• Excited bottomonia in quark-gluon plasma from lattice QCD

      Larsen, Rasmus; Meinel, Stefan; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, Peter; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (ELSEVIER, 2020-11-26)
      We present the first lattice QCD study of up to 3S and 2P bottomonia at non-zero temperatures. Correlation functions of bottomonia were computed using novel bottomonium operators and a variational technique, within the lattice non-relativistic QCD framework. We analyzed the bottomonium correlation functions based on simple physically-motivated spectral functions. We found evidence of sequential in-medium modifications, in accordance with the sizes of the bottomonium states.
    • Imputation methods for addressing missing data in short-term monitoring of air pollutants

      Hadeed, Steven J; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Burgess, Jefferey L; Harris, Robin B; Canales, Robert A; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth; Univ Arizona, Interdisciplinary Program Appl Math (ELSEVIER, 2020-08-15)
      Monitoring of environmental contaminants is a critical part of exposure sciences research and public health practice. Missing data are often encountered when performing short-term monitoring (<24 h) of air pollutants with real-time monitors, especially in resource-limited areas. Approaches for handling consecutive periods of missing and incomplete data in this context remain unclear. Our aim is to evaluate existing imputation methods for handling missing data for real-time monitors operating for short durations. In a current field-study, realtime PM2.5 monitors were placed outside of 20 households and ran for 24-hours. Missing data was simulated in these households at four consecutive periods of missingness (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%). Univariate (Mean, Median, Last Observation Carried Forward, Kalman Filter, Random, Markov) and multivariate time-series (Predictive Mean Matching, Row Mean Method) methods were used to impute missing concentrations, and performance was evaluated using five error metrics (Absolute Bias, Percent Absolute Error in Means, R2 Coefficient of Determination, Root Mean Square Error, Mean Absolute Error). Univariate methods of Markov, random, and mean imputations were the best performingmethods that yielded 24-hour mean concentrations with the lowest error and highest R2 values across all levels of missingness. When evaluating error metrics minute-by-minute, Kalman filters, median, and Markov methods performed well at low levels of missingness (20-40%). However, at higher levels of missingness (60-80%), Markov, random, median, and mean imputation performed best on average. Multivariate methods were the worst performing imputation methods across all levels of missingness. Imputation using univariate methods may provide a reasonable solution to addressing missing data for short-term monitoring of air pollutants, especially in resource-limited areas. Further efforts are needed to evaluate imputation methods that are generalizable across a diverse range of study environments. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • The sedimentological evolution and petroleum potential of a very thick Upper Cretaceous marine mudstone succession from the southern high latitudes—a case study from the Bight Basin, Australia

      Wainman, Carmine C.; Tagliaro, Gabriel; Jones, Matthew M.; Charles, Adam J.; Hall, Tony; White, Lloyd T.; Bogus, Kara A.; Wolfgring, Erik; O'Connor, Lauren K.; McCabe, Peter J.; et al. (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2020-08)
      During IODP Expedition 369, a 690 m thick succession of silty claystone spanning the early Turonian to the late Santonian was encountered at Site U1512 in the Bight Basin, offshore southern Australia. Stacking patterns, sedimentary facies and palynological assemblages reveal that the succession was rapidly deposited with hyperpycnal and hypopycnal flows in a marine prodelta setting, which was subject to basin restriction. The dominance of clay-rich facies and phytoclasts in the succession was likely the result of a major river system delivering a high sediment load into the Bight Basin when a warm, wet climate prevailed. A combination of high sedimentation rates (19-272 m/Myr) and accelerated subsidence prevented the delta from rapidly prograding into more distal regions of the basin. The complete Turonian to Santonian mudstone succession yields low total organic carbon (similar to 1 wt%) and Type IV kerogens. However, palynofacies assemblages become progressively marine in character and total organic carbon values vary between 1 and 1.5 wt% with depth. This may indicate that the base of the hole at Site U1512 was close to potential organic-rich black shales associated with Ocean Anoxic Event 2. Low amplitude and irregular reflections on seismic data and disparities between biostratigraphic zonations suggest the upper 350 m of the Turonian to Santonian succession may represent a mass movement that happened during the Pleistocene. This study reveals that Site U1512 material likely represents a near-stratigraphically complete marine mudstone succession from high paleolatitudes, as well as the only depositional record that was fully cored from the Bight Basin.
    • Handheld UV fluorescence spectrophotometer device for the classification and analysis of petroleum oil samples

