 had relatively normal airway structures; Cluster 2 had an increase of fSAD% and wall thickness; Cluster 3 exhibited a further increase of fSAD% but a decrease of wall thickness and airway diameter; Cluster 4 had a significant increase of fSAD% and emphysema. Clinically, Cluster 1 showed normal FEV1/FVC and low exacerbations. Cluster 4 showed relatively low FEV1/FVC and high exacerbations. While Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 showed similar exacerbations, Cluster 2 had the highest BMI among all clusters. Conclusions: Association of imaging-based clusters with existing clinical metrics suggests the sensitivity of MICA in differentiating subpopulations.
  • Higher levels of trait emotional awareness are associated with more efficient global information integration throughout the brain: a graph-theoretic analysis of resting state functional connectivity

    Smith, Ryan; Sanova, Anna; Alkozei, Anna; Lane, Richard D; Killgore, William D S; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychiat (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-07)
    Previous studies have suggested that trait differences in emotional awareness (tEA) are clinically relevant, and associated with differences in neural structure/function. While multiple leading theories suggest that conscious awareness requires widespread information integration across the brain, no study has yet tested the hypothesis that higher tEA corresponds to more efficient brain-wide information exchange. Twenty-six healthy volunteers (13 females) underwent a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS; a measure of tEA) and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; a measure of general intelligence quotient [IQ]). Using a whole-brain (functionally defined) region of interest (ROI) atlas, we computed several graph theory metrics to assess the efficiency of brain-wide information exchange. After statistically controlling for differences in age, gender and IQ we first observed a significant relationship between higher LEAS scores and greater average degree (i.e. overall whole-brain network density). When controlling for average degree, we found that higher LEAS scores were also associated with shorter average path lengths across the collective network of all included ROIs. These results jointly suggest that individuals with higher tEA display more efficient global information exchange throughout the brain. This is consistent with the idea that conscious awareness requires global accessibility of represented information.
  • ER-associated ubiquitin ligase HRD1 programs liver metabolism by targeting multiple metabolic enzymes

    Wei, Juncheng; Yuan, Yanzhi; Chen, Lu; Xu, Yuanming; Zhang, Yuehui; Wang, Yajun; Yang, Yanjie; Peek, Clara Bien; Diebold, Lauren; Yang, Yi; Gao, Beixue; Jin, Chaozhi; Melo-Cardenas, Johanna; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Zhang, Donna D.; Pan, Hui; Zhang, Kezhong; Wang, Jian; He, Fuchu; Fang, Deyu; Univ Arizona, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-09-10)
    The HMG-CoA reductase degradation protein 1 (HRD1) has been identified as a key enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of misfolded proteins, but its organ-specific physiological functions remain largely undefined. Here we show that mice with HRD1 deletion specifically in the liver display increased energy expenditure and are resistant to HFD-induced obesity and liver steatosis and insulin resistance. Proteomic analysis identifies a HRD1 interactome, a large portion of which includes metabolic regulators. Loss of HRD1 results in elevated ENTPD5, CPT2, RMND1, and HSD17B4 protein levels and a consequent hyperactivation of both AMPK and AKT pathways. Genome-wide mRNA sequencing revealed that HRD1-deficiency reprograms liver metabolic gene expression profiles, including suppressing genes involved in glycogenesis and lipogenesis and upregulating genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. We propose HRD1 as a liver metabolic regulator and a potential drug target for obesity, fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance associated with the metabolic syndrome.
  • Employing Bessel-Gaussian Beams to Improve Physical-Layer Security in Free-Space Optical Communications

    Wang, Tyan-Lin; Gariano, John A.; Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2018-09)
    Physical-layer security in free-space optical communications channels can be compromised when an eavesdropper performs optical beam-splitting attacks over an atmospheric channel. Previous simulations have shown that Laguerre-Gaussian orbital angular momentum-carrying beams can provide higher secrecy capacities compared to that of ordinary Gaussian beams. In this paper, we determine if Bessel-Gaussian beams can provide further improvement over their corresponding Laguerre-Gaussian counterparts. Using computer simulations and experiments with spatial light modulators, an increase in secrecy capacity of 10 to 30 bits/sec/Hz in the weak to medium turbulence regimes is demonstrated. This verifies that Bessel-Gaussian beams have more resiliency to atmospheric turbulence effects than Laguerre-Gaussian beams. Furthermore, research on optimizing the quality of these beams can help to realize a practical system for more secure communications.
  • Diverse Protoplanetary Disk Morphology Produced by a Jupiter-mass Planet

