• Atomic Embeddability, Clustered Planarity, and Thickenability

      Fulek, Radoslav; Tóth, Csaba D.; Univ Arizona, Dept Comp Sci (Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 2020-12-23)
      We study the atomic embeddability testing problem, which is a common generalization of clustered planarity (c-planarity, for short) and thickenability testing, and present a polynomial time algorithm for this problem, thereby giving the first polynomial time algorithm for c-planarity. C-planarity was introduced in 1995 by Feng, Cohen, and Eades as a variant of graph planarity, in which the vertex set of the input graph is endowed with a hierarchical clustering and we seek an embedding (crossing free drawing) of the graph in the plane that respects the clustering in a certain natural sense. Until now, it has been an open problem whether c-planarity can be tested efficiently, despite relentless efforts. The thickenability problem for simplicial complexes emerged in the topology of manifolds in the 1960s. A 2-dimensional simplicial complex is thickenable if it embeds in some orientable 3-dimensional manifold. Recently, Carmesin announced that thickenability can be tested in polynomial time. Our algorithm for atomic embeddability combines ideas from Carmesin's work with algorithmic tools previously developed for weak embeddability testing. We express our results purely in terms of graphs on surfaces, and rely on the machinery of topological graph theory. Finally we give a polynomial-time reduction from c-planarity to thickenability and show that a slight generalization of atomic embeddability to the setting in which clusters are toroidal graphs is NP-complete.
    • Excited bottomonia in quark-gluon plasma from lattice QCD

      Larsen, Rasmus; Meinel, Stefan; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, Peter; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (ELSEVIER, 2020-11-26)
      We present the first lattice QCD study of up to 3S and 2P bottomonia at non-zero temperatures. Correlation functions of bottomonia were computed using novel bottomonium operators and a variational technique, within the lattice non-relativistic QCD framework. We analyzed the bottomonium correlation functions based on simple physically-motivated spectral functions. We found evidence of sequential in-medium modifications, in accordance with the sizes of the bottomonium states.
    • Superiority of Bayes estimators over the MLE in high dimensional multinomial models and its implication for nonparametric Bayes theory

      Bhattacharya, Rabi; Oliver, Rachel; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (ELSEVIER, 2020-10)
      The performance of Bayes estimators is examined, in comparison with the MLE, in multinomial models with a relatively large number of cells. The prior for the Bayes estimator is taken to be the conjugate Dirichlet, i.e., the multivariate Beta, with exchangeable distributions over the coordinates, including the non-informative uniform distribution. The choice of the multinomial is motivated by its many applications in business and industry, but also by its use in providing a simple nonparametric estimator of an unknown distribution. It is striking that the Bayes procedure outperforms the asymptotically efficient MLE over most of the parameter spaces for even moderately large dimensional parameter spaces and rather large sample sizes. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Forward osmosis and pressure retarded osmosis process modeling for integration with seawater reverse osmosis desalination

      Binger, Zachary M.; Achilli, Andrea; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Environm Engn (ELSEVIER, 2020-10)
      Osmotically driven membrane processes such as forward osmosis and pressure retarded osmosis may hold key advantages when integrated with seawater reverse osmosis to form hybrid FO-RO and RO-PRO systems. In this work, module-scale modeling of these two processes was improved by accurately representing the features of a spiral-wound membrane. The model captures important characteristics such as the cross-flow stream orientation, membrane baffling, and channel dimensions unique to spiral-wound membranes. The new module-scale model was then scaled to the system-level to compare various system designs for FO-RO and RO-PRO systems, most notably, a multi-stage recharge design was defined. Results indicate that the multi-stage recharge design leads to an increase in wastewater utilization, as high as 90%, when compared to the single-stage designs. Additionally, the multi-stage recharge configuration can increase the specific energy recovery of pressure retarded osmosis by over 75%. The multi-stage recharge design is found to be not only advantageous but may be also necessary to the integration of osmotically driven membrane processes with seawater reverse osmosis.
    • The modern evolution of geomorphology — Binghamton and personal perspectives, 1970–2019 and beyond