      Bills, Matthew V; Loh, Andrew; Sosnowski, Katelyn; Nguyen, Brandon T; Ha, Sung Yong; Yim, Un Hyuk; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Univ Arizona, Dept Biomed Engn (ELSEVIER ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY, 2020-07-01)
      Oil spills can be environmentally devastating and result in unintended economic and social consequences. An important element of the concerted effort to respond to spills includes the ability to rapidly classify and characterize oil spill samples, preferably on-site. An easy-to-use, handheld sensor is developed and demonstrated in this work, capable of classifying oil spills rapidly on-site. Our device uses the computational power and affordability of a Raspberry Pi microcontroller and a Pi camera, coupled with three ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), a diffraction grating, and collimation slit, in order to collect a large data set of UV fluorescence fingerprints from various oil samples. Based on a 160-sample (in 5x replicates each with slightly varied dilutions) database this platform is able to classify oil samples into four broad categories: crude oil, heavy fuel oil, light fuel oil, and lubricating oil. The device uses principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce spectral dimensionality (1203 features) and support vector machine (SVM) for classification with 95% accuracy. The device is also able to predict some physiochemical properties, specifically saturate, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene percentages (SARA) based off linear relationships between different principal components (PCs) and the percentages of these residues. Sample preparation for our device is also straightforward and appropriate for field deployment, requiring little more than a Pasteur pipette and not being affected by dilution factors. These properties make our device a valuable field-deployable tool for oil sample analysis.
    • Early-life ketamine exposure attenuates the preference for ethanol in adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats

      Franco, Daniela; Zamudio, Jennifer; Blevins, Kennedy M; Núñez-Larios, Eric A; Ricoy, Ulises M; Iñiguez, Sergio D; Zavala, Arturo R; Univ Arizona, Dept Neurosci (ELSEVIER, 2020-07-01)
      Ketamine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, produces quick and effective antidepressant results in depressed juvenile and adult individuals. The long-term consequences of using ketamine in juvenile populations are not well known, particularly as it affects vulnerability to drugs of abuse later in life, given that ketamine is also a drug of abuse. Thus, the current study examined whether early-life ketamine administration produces long-term changes in the sensitivity to the rewarding effects of ethanol, as measured using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. On postnatal day (PD) 21, juvenile male and female rats were pretreated with ketamine (0.0 or 20 mg/kg) for 10 consecutive days (i.e., PD 21-30) and then evaluated for ethanol-induced CPP (0.0, 0.125, 0.5, or 2.0 g/kg) from PD 32 - 39. Results revealed that early-life ketamine administration attenuated the rewarding properties of ethanol in male rats, as ketamine pretreated rats failed to exhibit ethanol-induced CPP at any dose compared to saline pretreated rats, which showed an increased preference towards the ethanol-paired compartment in a dose-dependent manner. In females, ethanol-induced CPP was generally less robust compared to males, but ketamine pretreatment resulted in a rightward shift in the dose-response curve, given that ketamine pretreated rats needed a higher dose of ethanol compared to saline pretreated rats to exhibit ethanol-induced CPP. When considered together, the findings suggest that early use of ketamine does not appear to enhance the vulnerability to ethanol later in life, but in contrast, it may attenuate the rewarding effects of ethanol.
    • Enhanced adsorption of tetrabromobisphenol a (TBBPA) on cosmetic-derived plastic microbeads and combined effects on zebrafish