    Bae, Jaehan; Pinilla, Paola; Birnstiel, Tilman; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-09-10)
    Combining hydrodynamic planet-disk interaction simulations with dust evolution models, we show that protoplanetary disks with a giant planet can reveal diverse morphology in (sub)millimeter continuum, including a full disk without significant radial structure, a transition disk with an inner cavity, a disk with a single gap and a central continuum peak, and a disk with multiple rings and gaps. Such diversity originates from (1) the level of viscous transport in the disk, which determines the number of gaps a planet can open; (2) the size and spatial distributions of grains determined by the coagulation, fragmentation, and radial drift, which in turn affects the emissivity of the disk at (sub)millimeter wavelengths; and (3) the angular resolution used to observe the disk. In particular, our results show that disks with the same underlying gas distribution can have very different grain size/spatial distributions and thus appearance in continuum, depending on the interplay among coagulation, fragmentation, and radial drift. This suggests that proper treatments for the grain growth have to be included in models of protoplanetary disks concerning continuum properties and that complementary molecular line observations are highly desired in addition to continuum observations to reveal the true nature of disks. The fact that a single planet can produce diverse disk morphology emphasizes the need to search for more direct, localized signatures of planets in order to confirm (or dispute) the planetary origin of observed ringed substructures.
  • Divergent behavior amid convergent evolution: A case of four desert rodents learning to respond to known and novel vipers.

    Bleicher, Sonny Shlomo; Kotler, Burt P; Shalev, Omri; Dixon, Austin; Embar, Keren; Brown, Joel S; Univ Arizona, Tumamoc People & Habitat, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018-08-20)
    Desert communities world-wide are used as natural laboratories for the study of convergent evolution, yet inferences drawn from such studies are necessarily indirect. Here, we brought desert organisms together (rodents and vipers) from two deserts (Mojave and Negev). Both predators and prey in the Mojave have adaptations that give them competitive advantage compared to their middle-eastern counterparts. Heteromyid rodents of the Mojave, kangaroo rats and pocket mice, have fur-lined cheek pouches that allow them to carry larger loads of seeds under predation risk compared to gerbilline rodents of the Negev Deserts. Sidewinder rattlesnakes have heat-sensing pits, allowing them to hunt better on moonless nights when their Negev sidewinding counterpart, the Saharan horned vipers, are visually impaired. In behavioral-assays, we used giving-up density (GUD) to gauge how each species of rodent perceived risk posed by known and novel snakes. We repeated this for the same set of rodents at first encounter and again two months later following intensive "natural" exposure to both snake species. Pre-exposure, all rodents identified their evolutionarily familiar snake as a greater risk than the novel one. However, post-exposure all identified the heat-sensing sidewinder rattlesnake as a greater risk. The heteromyids were more likely to avoid encounters with, and discern the behavioral difference among, snakes than their gerbilline counterparts.
  • Discovery of Extended Infrared Emission around the Neutron Star RXJ0806.4–4123

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Ertan, Ü.; Çalışkan, S.; Luhman, K. L.; Williams, C. C.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-09-20)
    Following up on a faint detection of a near-infrared (NIR) source at the position of the X-ray thermal isolated neutron star RXJ0806.4-4123, we present new Hubble Space Telescope observations in the H-band. The NIR source is unambiguously detected with a Vega magnitude of 23.7 +/- 0.2 (flux density of 0.40 +/- 0.06 mu Jy at lambda = 1.54 mu m). The source position is coincident with the neutron star position, and the implied NIR flux is strongly in excess of what one would expect from an extrapolation of the optical-UV spectrum of RXJ0806.4-4123. The NIR source is extended, with a size of at least 0 8, and shows some asymmetry. The conservative upper limit on the flux contribution of a point source is 50%. Emission from gas and dust in the ambient diffuse interstellar medium can be excluded as a cause for the extended emission. The source parameters are consistent with an interpretation as either the first NIR-only detected pulsar wind nebula or the first resolved disk around an isolated neutron star.
  • Discovery of a planetary-mass companion within the gap of the transition disk around PDS 70

