• A Dependence of the Tidal Disruption Event Rate on Global Stellar Surface Mass Density and Stellar Velocity Dispersion

      Graur, O.; French, K. Decker; Zahid, H. Jabran; Guillochon, James; Mandel, Kaisey S.; Auchettl, Katie; Zabludoff, Ann; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-01-22)
      The rate of tidal disruption events (TDEs), R-TDE, is predicted to depend on stellar conditions near the super-massive black hole (SMBH), which are on difficult-to-measure sub-parsec scales. We test whether R-TDE depends on kpc-scale global galaxy properties, which are observable. We concentrate on stellar surface mass density, Sigma M-*, and velocity dispersion, sigma(nu), which correlate with the stellar density and velocity dispersion of the stars around the SMBH. We consider 35 TDE candidates, with and without known X-ray emission. The hosts range from star-forming to quiescent to quiescent with strong Balmer absorption lines. The last (often with post-starburst spectra) are overrepresented in our sample by a factor of 35(-17)(+21) or 18(-7)(+8), depending on the strength of the H delta absorption line. For a subsample of hosts with homogeneous measurements, Sigma M-* = 10(9)-10(10) M-circle dot/kpc(2), higher on average than for a volume-weighted control sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies with similar redshifts and stellar masses. This is because (1) most of the TDE hosts here are quiescent galaxies, which tend to have higher Sigma M-* than the star-forming galaxies that dominate the control, and (2) the star-forming hosts have higher average Sigma M-* than the star-forming control. There is also a weak suggestion that TDE hosts have lower sigma(nu) than for the quiescent control. Assuming that R-TDE infinity Sigma M-*(alpha) x sigma(beta)(nu), and applying a statistical model to the TDE hosts and control sample, we estimate (alpha) over cap = 0.9 +/- 0.2 and (beta) over cap = -1.0 +/- 0.6. This is broadly consistent with RTDE being tied to the dynamical relaxation of stars surrounding the SMBH.
    • The Discovery of a Gravitationally Lensed Quasar at z=6.51

      Fan, Xiaohui; Wang, Feige; Yang, Jinyi; Keeton, Charles R.; Yue, Minghao; Zabludoff, Ann; Bian, Fuyan; Bonaglia, Marco; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-01-09)
      Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful probe of the physical properties of quasars and their host galaxies. A high fraction of the most luminous high-redshift quasars was predicted to be lensed due to magnification bias. However, no multiple imaged quasar was found at z > 5 in previous surveys. We report the discovery of J043947.08+163415.7, a strongly lensed quasar at z = 6.51, the first such object detected at the epoch of reionization, and the brightest quasar yet known at z > 5. High-resolution Hubble Space Telescope imaging reveals a multiple imaged system with a maximum image separation theta similar to 0 ''.2, best explained by a model of three quasar images lensed by a low-luminosity galaxy at z similar to 0.7, with a magnification factor of similar to 50. The existence of this source suggests that a significant population of strongly lensed, high-redshift quasars could have been missed by previous surveys, as standard color selection techniques would fail when the quasar color is contaminated by the lensing galaxy.
    • Discovery of a Protocluster Associated with a Ly α Blob Pair at z = 2.3