      Yu, Yunjiang; Ma, Ruixue; Qu, Han; Zuo, You; Yu, Ziling; Hu, Guocheng; Li, Zongrui; Chen, Haibo; Lin, Bigui; Wang, Bin; et al. (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-06-20)
      Microplastics (MPs) pollution and its potential environmental risks have drawn increasing concerns in recent years. Among which, microbeads in personal care and cosmetic products has becoming an emerging issue for their abundance as well as the knowledge gaps in their precise environmental behaviors in freshwater. The present study investigated the sorption process of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), the most widely applied and frequently encountered flame retardant in aquatic environments, on two sources of polyethylene (PE) particles (pristine PE particles and microbeads isolated from personal care and cosmetic products). Significantly enhanced adsorption capacity of microbeads was observed with up to 5-folds higher than the pristine PE particles. The sorption efficiency was also governed by solution pH, especially for the cosmetic-derived microbeads, indicating the strong adsorption of TBBPA on PE was dominated by both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Additionally, combined effects on redox status of zebrafish were evaluated with two environmental relevant concentrations of PE particles (0.5 and 5 mg L-1) using integrated biomarker response (IBR) index through a 14-d exposure. Co-exposure induced significant antioxidative stress than either PE or TBBPA alone when exposed to 0.5 mg L-1 of MPs. After 7-d depuration, the IBR value for combination treatments [TBBPA + PE (L)] was 3-fold compared with that in MP-free groups, indicating the coexistence might exert a prolonged adverse effects on aquatic organisms. These results highlight the probability of risk from microbead pollution in freshwater, where toxic compounds can be adsorbed on microbeads in a considerable amount resulting in potential adverse effects towards aquatic organisms.
    • Tension Strain-Softening and Compression Strain-Stiffening Behavior of Brain White Matter

      Eskandari, Faezeh; Shafieian, Mehdi; Aghdam, Mohammad M.; Laksari, Kaveh; Univ Arizona, Dept Biomed Engn (Springer, 2020-06-16)
      Brain, the most important component of the central nervous system (CNS), is a soft tissue with a complex structure. Understanding the role of brain tissue microstructure in mechanical properties is essential to have a more profound knowledge of how brain development, disease, and injury occur. While many studies have investigated the mechanical behavior of brain tissue under various loading conditions, there has not been a clear explanation for variation reported for material properties of brain tissue. The current study compares the ex-vivo mechanical properties of brain tissue under two loading modes, namely compression and tension, and aims to explain the differences observed by closely examining the microstructure under loading. We tested bovine brain samples under uniaxial tension and compression loading conditions, and fitted hyperelastic material parameters. At 20% strain, we observed that the shear modulus of brain tissue in compression is about 6 times higher than in tension. In addition, we observed that brain tissue exhibited strain-stiffening in compression and strain-softening in tension. In order to investigate the effect of loading modes on the tissue microstructure, we fixed the samples using a novel method that enabled keeping the samples at the loaded stage during the fixation process. Based on the results of histology, we hypothesize that during compressive loading, the strain-stiffening behavior of the tissue could be attributed to glial cell bodies being pushed against surroundings, contacting each other and resisting compression, while during tension, cell connections are detached and the tissue displays softening behavior.
    • Warming and precipitation addition interact to affect plant spring phenology in alpine meadows on the central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

      Ganjurjav, Hasbagan; Gornish, Elise S.; Hu, Guozheng; Schwartz, Mark W.; Wan, Yunfan; Li, Yue; Gao, Qingzhu; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (ELSEVIER, 2020-06-15)
      Temperature and precipitation are primary regulators of plant phenology. However, our knowledge of how these factors might interact to affect plant phenology is incomplete. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, a cold and high region, has experienced no consistent changes in spring phenology, despite a significant warming trend. We conducted a manipulative experiment of warming and precipitation addition in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in 2015 (cold and wet), 2016 (warm and dry) and 2017 (mild and very wet). We found that warming increased annual variability of plant spring phenology. Warming delayed green up of all monitored species in 2016, advanced green up of early flowering species in 2015, and did not alter green up in 2017. For example, green up of the shallow rooted Kobresia pygmaea advanced 8 (+/- 2) days in 2015 and was delayed by 23 (+/- 3) days in a dry year (2016) under warming compared with control. Early spring precipitation addition can offset the delaying effects of warming in a dry year on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Under warming plus precipitation addition, community average green up advanced compared to control plots in 2015 and 2016, and community average flowering advanced for all three years. In 2016, flowering of K. pygmaea (an early flowering species) advanced under warming plus precipitation addition compared to control while flowering of other species did not change. Our results highlight that annual variation of soil moisture condition plays a critical role in determining the magnitude and direction of spring phenology response to warming. We provide insights in how plant spring phenology might change in a warmer future in the presence or absence of precipitation increase.
    • Empowering Clinician Education with Patient‐Outcome Feedback