      Baker, Victor R.; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
      The annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposia (BGS) began in 1970, initiated by Professors Donald R. Coates and Marie Morisawa of the State University of New York at Binghamton. The 50 BGS meeting topics through 2019 can be organized into five general themes, as follows: (1) Applications; (2) Methods; (3) Process and Form; (4) History, Philosophy, and Theory; (5) Systems. My own geomorphological research can be divided among these themes, though it has not always been in tune with any prevailing paradigm. The experience of the BGS meetings suggests that the immediate future of geomorphology will follow current trends involving technological advances in such areas as geochronology, geospatial analysis, lidar mapping, computer simulation, and systems-based predictive modeling. For the longer term it may be that the research frontiers will lie in outer and inner space, with the former involving the discovery and analysis of the surfaces of Earth-like planets within and beyond our own solar system. The challenges of inner space may be even more profound as they are imposed against the background of rapidly accelerating advances in artificial intelligence. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Meso-Cenozoic multiple exhumation in the Shandong Peninsula, eastern North China Craton: Implications for lithospheric destruction

      Yang, Fan; Santosh, M.; Glorie, Stijn; Jepson, Gilby; Xue, Fei; Kim, Sung Won; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
      The Shandong Peninsula in the eastern North China Craton (NCC) forms part of the region that witnessed extensive tectonic reactivation with concomitant craton destruction and lithospheric thinning during the Meso-Cenozoic. Previous studies concentrated mainly on the timing, mechanism and tectonic setting of the Meso-Cenozoic magmatism, with inadequate evidence from low temperature thermochronology to constrain the thermo-tectonic exhumation history of this region. In this study, we present new apatite U-Pb (AUPb) and fission track (AFT) data with corresponding thermal history models for igneous rocks from the two flanks of the Tan-Lu Fault Zone (TLFZ) that bisects the Shandong Peninsula, with a view to gain insights into the Meso-Cenozoic exhumation history of this region and to evaluate its implications on the lithospheric destruction of the NCC. The newly obtained AUPb ages of 2.5-1.5 Ga for the Precambrian intrusive rocks and of 162-112 Ma for the Mesozoic igneous suite are mainly used to constrain their thermal history models. In addition, the Mesozoic AUPb ages of 162-112 Ma highly overlap with their corresponding zircon U-Pb ages (161-115 Ma), suggesting shallow granitoid emplacement and associated rapid post-magmatic cooling in response to the westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. The AFT dating results yield two groups of AFT central ages at 122-113 Ma and 98-59 Ma, and corresponding thermal history models also reveal two rapid cooling stages during the Early Cretaceous (130-105 Ma) and Late Cretaceous to Paleogene (85-55 Ma). By integrating previous low temperature therrmx:hronological studies with this study, we interpret that the Early Cretaceous rapid exhumation corresponds to the peak timing of craton destruction, resulting from the Paleo-Pacific slab rollback within a back-arc extensional setting. The Late Cretaceous rapid exhumation is interpreted as a response to continuing craton destruction, derived by the NNW-directed Pacific Plate subduction.The Paleogene cooling might represent the termination of craton destruction of Shandong Peninsula associated with a dextral motion along the TLFZ, triggered by the change in direction of the Pacific Plate from NNW to WNW and/or far-field effect of the India-Eurasia collision. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All lights reserved.
    • Combination of searches for Higgs boson pairs in pp collisions at s=13TeV with the ATLAS detector

      Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, D.C.; Abed Abud, A.; Abeling, K.; Abhayasinghe, D.K.; Abidi, S.H.; AbouZeid, O.S.; Abraham, N.L.; Abramowicz, H.; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2020-1)
    • Sparse subsurface radar reflectors in Hellas Planitia, Mars