      Bădescu, Toma; Yang, Yujin; Bertoldi, Frank; Zabludoff, Ann; Karim, Alex; Magnelli, Benjamin; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-08-23)
      Bright Ly alpha blobs (LABs)-extended nebulae with sizes of similar to 100 kpc and Ly alpha luminosities of similar to 10(44) erg s(-1)-often reside in overdensities of compact Ly alpha emitters (LAEs) that may be galaxy protoclusters. The number density, variance, and internal kinematics of LABs suggest that they themselves trace group-like halos. Here, we test this hierarchical picture, presenting deep, wide-field Ly alpha narrowband imaging of a 1 degrees x. 0 degrees.5 region around a LAB pair at z = 2.3 discovered previously by a blind survey. We find 183 Lya emitters, including the original LAB pair and three new LABs with Ly alpha luminosities of (0.9-1.3) x 10(43) erg s(-1) and isophotal areas of 16-24 arcsec2. Using the LAEs as tracers and a new kernel density estimation method, we discover a large-scale overdensity (Bootes J1430+3522) with a surface density contrast of delta(Sigma) = 2.7, a volume density contrast of delta similar to 10.4, and a projected diameter of approximate to 20 comoving Mpc. Comparing with cosmological simulations, we conclude that this LAE overdensity will evolve into a present-day Coma-like cluster with log(M/M-circle dot) similar to 15.1 +/- 0.2. In this and three other wide-field LAE surveys re-analyzed here, the extents and peak amplitudes of the largest LAE overdensities are similar, not increasing with survey size, and implying that they were indeed the largest structures then and today evolve into rich clusters. Intriguingly, LABs favor the outskirts of the densest LAE concentrations, i.e., intermediate LAE overdensities of delta(Sigma) = 1-2. We speculate that these LABs mark infalling protogroups being accreted by the more massive protocluster.
    • Discovery of an Enormous Ly α Nebula in a Massive Galaxy Overdensity at z = 2.3

      Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Yang, Yujin; Bian, Fuyan; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Zabludoff, Ann; McGreer, Ian D.; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Green, Richard; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-03-03)
      Enormous Ly alpha nebulae (ELANe), unique tracers of galaxy density peaks, are predicted to lie at the nodes and intersections of cosmic filamentary structures. Previous successful searches for ELANe have focused on wide-field narrowband surveys or have targeted known sources such as ultraluminous quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) or radio galaxies. Utilizing groups of coherently strong Ly alpha absorptions, we have developed a new method to identify high-redshift galaxy overdensities and have identified an extremely massive overdensity, BOSS1441, at z = 2-3. In its density peak, we discover an ELAN that is associated with a relatively faint continuum. To date, this object has the highest diffuse Ly alpha nebular luminosity of L-nebula = 5.1 +/- 0.1 x 10(44) erg s(-1). Above the 2 sigma surface brightness limit of SBLy alpha = 4.8 x 10(-18) erg s(-1) cm(-2) arcsec(-2), this nebula has an end-to-end spatial extent of 442 kpc. This radio-quiet source also has extended C IV lambda 1549 and He II lambda 1640 emission on greater than or similar to 30 kpc scales. Note that the Ly alpha, He II, and C IV emissions all have double-peaked line profiles. Each velocity component has an FWHM of approximate to 700-1000 km s(-1). We argue that this Lya nebula could be powered by shocks due to an active galactic nucleus-driven outflow or photoionization by a strongly obscured source.
    • Far-infrared Properties of the Bright, Gravitationally Lensed Quasar J0439+1634 at z = 6.5

      Yang, Jinyi; Venemans, Bram; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Novak, Mladen; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Yue, Minghao; Momjian, Emmanuel; Keeton, Charles R.; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019-08-05)
      We present IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope/Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the most distant known gravitationally lensed quasar, J0439+1634 at z = 6.5. We detect strong dust emission, [C II] 158 mu m, [C I] 369 mu m, [O I] 146 mu m, CO(6-5), CO(7-6), CO(9-8), CO(10-9), H2O 3(1,2)-2(2,1), and H2O 3(2,1)-3(1,2) lines, as well as a weak radio continuum. The strong [C line yields a systemic redshift of the host galaxy to be z = 6.5188 +/- 0.0002. The magnification makes J0439+1634 the far-infrared (FIR) brightest quasar at z > 6 known, with the brightest [C II] line yet detected at this redshift. The FIR luminosity is (3.4 +/- 0.2) x 10(13)mu L--1 (circle dot), where mu similar to 2.6-6.6 is the magnification of the host galaxy, estimated based on the lensing configuration from HST imaging. We estimate the dust mass to be (2.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(9) mu M--1(circle dot). The CO spectral line energy distribution using four CO lines are best fit by a two-component model of the molecular gas excitation. The estimates of molecular gas mass derived from CO lines, and atomic carbon mass are consistent, in the range of (3.9-8.9) x 10(10) mu(-1) M-circle dot. The [C II]/[C I], [C II]/CO, and [O I]/[C II] line luminosity ratios suggest a photodissociation region model with more than one component. The ratio of H2O 3(2,1)-3(1)(,2) line luminosity to L-TIR is consistent with values in local and high-redshift ultra-/hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. The VLA observations reveal an unresolved radio continuum source, and indicate that J0439+1634 is a radio-quiet quasar with R = 0.05-0.17.
    • The growth of brightest cluster galaxies and intracluster light over the past 10 billion years