      Iserson, Kenneth V.; Univ Arizona, Dept Emergency Med (Wiley, 2020-06-07)
      Emergency physicians (EPs) often lack the information they need about their patients’ outcomes so that they can both optimally adjust and refine their diagnostic and treatment processes and recognize their clinical errors. Patient‐outcome feedback (POF) provides that information by informing clinicians about a patient’s clinical course after that clinician’s evaluation and treatment. This feedback may encompass the period after the EP has transferred a patient’s care to another EP or after the patient has left the ED or hospital. EPs obtain POF through various active and passive methods, depending on their institutional and medical record systems. Active methods require that clinicians or others spend time and effort acquiring the information; passive methods deliver it automatically. POF is an excellent performance‐based measurement that helps clinicians to stimulate their learning and to build their own validated mental library of outcomes with which to make clinical decisions, i.e., heuristics, System 1 thinking. POF offers especially useful feedback about patients who have been admitted, were referred to specialists, had major interventions, had potentially significant tests pending on discharge, or were handed off to another EP. The current healthcare system makes it difficult for EPs to discover their patients’ outcomes, squandering significant educational opportunities. Three stimuli to improve this situation would be to require EPs to receive passive POF as part of hospital accreditation, for reviewing POF to be classified as a Category 1 Continuing Medical Education activity, and to reimburse clinicians for learning activities related to POF. Research indicates that our healthcare institutions and systems would be well served to provide clinicians with ongoing automatic information about their patients’ outcomes.
    • SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Vaccine Development and Production: An Ethical Way Forward

      Iserson, Kenneth V.; Univ Arizona, Dept Emergency Med (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2020-06-05)
      The world awaits a SARS-CoV-2 virus (i.e., COVID-19 disease) vaccine to keep the populace healthy, fully reopen their economies, and return their social and healthcare systems to “normal.” Vaccine safety and efficacy requires meticulous testing and oversight; this paper describes how despite grandiose public statements, the current vaccine development, testing, and production methods may prove to be ethically dubious, medically dangerous, and socially volatile. The basic moral concern is the potential danger to the health of human test subjects and, eventually, many vaccine recipients. This is further complicated by economic and political pressures to reduce government oversight on rushed vaccine testing and production, nationalistic distribution goals, and failure to plan for the widespread immunization needed to produce global herd immunity. As this paper asserts, the public must be better informed to assess promises about the novel vaccines being produced and to tolerate delays and uncertainty.
    • Reflections: a Daughter's Experience of Parental Cancer and the Beginnings of Un Abrazo Para La Familia™

      Marshall, Catherine A; Univ Arizona, Dept Disabil & Psychoeduc Studies (SPRINGER, 2020-06-04)
      The author describes her impetus and journey in developing Un Abrazo Para La Familia (TM) [Embracing the Family] (Abrazo), 3 hours of cancer information presented in an educational and modular format and designed for low-income informal caregivers who are co-survivors of cancer. A rehabilitation-informed preventive intervention, Abrazo reflects the importance of family, culture, and socioeconomic background in its approach.
    • Monumental architecture at Aguada Fénix and the rise of Maya civilization