    Keppler, M.; Benisty, M.; Müller, A.; Henning, Th.; van Boekel, R.; Cantalloube, F.; Ginski, C.; van Holstein, R. G.; Maire, A.-L.; Pohl, A.; Samland, M.; Avenhaus, H.; Baudino, J.-L.; Boccaletti, A.; de Boer, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Desidera, S.; Langlois, M.; Lazzoni, C.; Marleau, G.-D.; Mordasini, C.; Pawellek, N.; Stolker, T.; Vigan, A.; Zurlo, A.; Birnstiel, T.; Brandner, W.; Feldt, M.; Flock, M.; Girard, J.; Gratton, R.; Hagelberg, J.; Isella, A.; Janson, M.; Juhasz, A.; Kemmer, J.; Kral, Q.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Launhardt, R.; Matter, A.; Ménard, F.; Milli, J.; Mollière, P.; Olofsson, J.; Pérez, L.; Pinilla, P.; Pinte, C.; Quanz, S. P.; Schmidt, T.; Udry, S.; Wahhaj, Z.; Williams, J. P.; Buenzli, E.; Cudel, M.; Dominik, C.; Galicher, R.; Kasper, M.; Lannier, J.; Mesa, D.; Mouillet, D.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Salter, G.; Sissa, E.; Wildi, F.; Abe, L.; Antichi, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudoz, P.; Bazzon, A.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Blanchard, P.; Brems, S. S.; Buey, T.; De Caprio, V.; Carbillet, M.; Carle, M.; Cascone, E.; Cheetham, A.; Claudi, R.; Costille, A.; Delboulbé, A.; Dohlen, K.; Fantinel, D.; Feautrier, P.; Fusco, T.; Giro, E.; Gluck, L.; Gry, C.; Hubin, N.; Hugot, E.; Jaquet, M.; Le Mignant, D.; Llored, M.; Madec, F.; Magnard, Y.; Martinez, P.; Maurel, D.; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron (EDP SCIENCES S A, 2018-09-12)
    Context. Young circumstellar disks are the birthplaces of planets. Their study is of prime interest to understand the physical and chemical conditions under which planet formation takes place. Only very few detections of planet candidates within these disks exist, and most of them are currently suspected to be disk features. Aims. In this context, the transition disk around the young star PDS 70 is of particular interest, due to its large gap identified in previous observations, indicative of ongoing planet formation. We aim to search for the presence of an embedded young planet and search for disk structures that may be the result of disk-planet interactions and other evolutionary processes. Methods. We analyse new and archival near-infrared images of the transition disk PDS 70 obtained with the VLT/SPHERE, VLT/NaCo, and Gemini/NICI instruments in polarimetric differential imaging and angular differential imaging modes. Results. We detect a point source within the gap of the disk at about 195 mas (similar to 22 au) projected separation. The detection is confirmed at five different epochs, in three filter bands and using different instruments. The astrometry results in an object of bound nature, with high significance. The comparison of the measured magnitudes and colours to evolutionary tracks suggests that the detection is a companion of planetary mass. The luminosity of the detected object is consistent with that of an L-type dwarf, but its IR colours are redder, possibly indicating the presence of warm surrounding material. Further, we confirm the detection of a large gap of similar to 54 au in size within the disk in our scattered light images, and detect a signal from an inner disk component. We find that its spatial extent is very likely smaller than similar to 17 au in radius, and its position angle is consistent with that of the outer disk. The images of the outer disk show evidence of a complex azimuthal brightness distribution which is different at different wavelengths and may in part be explained by Rayleigh scattering from very small grains. Conclusions. The detection of a young protoplanet within the gap of the transition disk around PDS 70 opens the door to a so far observationally unexplored parameter space of planetary formation and evolution. Future observations of this system at different wavelengths and continuing astrometry will allow us to test theoretical predictions regarding planet-disk interactions, planetary atmospheres, and evolutionary models.
  • Common and Unique Neural Systems Underlying the Working Memory Maintenance of Emotional vs. Bodily Reactions to Affective Stimuli: The Moderating Role of Trait Emotional Awareness

    Smith, Ryan; Lane, Richard D.; Sanova, Anna; Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Courtney; Killgore, William D. S.; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychiat (FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018-09-18)
    Many leading theories suggest that the neural processes underlying the experience of one's own emotional reactions partially overlap with those underlying bodily perception (i.e., interoception, somatosensation, and proprioception). However, the goal-directed maintenance of one's own emotions in working memory (EWM) has not yet been compared to WM maintenance of one's own bodily reactions (BWM). In this study, we contrasted WM maintenance of emotional vs. bodily reactions to affective stimuli in 26 healthy individuals while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Specifically, we examined the a priori hypothesis that individual differences in trait emotional awareness (tEA) would lead to greater differences between these two WM conditions within medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We observed that MPFC activation during EWM (relative to BWM) was positively associated with tEA. Whole-brain analyses otherwise suggested considerable similarity in the neural activation patterns associated with EWM and BWM. In conjunction with previous literature, our findings not only support a central role of body state representation/maintenance in EWM, but also suggest greater engagement of MPFC-mediated conceptualization processes during EWM in those with higher tEA.
  • Astrolabe: Curating, Linking, and Computing Astronomy’s Dark Data