      DeMaio, Tahlia; Gonzalez, Anthony H; Zabludoff, Ann; Zaritsky, Dennis; Aldering, Greg; Brodwin, Mark; Connor, Thomas; Donahue, Megan; Hayden, Brian; Mulchaey, John S; et al. (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019-11-23)
      We constrain the evolution of the brightest cluster galaxy plus intracluster light (BCG + ICL) using an ensemble of 42 galaxy groups and clusters that span redshifts of z = 0.05-1.75 and masses of M-500,M-c = 2 x 10(13)-10(15) M-circle dot. Specifically, we measure the relationship between the BCG + ICL stellar mass M-star and M-500,M-c at projected radii 10 < r < 100 kpc for three different epochs. At intermediate redshift ((z) over bar = 0.40), where we have the best data, we find M-star M-500,c(0.48 +/- 0.06). Fixing the exponent of this power law for all redshifts, we constrain the normalization of this relation to be 2.08 +/- 0.21 times higher at (z) over bar = 0.40 than at high redshift ((z) over bar = 1.55). We find no change in the relation from intermediate to low redshift ((z) over bar = 0.10). In other words, for fixed M-500,M-c, M-star at 10 < r < 100 kpc increases from (z) over bar = 1.55 to (z) over bar = 0.40 and not significantly thereafter. Theoretical models predict that the physical mass growth of the cluster from z = 1.5 to z = 0 within r(500,c) is 1.4x, excluding evolution due to definition of r(500,c). We find that M-star within the central 100 kpc increases by similar to 3.8x over the same period. Thus, the growth of M-star in this central region is more than a factor of 2 greater than the physical mass growth of the cluster as a whole. Furthermore, the concentration of the BCG + ICL stellar mass, defined by the ratio of stellar mass within 10 kpc to the total stellar mass within 100 kpc, decreases with increasing M-500,M-c at all z. We interpret this result as evidence for inside-out growth of the BCG + ICL over the past 10 Gyr, with stellar mass assembly occurring at larger radii at later times.
    • HST Detection of Extended Neutral Hydrogen in a Massive Elliptical at z = 0.4

      Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Rauch, Michael; Zabludoff, Ann; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-09-08)
      We report the first detection of extended neutral hydrogen (H I) gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) of a massive elliptical galaxy beyond z similar to 0. The observations utilize the doubly lensed images of QSO HE 0047-1756 at z(QSO) = 1.676 as absorption-line probes of the ISM in the massive (M-star approximate to 10(11) M-circle dot) elliptical lens at z = 0.408, detecting gas at projected distances of d = 3.3 and 4.6 kpc on opposite sides of the lens. Using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, we obtain UV absorption spectra of the lensed QSO and identify a prominent flux discontinuity and associated absorption features matching the Lyman series transitions at z = 0.408 in both sightlines. The H I column density is log N(H I)= 19.6-19.7 at both locations across the lens, comparable to what is seen in 21 cm images of nearby ellipticals. The H I gas kinematics are well-matched with the kinematics of the Fe II absorption complex revealed in ground-based echelle data, displaying a large velocity shear of approximate to 360 km s(-1) across the galaxy. We estimate an ISM Fe abundance of 0.3-0.4 solar at both locations. Including likely dust depletions increases the estimated Fe abundances to solar or supersolar, similar to those of the hot ISM and stars of nearby ellipticals. Assuming 100% covering fraction of this Fe-enriched gas, we infer a total Fe mass of M-cool(Fe) similar to (5-8) x 10(4) M-circle dot in the cool ISM of the massive elliptical lens, which is no more than 5% of the total Fe mass observed in the hot ISM.
    • Joint Strong and Weak Lensing Analysis of the Massive Cluster Field J0850+3604