      Inomata, Takeshi; Triadan, Daniela; Vázquez López, Verónica A; Fernandez-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Omori, Takayuki; Méndez Bauer, María Belén; García Hernández, Melina; Beach, Timothy; Cagnato, Clarissa; Aoyama, Kazuo; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2020-06-03)
      Archaeologists have traditionally thought that the development of Maya civilization was gradual, assuming that small villages began to emerge during the Middle Preclassic period (1000-350 bc; dates are calibrated throughout) along with the use of ceramics and the adoption of sedentism(1). Recent finds of early ceremonial complexes are beginning to challenge this model. Here we describe an airborne lidar survey and excavations of the previously unknown site of Aguada Fenix (Tabasco, Mexico) with an artificial plateau, which measures 1,400 m in length and 10 to 15 m in height and has 9 causeways radiating out from it. We dated this construction to between 1000 and 800 bc using a Bayesian analysis of radiocarbon dates. To our knowledge, this is the oldest monumental construction ever found in the Maya area and the largest in the entire pre-Hispanic history of the region. Although the site exhibits some similarities to the earlier Olmec centre of San Lorenzo, the community of Aguada Fenix probably did not have marked social inequality comparable to that of San Lorenzo. Aguada Fenix and other ceremonial complexes of the same period suggest the importance of communal work in the initial development of Maya civilization. Lidar survey of the Maya lowlands uncovers the monumental site of Aguada Fenix, which dates to around 1000-800 bc and points to the role of communal construction in the development of Maya civilization.
    • Association between lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphisms and cardiovascular disease risk factors in European adolescents: The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study

      Salazar-Tortosa, Diego F; Pascual-Gamarra, Jose M; Labayen, Idoia; Rupérez, Azahara I; Censi, Laura; Béghin, Laurent; Michels, Nathalie; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Manios, Yannis; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; et al. (WILEY, 2020-06-03)
      Objectives To examine the association of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) polymorphisms with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in European adolescents, along with the influence of physical activity on these associations. Methods A total of 13 LPL polymorphisms were genotyped in 1.057 European adolescents (12-18 years old) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study. Serum lipids, glucose, insulin, and leptin (LEP) levels were measured and a CVD risk score was computed. We also measured body weight and height, waist and hip circumferences, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness. Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry for 7 days. Results The rs1534649, rs258, rs320, and rs328 polymorphisms were associated with several CVD risk factors (ie, body mass index, triglycerides [TG], LEP, and cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein [HDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL]/HDL, TG/HDL ratios). TG and TG/HDL were associated with haplotype blocks 3 (rs282, rs285 polymorphisms) and 4 (rs3126, rs320, rs328, rs10099160 polymorphisms), being the latter also associated with the CVD risk score. Physical activity modulated the association of adiposity with rs1534649 and rs258 polymorphisms. Conclusions Polymorphisms rs1534649, rs258, rs320 and rs328, and two haplotypes of LPL were significantly associated with CVD risk factors in European adolescents. Higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity may attenuate the effects of rs1534649 and rs258 polymorphisms on adiposity.
    • Adaptive generalized ZEM-ZEV feedback guidance for planetary landing via a deep reinforcement learning approach

      Furfaro, Roberto; Scorsoglio, Andrea; Linares, Richard; Massari, Mauro; Univ Arizona, Dept Syst & Ind Engn, Dept Aerosp & Mech Engn; Univ Arizona, Dept Syst & Ind Engn (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-06)
      Precision landing on large and small planetary bodies is a technology of utmost importance for future human and robotic exploration of the solar system. In this context, the Zero-Effort-Miss/Zero-Effort-Velocity (ZEM/ZEV) feedback guidance algorithm has been studied extensively and is still a field of active research. The algorithm, although powerful in terms of accuracy and ease of implementation, has some limitations. Therefore with this paper we present an adaptive guidance algorithm based on classical ZEM/ZEV in which machine learning is used to overcome its limitations and create a closed loop guidance algorithm that is sufficiently lightweight to be implemented on board spacecraft and flexible enough to be able to adapt to the given constraint scenario. The adopted methodology is an actor-critic reinforcement learning algorithm that learns the parameters of the above-mentioned guidance architecture according to the given problem constraints.
    • Pretreatment for water reuse using fluidized bed crystallization