      Cook, Claire W.; Bramson, Ali M.; Byrne, Shane; Holt, John W.; Christoffersen, Michael S.; Viola, Donna; Dundas, Colin M.; Goudge, Timothy A.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-09-15)
      Geomorphological features potentially related to subsurface ice, such as scalloped depressions, expanded craters, pedestal craters, and banded terrain, are present in and around Hellas Planitia, Mars. We present a radar survey of the region using the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) instrument on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) to identify candidate subsurface reflectors that may be due to the presence of potentially ice-rich deposits. We found that the majority of radar returns are likely from off-nadir surface topography ("clutter"), arising from the rough topography of the region. There is no widespread radar return from any subsurface interfaces. However, we identify a group of six reflectors adjacent to each other on a plateau in Malea Patera in which we have higher confidence. Landforms associated with a likely ice-rich mantle are associated with the plateau, but the thickness of this mantle does not correspond to the expected depth of the reflectors. However, layers beneath the mantle and marginal pitting at the edge of the plateau are similar to those associated with pedestal craters, which may be ice rich and are a similar thickness to the expected depth of the reflectors. Malea Patera has been interpreted to be a volcanic caldera, so the reflectors may be associated with a volcanic deposit within the plateau, although the evidence for this is inconclusive. Because this radar detection is localized and its origin ambiguous, we cannot use it to make conclusions about the thickness of subsurface deposits in the Hellas region as a whole. The lack of widespread radar reflectors in this region, as compared to the northern mid-latitudes where extensive radar reflections have been mapped, may be due in part to higher surface roughness, which creates radar clutter that may obscure subsurface reflectors. However on the southern rim of the basin and south of the basin, the lack of reflectors may indicate that the possible ice-rich deposits observed geomorphologically in this region are too thin to be resolved by SHARAD, are dielectrically similar to the underlying unit, or have a gradual vertical transition in ice content that is not reflective for the radar. This would imply that recent climate processes may have favored widespread, thick ice deposition or preservation in the northern hemisphere as compared to the southern hemisphere.
    • “The Real ‘Aha!’ Moments”: Teaching Undergraduate Students with Primary Sources

      Duncan, Lisa; Feeney, Mary; Wallace, Niamh; University of Arizona Libraries (The University of Arizona., 2020-09-01)
      In 2019-2020, the University of Arizona Libraries (UAL) participated in the Ithaka S+R “Teaching with Primary Sources” research project, along with twenty-five other public and private research universities and liberal arts colleges in the United States and the United Kingdom. Coordinated by Ithaka S+R, a not-for-profit research and consulting organization that helps the academic, cultural, and publishing communities navigate change, the study investigated instructors’ experiences and challenges when teaching undergraduate students with primary sources. A local team of UAL librarians and archivists conducted interviews with instructors in the humanities and social sciences who teach undergraduate students with primary sources, and produced recommendations for the development of library resources and services to support instruction with primary sources.
    • mm-Pose: Real-Time Human Skeletal Posture Estimation Using mmWave Radars and CNNs

      Sengupta, Arindam; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Renyuan; Cao, Siyang; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2020-09-01)
      In this paper, mm-Pose, a novel approach to detect and track human skeletons in real-time using an mmWave radar, is proposed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first method to detect >15 distinct skeletal joints using mmWave radar reflection signals. The proposed method would find several applications in traffic monitoring systems, autonomous vehicles, patient monitoring systems and defense forces to detect and track human skeleton for effective and preventive decision making in real-time. The use of radar makes the system operationally robust to scene lighting and adverse weather conditions. The reflected radar point cloud in range, azimuth and elevation are first resolved and projected in Range-Azimuth and Range-Elevation planes. A novel low-size high-resolution radar-to-image representation is also presented, that overcomes the sparsity in traditional point cloud data and offers significant reduction in the subsequent machine learning architecture. The RGB channels were assigned with the normalized values of range, elevation/azimuth and the power level of the reflection signals for each of the points. A forked CNN architecture was used to predict the real-world position of the skeletal joints in 3-D space, using the radar-to-image representation. The proposed method was tested for a single human scenario for four primary motions, (i) Walking, (ii) Swinging left arm, (iii) Swinging right arm, and (iv) Swinging both arms to validate accurate predictions for motion in range, azimuth and elevation. The detailed methodology, implementation, challenges, and validation results are presented.
    • Simulated microgravity disarms human NK-cells and inhibits anti-tumor cytotoxicity in vitro