      Wong, Kenneth C.; Raney, Catie; Keeton, Charles R.; Umetsu, K.; Zabludoff, Ann; Ammons, S. Mark; French, K. Decker; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-07-31)
      We present a combined strong and weak lensing analysis of the J085007.6+360428 (J0850) field, which contains the massive cluster Zwicky 1953. This field was selected for its high projected concentration of luminous red galaxies. Using Subaru/Suprime-Cam BVR(c)I(c)i'z' imaging and MMT/Hectospec spectroscopy, we first perform a weak lensing shear analysis to constrain the mass distribution in this field, including the cluster at z = 0.3774 and a smaller foreground halo at z = 0.2713. We then add a strong lensing constraint from a multiply imaged galaxy in the imaging data with a photometric redshift of z approximate to 5.03. Unlike previous cluster-scale lens analyses, our technique accounts for the full three-dimensional mass structure in the beam, including galaxies along the line of sight. In contrast with past cluster analyses that used only lensed image positions as constraints, we use the full surface brightness distribution of the images. This method predicts that the source galaxy crosses a lensing caustic, such that one image is a highly magnified "fold arc" that could be used to probe the source galaxy's structure at ultra-high spatial resolution (< 30 pc). We calculate the mass of the primary cluster to be M-vir = 2.93(-0.65)(+0.71) x 10(15) M-circle dot. with a concentration of C-vir = 3.46(-0.59)(+0.70), consistent with the mass-concentration relation of massive clusters at a similar redshift. The large mass of this cluster makes J0850 an excellent field for leveraging lensing magnification to search for high-redshift galaxies, competitive with and complementary to that of well-studied clusters such as the HST Frontier Fields.
    • Mapping the Most Massive Overdensities through Hydrogen (MAMMOTH). II. Discovery of the Extremely Massive Overdensity BOSS1441 at z = 2.32

      Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; Zabludoff, Ann; Yang, Yujin; Prochaska, J. Xavier; McGreer, Ian D.; Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Wang, Ran; et al. (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-04-25)
      Cosmological simulations suggest a strong correlation between high optical-depth Lya absorbers, which arise from the intergalactic medium, and 3D mass overdensities on scales of 10-30 h(-1) comoving Mpc. By examining the absorption spectra of similar to 80,000 QSO sight lines over a volume of 0.1 Gpc(3) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III (SDSS-III), we have identified an extreme overdensity, BOSS1441, which contains a rare group of strong Lya absorbers at z = 2.32 +/- 0.02. This absorber group is associated with six QSOs at the same redshift on a 30 comoving Mpc scale. Using Mayall/MOSAIC narrowband and broadband imaging, we detect Lya emitters (LAEs) down to 0.7 x L-Ly alpha ' * a and reveal a large-scale structure of LAEs in this field. Our follow-up LBT observations have spectroscopically confirmed 20 galaxies in the density peak. We show that BOSS1441 has an LAE overdensity of 10.8 +/- 2.6 on a 15 comoving Mpc scale, which could collapse to a massive cluster with M greater than or similar to 10(15) M-circle dot at z similar to 0. This overdensity is among the most massive large-scale structures at z similar to 2 discovered to date.
    • MAPPING THE POLARIZATION OF THE RADIO-LOUD Ly α NEBULA B3 J2330+3927