      AzadiAghdam, Mojtaba; Park, Minkyu; Lopez-Prieto, Israel J.; Achilli, Andrea; Snyder, Shane A.; Farrell, James; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Environm Engn (ELSEVIER, 2020-06)
      This research investigated the use of fluidized bed crystallization for removing scale forming species and natural organic matter (NOM) from treated municipal wastewater prior to water reclamation. The effect of pH on Ca2+, Mg2+, silica and NOM removal in a fluidized bed crystallization reactor (FBCR) was determined. NOM removal in the FBCR was compared to that for the conventional treatments, ultrafiltration and ferric chloride coagulation/flocculation. Under optimized conditions, fluidized bed crystallization was able to remove more than 99.9 % of Mg2+, 97 % of Ca2+ and 42 % of silica. The FBCR was also able to remove 25 % of NOM, which was intermediate between NOM removal by ferric chloride (56 %) and ultrafiltration (13 %). Size exclusion chromatography-organic carbon detection (SEC-OCD) indicated that the majority of NOM removal occurred via co-precipitation with Mg(OH)(2). Excitation emission matrix-parallel factor (EEM-PARAFAC) analysis was used to investigate the types of NOM removed. The FBCR was able to remove all five NOM components (three humic acids, one fulvic acid and one protein-like substance), including 100 % of the autochthonous fulvic acids. Ferric chloride was also able to remove all five NOM components, but only one third of the autochthonous fulvic acids, while ultrafiltration was able to remove only 11 % of the protein-like NOM.
    • Constructive and destructive interparental conflict, parenting, and coparenting alliance

      Kopystynska, Olena; Barnett, Melissa A; Curran, Melissa A; Univ Arizona, Dept Family Studies & Human Dev (AMER PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOC, 2020-06)
      Guided by the spillover hypothesis of family systems theory, we used data from the Building Strong Families project to examine intrafamily relations between destructive and constructive interparental conflict, harsh and supportive parenting behaviors, and coparenting alliance across different family configurations: married, cohabiting, and noncohabiting (never married) parents. Our sample (N = 2,784 couples/parents) was racially diverse, low-income couples/parents who were unmarried at the conception of their child. All variables were measured when children were approximately 36 months of age. Interparental conflict was assessed through an instrument that included both parents' reported conflict in the relationship and the perception of the other parent's conflict behaviors. Parenting behaviors were measured through observational data and coparenting alliance was based on mothers' and fathers' reports. As expected, path analyses revealed that destructive interparental conflict was related to lower levels of coparenting alliance, whereas constructive interparental conflict was related to higher levels of coparenting alliance, for mothers and fathers. For fathers only, destructive interparental conflict related to harsh parenting, suggesting that paternal parenting is vulnerable to the quality of the relationship with the mother. None of the proposed associations differed by family structure. These findings suggest the need for intervention programs to focus on promoting adaptive conflict management behaviors rather than on family structure. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
    • General equilibrium rebound from energy efficiency innovation

      Lemoine, Derek; Univ Arizona, McClelland Hall (ELSEVIER, 2020-06)
      Energy efficiency improvements "rebound" when economic responses undercut their direct energy savings. I show that general equilibrium channels typically amplify rebound by making consumption goods cheaper but typically dampen rebound by increasing demand for non-energy inputs to production and by changing the size of the energy supply sector. Improvements in the efficiency of the energy supply sector generate especially large rebound because they make energy cheaper in all other sectors. Quantitatively, general equilibrium channels reduce rebound in U.S. consumption good sectors from 39% to 28% but increase rebound in the energy supply sector from 42% to 80%. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Breadwinner Seeks Bottle Warmer: How Women’s Future Aspirations and Expectations Predict Their Current Mate Preferences

      Croft, Alyssa; Schmader, Toni; Beall, Alec; Schaller, Mark; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychol (SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS, 2020-06)
      Contemporary women in Western cultures are often trying to juggle careers alongside personal and societal expectations for childrearing in an effort to "have it all." We examine the effects of this balancing act on heterosexual women's mate selection motivations. Across three Canadian samples (n = 360), we tested concurrent hypotheses about the desirability of both similar and complementary characteristics in a potential mate. Specifically, women's aspirations (to prioritize career over family) and their expectations for the roles they will most likely adopt within their future partnerships (primary breadwinner and/or caregiver) were tested as key predictors of mate preferences. Although specific effects varied across samples, a mega-analysis of the combined sample and an internal meta-analysis of effect sizes from the three studies provided support for both complementary and similarity motives (controlling for gender role attitudes). Women's aspirations to prioritize career (over family) predicted greater similarity in mate preferences, such that they placed less importance on men's parenting qualities, more importance on their access to financial resources, and preferred a career-oriented over family-oriented exemplar. However, women's expectations of actually taking on the breadwinner role predicted greater complementarity in mate preferences (greater desirability of parenting qualities and a family-oriented partner; with financial resources rated as less important). Our work expands current understanding of women's decision-making processes when selecting a mate and has implications for men's changing traits and roles.
    • Associations of air pollution with obesity and body fat percentage, and modification by polygenic risk score for BMI in the UK Biobank

