• Human cytomegalovirus uses a host stress response to balance the elongation of saturated/monounsaturated and polyunsaturated very-long-chain fatty acids

      Xi, Y.; Lindenmayer, L.; Kline, I.; von Einem, J.; Purdy, J.G.; Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona; Department of Immunobiology, University of Arizona; BIO5 Institute, University of Arizona; Cancer Biology Interdisciplinary Program, University of Arizona (American Society for Microbiology, 2021)
      Stress and virus infection regulate lipid metabolism. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection induces fatty acid (FA) elongation and increases the abundance of lipids with very-long-chain FA (VLCFA) tails. While reprogramming of metabolism can be stress related, the role of stress in HCMV reprogramming of lipid metabolism is poorly understood. In this study, we engineered cells to knock out protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) in the ER stress pathway and measured lipid changes using lipidomics to determine if PERK is needed for lipid changes associated with HCMV infection. In HCMV-infected cells, PERK promotes increases in the levels of phospholipids with saturated FA (SFA) and monounsaturated FA (MUFA) VLCFA tails. Further, PERK enhances FA elongase 7 (ELOVL7) protein levels, which elongates SFA and MUFA VLCFAs. Additionally, we found that increases in the elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) associated with HCMV infection were independent of PERK and that lipids with PUFA tails accumulated in HCMV-infected PERK knockout cells. Additionally, the protein levels of ELOVL5, which elongates PUFAs, are increased by HCMV infection through a PERK-independent mechanism. These observations show that PERK differentially regulates ELOVL7 and ELOVL5, creating a balance between the synthesis of lipids with SFA/MUFA tails and PUFA tails. Additionally, we found that PERK was necessary for virus replication and the infectivity of released viral progeny. Overall, our findings indicate that PERK—and, more broadly, ER stress—may be necessary for the membrane biogenesis needed to generate infectious HCMV virions. IMPORTANCE HCMV is a common herpesvirus that establishes lifelong persistent infections. While infection is asymptomatic in most people, HCMV causes life-threatening illnesses in immunocompromised people, including transplant recipients and cancer patients. Additionally, HCMV infection is a leading cause of congenital disabilities. HCMV replication relies on lipid synthesis. Here, we demonstrated that the ER stress mediator PERK controls FA elongation and the cellular abundance of several types of lipids following HCMV infection. Specifically, PERK promotes FA elongase 7 synthesis and phospholipids with saturated/monounsaturated very-long-chain FA tails. Overall, our study shows that PERK is an essential host factor that supports HCMV replication and promotes lipidome changes caused by HCMV infection. © 2021 Xi et al.