• Ecosystem resilience despite large-scale altered hydroclimatic conditions

      Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E; Moran, M. Susan; Huete, Alfredo; Youngguang, Zhang; Bresloff, Cynthia; Huxman, Travis E.; Eamus, Derek; Bosch, David D.; Buda, Anthony R.; Gunter, Stacey A.; et al. (Macmillan Publishers, 2013-01-20)
      Climate change is predicted to increase both drought frequency and duration, and when coupled with substantial warming, will establish a new hydroclimatological model for many regions1. Largescale, warm droughts have recently occurred in North America, Africa, Europe, Amazonia and Australia, resulting in major effects on terrestrial ecosystems, carbon balance and food security2,3. Here we compare the functional response of above-ground net primary production to contrasting hydroclimatic periods in the late twentieth century (1975–1998), and drier, warmer conditions in the early twenty-first century (2000–2009) in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. We find a common ecosystem water-use efficiency (WUEe: above-ground net primary production/evapotranspiration) across biomes ranging from grassland to forest that indicates an intrinsic system sensitivity to water availability across rainfall regimes, regardless of hydroclimatic conditions. We found higher WUEe in drier years that increased significantly with drought to a maximum WUEe across all biomes; and a minimum native state in wetter years that was common across hydroclimatic periods. This indicates biome-scale resilience to the interannual variability associated with the early twenty-first century drought—that is, the capacity to tolerate low, annual precipitation and to respond to subsequent periods of favourable water balance. These findings provide a conceptual model of ecosystem properties at the decadal scale applicable to the widespread altered hydroclimatic conditions that are predicted for later this century. Understanding the hydroclimatic threshold that will break down ecosystem resilience and alter maximum WUEe may allow us to predict land-surface consequences as large regions become more arid, starting with waterlimited, low-productivity grasslands.
    • The FLUXNET2015 dataset and the ONEFlux processing pipeline for eddy covariance data

      Pastorello, Gilberto; Trotta, Carlo; Canfora, Eleonora; Chu, Housen; Christianson, Danielle; Cheah, You-Wei; Poindexter, Cristina; Chen, Jiquan; Elbashandy, Abdelrahman; Humphrey, Marty; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-07)
      The FLUXNET2015 dataset provides ecosystem-scale data on CO2, water, and energy exchange between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and other meteorological and biological measurements, from 212 sites around the globe (over 1500 site-years, up to and including year 2014). These sites, independently managed and operated, voluntarily contributed their data to create global datasets. Data were quality controlled and processed using uniform methods, to improve consistency and intercomparability across sites. The dataset is already being used in a number of applications, including ecophysiology studies, remote sensing studies, and development of ecosystem and Earth system models. FLUXNET2015 includes derived-data products, such as gap-filled time series, ecosystem respiration and photosynthetic uptake estimates, estimation of uncertainties, and metadata about the measurements, presented for the first time in this paper. In addition, 206 of these sites are for the first time distributed under a Creative Commons (CC-BY 4.0) license. This paper details this enhanced dataset and the processing methods, now made available as open-source codes, making the dataset more accessible, transparent, and reproducible.