      Furlong, Melissa A; Klimentidis, Yann C; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Commun Environm & Policy, Div Environm Hlth Sci; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-06)
      Air pollution has consistently been associated with cardiometabolic outcomes, although associations with obesity have only been recently reported. Studies of air pollution and adiposity have mostly relied on body mass index (BMI) rather than body fat percentage (BF%), and most have not accounted for noise as a possible confounder. Additionally, it is unknown whether genetic predisposition for obesity increases susceptibility to the obesogenic effects of air pollution. To help fill these gaps, we used the UK Biobank, a large, prospective cohort study in the United Kingdom, to explore the relationship between air pollution and adiposity, and modification by a polygenic risk score for BMI. We used 2010 annual averages of air pollution estimates from land use regression (NO2, NOX, PM2.5, PM2.5absorbance, PM2.5-10, PM10), traffic intensity (TI), inverse distance to road (IDTR), along with examiner-measured BMI, waist-hip-ratio (WHR), and impedance measures of BF%, which were collected at enrollment (2006-2010, n = 473,026) and at follow-up (2012-2013, n = 19,518). We estimated associations of air pollution with BMI, WHR, and BF% at enrollment and follow-up, and with obesity, abdominal obesity, and BF%-obesity at enrollment and follow-up. We used linear and logistic regression and controlled for noise and other covariates. We also assessed interactions of air pollution with a polygenic risk score for BMI. On average, participants at enrollment were 56 years of age, 54% were female, and 32% had completed college or a higher degree. Almost all participants (~95%) were white. All air pollution measures except IDTR were positively associated with at least one continuous measure of adiposity at enrollment. However, NO2 was negatively associated with BMI but positively associated with WHR at enrollment, and IDTR was also negatively associated with BMI. At follow-up (controlling for enrollment adiposity), we observed positive associations for PM2.5-10 with BMI, PM10 with BF%, and TI with BF% and BMI. Associations were similar for binary measures of adiposity, with minor differences for some pollutants. Associations of NOX, NO2, PM2.5absorbance, PM2.5 and PM10, with BMI at enrollment, but not at follow-up, were stronger among individuals with higher BMI polygenic risk scores (interaction p <0.05). In this large, prospective cohort, air pollution was associated with several measures of adiposity at enrollment and follow-up, and associations with adiposity at enrollment were modified by a polygenic risk score for obesity.
    • Fire impacts on a forest obligate: western gray squirrel response to burn severity

      Mazzamuto, Maria Vittoria; Mazzella, Maxwell N.; Merrick, Melissa J.; Koprowski, John L.; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm, Environm & Nat Resources 2 (SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, 2020-06)
      In the southwestern United States, climate change and climate-fire dynamics are affecting the distribution of natural and managed ecosystems. Forest obligate species on sky islands can experience a restriction in range with the increase of destructive forest fires. Using presence/absence data collected by hair tubes, we identified key habitat features that determine the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) distribution on the sky island of the San Bernardino Mountains (California, USA) and determined post-fire differential use of burn severity in a landscape modified by fire. Gray squirrel presence was related to habitat features important for this species' ecology and behavior, especially those associated with mature forests. The species was detected in areas with a high percentage of conifers that provide both an important food resource and good branches and cavities for nest sites. Gray squirrels occurred in all burn severities but occurred more in low and high severity sites than unburned sites. These results suggest that the gray squirrel can persist after a wildfire and can take advantage of the post-fire habitat structure if a mosaic of burn severities is maintained in the forest.