    Heidorn, P. Bryan; Stahlman, Gretchen R.; Steffen, Julie; Univ Arizona, Sch Informat (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-05)
    Where appropriate repositories are not available to support all relevant astronomical data products, data can fall into darkness: unseen and unavailable for future reference and reuse. Some data in this category are legacy or old data, but newer data sets are also often uncurated and could remain dark. This paper provides a description of the design motivation and development of Astrolabe, a cyberinfrastructure project that addresses a set of community recommendations for locating and ensuring the long-term curation of dark or otherwise at-risk data and integrated computing. This paper also describes the outcomes of the series of community workshops that informed creation of Astrolabe. According to participants in these workshops, much astronomical dark data currently exist that are not curated elsewhere, as well as software that can only be executed by a few individuals and therefore becomes unusable because of changes in computing platforms. Astronomical research questions and challenges would be better addressed with integrated data and computational resources that fall outside the scope of existing observatory and space mission projects. As a solution, the design of the Astrolabe system is aimed at developing new resources for management of astronomical data. The project is based in CyVerse cyberinfrastructure technology and is a collaboration between the University of Arizona and the American Astronomical Society. Overall, the project aims to support open access to research data by leveraging existing cyberinfrastructure resources and promoting scientific discovery by making potentially useful data available to the astronomical community, in a computable format.
  • An Updated Line List for NUV Spectral Synthesis in Evolved Stars: Redetermination of the Beryllium Abundance in the Solar Photosphere

    Carlberg, Joleen K.; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V.; Nascimento, José-Dias do; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-09-20)
    Motivated by the desire to measure beryllium abundances in red giant stars, we have constructed a new line list for synthesizing spectra in the near-ultraviolet. Using the Sun, Arcturus, and Pollux as benchmark stars, we explore potential sources of missing continuous opacity and line absorption. Despite the inclusion of new sources of continuous opacity, fitting the ultraviolet OH lines in the solar spectrum still requires artificially inflating the continuous opacity. The red giants also require the addition of a line of unknown origin in the blue wing of the Be line at lambda 3131.065 angstrom, and we find a good match can be made by adopting a Ti II line with low excitation potential. The inclusion of this line does not affect the measurement of the solar Be abundance. Because the fits to all of the benchmark stars require tuning the properties of known spectral lines and including both an unknown source of additional continuous opacity and spectral lines of unknown origin, we argue that the absolute abundances of Be in stars should be interpreted with caution. Therefore, the question of whether the solar Be abundance is depleted may not yet be resolved, although our model favors minimal Be depletion in the Sun.
  • ABC transporter mis-splicing associated with resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab in laboratory- and field-selected pink bollworm

    Mathew, Lolita G.; Ponnuraj, Jeyakumar; Mallappa, Bheemanna; Chowdary, Lingutla R.; Zhang, Jianwei; Tay, Wee Tek; Walsh, Thomas K.; Gordon, Karl H. J.; Heckel, David G.; Downes, Sharon; Carrière, Yves; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Fabrick, Jeffrey A.; Univ Arizona, Arizona Genom Inst; Univ Arizona, Dept Entomol (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-09-10)
    Evolution of pest resistance threatens the benefits of genetically engineered crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins. Strategies intended to delay pest resistance are most effective when implemented proactively. Accordingly, researchers have selected for and analyzed resistance to Bt toxins in many laboratory strains of pests before resistance evolves in the field, but the utility of this approach depends on the largely untested assumption that laboratory-and field-selected resistance to Bt toxins are similar. Here we compared the genetic basis of resistance to Bt toxin Cry2Ab, which is widely deployed in transgenic crops, between laboratory-and field-selected populations of the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), a global pest of cotton. We discovered that resistance to Cry2Ab is associated with mutations disrupting the same ATP-binding cassette transporter gene (PgABCA2) in a laboratory-selected strain from Arizona, USA, and in field-selected populations from India. The most common mutation, loss of exon 6 caused by alternative splicing, occurred in resistant larvae from both locations. Together with previous data, the results imply that mutations in the same gene confer Bt resistance in laboratory-and field-selected strains and suggest that focusing on ABCA2 genes may help to accelerate progress in monitoring and managing resistance to Cry2Ab.

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