      You, Chang; Zabludoff, Ann; Smith, Paul; Yang, Yujin; Kim, Eunchong; Jannuzi, Buell; Prescott, Moire K. M.; Matsuda, Yuichi; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-01-12)
      Ly alpha nebulae, or "Ly alpha blobs," are extended (up to similar to 100 kpc), bright (L-Ly alpha greater than or similar to 10(43) erg s(-1)) clouds of Lya emitting gas that tend to lie in overdense regions at z similar to 2-5. The origin of the Lya emission remains unknown, but recent theoretical work suggests that measuring the polarization might discriminate among powering mechanisms. Here we present the first narrowband imaging polarimetry of a radio-loud Lya nebula, B3 J2330+3927, at z - 3.09, with an embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN). The AGN lies near the blob's Lya emission peak, and its radio lobes align roughly with the blob's major axis. With the SPOL polarimeter on the 6.5 m MMT telescope, we map the total (Ly alpha + continuum) polarization in a grid of circular apertures of a radius of 0.'' 6 (4.4 kpc), detecting a significant (>2 sigma) polarization fraction P-% in nine apertures and achieving strong upper limits (as low as 2%) elsewhere. P-% increases from <2% at similar to 5 kpc from the blob center to 17% at similar to 15-25 kpc. The detections are distributed asymmetrically, roughly along the nebula's major axis. The polarization angles theta are mostly perpendicular to this axis. Comparing the Ly alpha flux to that of the continuum and conservatively assuming that the continuum is highly polarized (20%-100%) and aligned with the total polarization, we place lower limits on the polarization of the Lya emission P-%,P-Ly alpha ranging from no significant polarization at similar to 5 kpc from the blob center to 3%-17% at 10-25 kpc. Like the total polarization, the Ly alpha polarization detections occur more often along the blob's major axis.
    • The Post-starburst Evolution of Tidal Disruption Event Host Galaxies

      French, K. Decker; Arcavi, I.; Zabludoff, Ann; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-01-30)
      We constrain the recent star formation histories of the host galaxies of eight optical/UV-detected tidal disruption events (TDEs). Six hosts had quick starbursts of <200 Myr duration that ended 10-1000 Myr ago, indicating that TDEs arise at different times in their hosts' post-starburst evolution. If the disrupted star formed in the burst or before, the post-burst age constrains its mass, generally excluding O, most B, and highly massive A stars. If the starburst arose from a galaxy merger, the time since the starburst began limits the coalescence timescale and thus the merger mass ratio to more equal than 12: 1 in most hosts. This uncommon ratio, if also that of the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary, disfavors the scenario in which the TDE rate is boosted by the binary but is insensitive to its mass ratio. The stellar mass fraction created in the burst is 0.5%-10% for most hosts, not enough to explain the observed 30-200x. boost in TDE rates, suggesting that the host's core stellar concentration is more important. TDE hosts have stellar masses 10(9.4)-10(10.3) M circle dot,consistent with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey volume-corrected, quiescent Balmer-strong comparison sample and implying SMBH masses of 10(5.5)-10(7.5) M circle dot, Subtracting the host absorption line spectrum, we uncover emission lines; at least five hosts have ionization sources inconsistent with star formation that instead may be related to circumnuclear gas, merger shocks, or post-AGB stars.
    • Probing the cool interstellar and circumgalactic gas of three massive lensing galaxies at z = 0.4–0.7