      Mylabathula, Preteesh Leo; Li, Li; Bigley, Austin B.; Markofski, Melissa M.; Crucian, Brian E.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Rezvani, Katayoun; Simpson, Richard J.; et al. (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-09)
      Long-duration spaceflight impairs natural killer (NK) cell function, which could compromise immune surveillance in exploration class mission crew. To determine if microgravity can impair NK-cell function, we established a rotary cell culture system to expose human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to simulated microgravity (SMG) in vitro. We found that 12 h of SMG suppressed NK-cell cytotoxic activity (NKCA) by similar to 50% against K562, U266 and 721.221 tumor target cells when returned to the 1G environment. Mass cytometry was used to identify 37 individual markers associated with NK-cell activation, maturation and cytotoxicity, revealing that SMG causes reductions in NK-cell degranulation and effector cytokine production. Extended flow cytometry confirmed that SMG lowered NK cell perforin and granzyme b expression by 25% and 17% respectively, but did not affect the surface expression of various activating (NKG2D, NKp30) and inhibitory (NKG2A, KLRG1) receptors or the ability of NK-cells to conjugate with target cells. Flow cytometry further revealed that SMG impaired NK-cell degranulation (reduced CD107a+ expression) and suppressed TNF alpha and IFN gamma secretion in response to stimulation with K562 target cells. These findings indicate that SMG 'disarms' human NK-cells of cytolytic granules and impairs NKCA against a range of tumor target cells in vitro. Exposure to microgravity could be a factor that contributes to impaired NK-cell function during long duration space travel.
    • Pilot study of focus groups exploring student pharmacists' perceptions of a medication management center internship

      Axon, David R; Aljadeed, Raniah; Potisarach, Pemmarin; Forbes, Stephanie; DiLeo, Jessica; Warholak, Terri; Univ Arizona, Coll Pharm (ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2020-09)
      Introduction: Student pharmacists are expected to participate in real-life, patient-centered experiences to help develop clinical knowledge and professional skills. This study explored student pharmacist intern perceptions of work experience at a medication management center (MMC). We also examined how working at the MMC helped fulfill curricular requirements, helped develop leadership skills, and provided professional development opportunities. Methods: Two focus groups were conducted with first-, second-, and third-year student pharmacist interns at the MMC in April 2019. The focus groups were audio recorded for verification purposes, transcribed, and analyzed thematically by two independent reviewers. Results: A total of five student pharmacist interns participated. Four main themes were identified: (1) knowledge; (2) communication; (3) time management; and (4) leadership, mentorship, and networking. Participants had opportunities to acquire new knowledge and skills outside the classroom, providing them an academic advantage while recognizing areas of deficiency. Students practiced communication skills that helped improve language skills and manage difficult patients, although telephonic consultations were challenging. Students learned to prioritize time with patients but reported difficulty managing their work schedules. Leadership, mentorship, and networking opportunities facilitated learning and improved their self-confidence. Conclusions: This qualitative analysis identified four key themes, highlighting the many benefits available for student pharmacist interns working at an academic-based MMC. Further research is needed to address challenges reported in this study and should include a larger sample of student pharmacists for more generalizable results.
    • Climate sensitivity to decadal land cover and land use change across the conterminous United States