      Zahedy, Fakhri S.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Rauch, Michael; Wilson, Michelle L.; Zabludoff, Ann; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2016-05-21)
      We present multisightline absorption spectroscopy of cool gas around three lensing galaxies at z = 0.4-0.7. These lenses have half-light radii r(e) = 2.6-8 kpc and stellar masses of log M-*/M-circle dot = 10.9-11.4, and therefore resemble nearby passive elliptical galaxies. The lensed QSO sightlines presented here occur at projected distances of d = 3-15 kpc (or d approximate to 1-2 r(e)) from the lensing galaxies, providing for the first time an opportunity to probe both interstellar gas at r similar to r(e) and circumgalactic gas at larger radii r >> r(e) of these distant quiescent galaxies. We observe distinct gas absorption properties among different lenses and among sightlines of individual lenses. Specifically, while the quadruple lens for HE 0435-1223 shows no absorption features to very sensitive limits along all four sightlines, strong MgII, Fe II, Mg I, and Ca II absorption transitions are detected along both sightlines near the double lens for HE 0047-1756, and in one of the two sightlines near the double lens for HE 1104-1805. The absorbers are resolved into 8-15 individual components with a line-of-sight velocity spread of Delta v approximate to 300-600 km s(-1). The large ionic column densities, log N greater than or similar to 14, observed in two components suggest that these may be Lyman limit or damped Ly a absorbers with a significant neutral hydrogen fraction. The majority of the absorbing components exhibit a uniform supersolar Fe/Mg ratio with a scatter of < 0.1 dex across the full Delta v range. Given a predominantly old stellar population in these lensing galaxies, we argue that the observed large velocity width and Fe-rich abundance pattern can be explained by SNe Ia enriched gas at radius r similar to r(e). We show that additional spatial constraints in line-of-sight velocity and relative abundance ratios afforded by a multisightline approach provide a powerful tool to resolve the origin of chemically enriched cool gas in massive haloes.
    • Quantifying Environmental and Line-of-sight Effects in Models of Strong Gravitational Lens Systems

      McCully, Curtis; Keeton, Charles R.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-02-14)
      Matter near a gravitational lens galaxy or projected along the line of sight (LOS) can affect strong lensing observables by more than contemporary measurement errors. We simulate lens fields with realistic threedimensional mass configurations (self-consistently including voids), and then fit mock lensing observables with increasingly complex lens models to quantify biases and uncertainties associated with different ways of treating the lens environment (ENV) and LOS. We identify the combination of mass, projected offset, and redshift that determines the importance of a perturbing galaxy for lensing. Foreground structures have a stronger effect on the lens potential than background structures, due to nonlinear effects in the foreground and downweighting in the background. There is dramatic variation in the net strength of ENV/LOS effects across different lens fields; modeling fields individually yields stronger priors for H-0 than ray tracing through N-body simulations. Models that ignore mass outside the lens yield poor fits and biased results. Adding external shear can account for tidal stretching from galaxies at redshifts z >= z(lens), but it requires corrections for external convergence and cannot reproduce nonlinear effects from foreground galaxies. Using the tidal approximation is reasonable for most perturbers as long as nonlinear redshift effects are included. Even then, the scatter in H0 is limited by the lens profile degeneracy. Asymmetric image configurations produced by highly elliptical lens galaxies are less sensitive to the lens profile degeneracy, so they offer appealing targets for precision lensing analyses in future surveys like LSST and Euclid.
    • A Spectroscopic Survey of the Fields of 28 Strong Gravitational Lenses: Implications for H0

      Wilson, Michelle L.; Zabludoff, Ann; Keeton, Charles R.; Wong, Kenneth C.; Williams, Kurtis A.; French, K. Decker; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2017-11-21)
      Strong gravitational lensing provides an independent measurement of the Hubble parameter (H-0). One remaining systematic is a bias from the additional mass due to a galaxy group at the lens redshift or along the sightline. We quantify this bias for more than 20 strong lenses that have well-sampled sightline mass distributions, focusing on the convergence kappa and shear gamma. In 23% of these fields, a lens group contributes >= 1% convergence bias; in 57%, there is a similarly significant line-of-sight group. For the nine time-delay lens systems, H-0 is overestimated by 11(-2)(+3)% on average when groups are ignored. In 67% of fields with total kappa >= 0.01, line-of-sight groups contribute greater than or similar to 2x more convergence than do lens groups, indicating that the lens group is not the only important mass. Lens environment affects the ratio of four (quad) to two (double) image systems; all seven quads have lens groups while only 3 of 10 doubles do, and the highest convergences due to lens groups are in quads. We calibrate the gamma-kappa relation: log(kappa(tot)) = (1.94 +/- 0.34)log(gamma(tot)) + (1.31 +/- 0.49) with an rms scatter of 0.34 dex. Although shear can be measured directly from lensed images, unlike convergence, it can be a poor predictor of convergence; for 19% of our fields, kappa is greater than or similar to 2 gamma. Thus, accurate cosmology using strong gravitational lenses requires precise measurement and correction for all significant structures in each lens field.
    • A SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY OF THE FIELDS OF 28 STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSES: THE GROUP CATALOG

      Wilson, Michelle L.; Zabludoff, Ann; Ammons, S. Mark; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Keeton, Charles R.; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2016-12-16)
      With a large, unique spectroscopic survey in the fields of 28 galaxy-scale strong gravitational lenses, we identify groups of galaxies in the 26 adequately sampled fields. Using a group-finding algorithm, we find 210 groups with at least 5 member galaxies; the median number of members is 8. Our sample spans redshifts of 0.04 <= z(grp) <= 0.76 with a median of 0.31, including 174 groups with 0.1 < z(grp) < 0.6 The groups have radial velocity dispersions of 60 <= sigma(grp) <= 1200 km s(-1) with a median of 350 km s(-1). We also discover a supergroup in field B0712+472 at z = 0.29 that consists of three main groups. We recover groups similar to similar to 85% of those previously reported in these fields within our redshift range of sensitivity and find 187 new groups with at least five members. The properties of our group catalog, specifically, (1) the distribution of sgrp, (2) the fraction of all sample galaxies that are group members, and (3) the fraction of groups with significant substructure, are consistent with those for other catalogs. The distribution of group virial masses agrees well with theoretical expectations. Of the lens galaxies, 12 of 26 (46%) (B1422+231, B1600+434, B2114+022, FBQS J0951+2635, HE0435-1223, HST J14113+5211, MG0751+2716, MGJ1654+1346, PG 1115+080, Q ER 0047-2808, RXJ1131-1231, and WFI J2033-4723) are members of groups with at least five galaxies, and one more (B0712+472) belongs to an additional, visually identified group candidate. There are groups not associated with the lens that still are likely to affect the lens model; in six of 25 (24%) fields (excluding the supergroup), there is at least one massive (sigma(grp) >= 500 km s(-1)) group or group candidate projected within 2' of the lens.
    • What Makes Lyα Nebulae Glow? Mapping the Polarization of LABd05

      Kim, Eunchong; Yang, Yujin; Zabludoff, Ann; Smith, Paul; Jannuzi, Buell; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon; Univ Arizona, Steward Observ (IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2020-05-01)
      Ly alpha nebulae are giant (similar to 100 kpc), glowing gas clouds in the distant universe. The origin of their extended Ly alpha emission remains a mystery. Some models posit that Ly alpha emission is produced when the cloud is photoionized by UV emission from embedded or nearby sources, while others suggest that the Ly alpha photons originate from an embedded galaxy or active galactic nucleus (AGN) and are then resonantly scattered by the cloud. At least in the latter scenario, the observed Ly alpha emission will be polarized. To test these possibilities, we are conducting imaging polarimetric observations of seven Ly alpha nebulae. Here we present our results for LABd05, a cloud at z = 2.656 with an obscured, embedded AGN to the northeast of the peak of Ly alpha emission. We detect significant polarization. The highest polarization fractions P are similar to 10%-20% at similar to 20-40 kpc southeast of the Ly alpha peak, away from the AGN. The lowest P, including upper limits, are similar to 5% and lie between the Ly alpha peak and AGN. In other words, the polarization map is lopsided, with P increasing from the Ly alpha peak to the southeast. The measured polarization angles are oriented northeast, roughly perpendicular to the P gradient. This unique polarization pattern suggests that (1) the spatially offset AGN is photoionizing nearby gas and (2) escaping Ly alpha photons are scattered by the nebula at larger radii and into our sightline, producing tangentially oriented, radially increasing polarization away from the photoionized region. Finally we conclude that the interplay between the gas density and ionization profiles produces the observed central peak in the Ly alpha emission. This also implies that the structure of LABd05 is more complex than assumed by current theoretical spherical or cylindrical models.