      Xian, George Z.; Loveland, Thomas; Munson, Seth M.; Vogelmann, James E.; Zeng, Xubin; Homer, Collin J.; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (Elsevier BV, 2020-09)
      Transitions to terrestrial ecosystems attributable to land cover and land use change (LCLUC) and climate change can affect the climate at local to regional scales. However, conclusions from most previous studies do not provide information about local climate effects, and little research has directly quantified how LCLUC intensity within different ecoregions relates to climate variation. In this study, we present an observation-based analysis of climate sensitivity to LCLUC based on decadal LCLUC and climate data in different ecoregions. Our results revealed that variations in land surface temperature and vapor pressure were most sensitive to LCLUC across the conterminous United States, while precipitation was less sensitive. Persistent warming effects were produced from LCLUC in Appalachian and some of the central U.S., High Plains, and northwest ecoregions, but cooling effects were evident in the many southeast, northeast and some Great Lakes and Intermountain West ecoregions. Most of the warming and a few cooling ecoregions were sensitive to LCLUC. Ecoregions with increasing vapor pressure were found across the Great Plains, Intermountain West, and West Coast ecoregions and several of these regions in the Great Plains and West Coast were sensitive to LCLUC. A combination of changes in temperature, precipitation, and vapor pressure was used to characterize climate sensitivity associated with LCLUC forcing, and five major persistent patterns were found in some ecoregions. These findings suggest that climate conditions, especially temperature and vapor pressure, in some ecoregions are sensitive to LCLUC and such change should be better incorporated into regional climate assessments.
    • The making of Class C fly ash as high-strength precast construction material through geopolymerization

      Zhang, Jinhong; Feng, Qingming; Univ Arizona, Dept Min & Geol Engn (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-17)
      A study has been carried out to apply fly ash as a high strength, water-resistant precast construction material through geopolymerization. Experiment results show that the working conditions such as water content, the concentration of NaOH, curing temperature, and curing time significantly affect the mechanical property of geopolymer matrix. Through optimization, an above-100 MPa compressive strength has been achieved with the geopolymerization products. The optimum working conditions involves 10 M NaOH concentration, 14-15% water content, and curing at 90 degrees C in an oven for 1 day or at ambient condition for 3 weeks. Adding Ca(OH)(2)does not help to increase the compressive strength of the specimen. Water soaking tests show that the geopolymerization product has a very high water resistance without losing noticeable compressive strength, even after a 1-month soaking time. To elucidate the geopolymerization mechanism, microscopic techniques such as SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared) are also applied to investigate the microstructure, the elemental and phase composition of geopolymerization products. The findings of the present work provide a novel method for applying fly ash as a high-strength water-resistant precast construction material.
    • Monte Carlo simulations of electron-sample interactions at phase boundaries and implications for automated mineralogy

      Barton, Isabel; Univ Arizona, Dept Min & Geol Engn; Univ Arizona, Dept Min & Geol Engn (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-08-15)
      Automated mineralogy instrumentation (QEMSCAN, MLA, TIMA) is routinely used for materials characterization in the mining industry. All current techniques identify minerals based on a combination of backscattered electron and chemical (energy-dispersive spectroscopy) signals read from the sample. Boundary zones, where two or more minerals are touching, yield signals that reflect a mix of the characteristics of multiple minerals and that may or may not match anything in the mineral database. These phase boundaries, varying in width, are known to cause errors in automated mineralogy analyses, but what mineral and boundary characteristics affect phase boundary width and how much error phase boundaries can cause remain poorly understood. New Monte Carlo modeling of electron-sample interactions at and near phase boundaries shows that the width of the zone of mixed signals, and hence the amount of error, depends on the grain size and texture of the sample; the densities of the minerals and the ionization potentials of their constituent elements; and the position and orientation of the boundary between the minerals, as well as various instrumental factors such as beam accelerating voltage. Error induced by phase boundaries is high when a high accelerating voltage is used to examine fine-grained samples with complex (intergrowth, exsolution) textures that involve low-density minerals with low-ionization-potential elements. Error is low when the sample is coarse-grained, lacks complex textural relationships that create boundary area, and consists of high-density minerals with high-ionization-potential elements, which have a higher electron stopping power and prevent the beam from spreading out as much. Where low- and high-density minerals are in contact at an angled boundary, the width of the boundary zone is low when the high-density mineral is on top and high when the low-density phase is on top. Calculations based on these simulations indicate that the amount of area that could fall within phase boundary zones depends strongly on grain size, shape, and width of boundary zone. Boundary phases may contribute significantly to overall analytical error for fine-grained minerals with low densities and composed of elements with low ionization potentials, but for most samples the boundary phase area is likely to be < 5% of the total surface area and the error relatively small. Errors induced by boundary phases will probably continue to annoy geometallurgists for some time, but with proper laboratory procedures for validating and cross-checking automated mineralogy results, they should not be a major component of error for most samples.
    • Imputation methods for addressing missing data in short-term monitoring of air pollutants

      Hadeed, Steven J; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Burgess, Jefferey L; Harris, Robin B; Canales, Robert A; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth; Univ Arizona, Interdisciplinary Program Appl Math (ELSEVIER, 2020-08-15)
      Monitoring of environmental contaminants is a critical part of exposure sciences research and public health practice. Missing data are often encountered when performing short-term monitoring (<24 h) of air pollutants with real-time monitors, especially in resource-limited areas. Approaches for handling consecutive periods of missing and incomplete data in this context remain unclear. Our aim is to evaluate existing imputation methods for handling missing data for real-time monitors operating for short durations. In a current field-study, realtime PM2.5 monitors were placed outside of 20 households and ran for 24-hours. Missing data was simulated in these households at four consecutive periods of missingness (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%). Univariate (Mean, Median, Last Observation Carried Forward, Kalman Filter, Random, Markov) and multivariate time-series (Predictive Mean Matching, Row Mean Method) methods were used to impute missing concentrations, and performance was evaluated using five error metrics (Absolute Bias, Percent Absolute Error in Means, R2 Coefficient of Determination, Root Mean Square Error, Mean Absolute Error). Univariate methods of Markov, random, and mean imputations were the best performingmethods that yielded 24-hour mean concentrations with the lowest error and highest R2 values across all levels of missingness. When evaluating error metrics minute-by-minute, Kalman filters, median, and Markov methods performed well at low levels of missingness (20-40%). However, at higher levels of missingness (60-80%), Markov, random, median, and mean imputation performed best on average. Multivariate methods were the worst performing imputation methods across all levels of missingness. Imputation using univariate methods may provide a reasonable solution to addressing missing data for short-term monitoring of air pollutants, especially in resource-limited areas. Further efforts are needed to evaluate imputation methods that are generalizable across a diverse range of study environments. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    • Performance evaluation of automatic object detection with post-processing schemes under enhanced measures in wide-area aerial imagery

      Gao, Xin; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-15)
      Performance analysis of object detection combined with post-processing schemes are challenging especially that the spatial resolution of images is low in wide-area aerial imagery. In this paper, we present the quantitative results of ten object detection algorithms combined with several post-processing schemes including filtered dilation, heuristic filtering, sieving and closing, a three-stage scheme which involves thresholding with respect to area and compactness, and the proposed scheme of median filtering, opening and closing, followed by linear Gaussian filtering with nonmaximum suppression. We verified the sieving and closing as well as the three-stage scheme display better Fβ-score and PASCAL value via four vehicle detection algorithms. We evaluated combinations of ten object detection and segmentation methods with two post-processing schemes by adopting a set of recent evaluation metrics, i.e., Jaccard Index (JI), Fbw measure, the structure similarity measure (SSIM) and the enhanced alignment measure (EAM). Automatic detection outputs are compared with their ground truth in low-resolution aerial datasets. Classified detection results are established on ten algorithms each combined with the selected post-processing schemes. We take two widely used datasets (VIVID and VEDAI) for performance analysis, compare the detections and time cost of each algorithm either without or with the proposed scheme, and verified our approach via replacing either datasets or algorithms. Quantitative evaluation under a set of enhanced measures proves our test with validity, efficiency, and accuracy.
    • Legitimacy Revisited: Disentangling Propriety, Validity, and Consensus

      Haack, Patrick; Schilke, Oliver; Zucker, Lynne; Univ Arizona (Wiley, 2020-08-15)
      Recent research has conceptualized legitimacy as a multi-level phenomenon comprising propriety and validity. Propriety refers to an individual evaluator's belief that a legitimacy object is appropriate for its social context, whereas validity denotes an institutionalized, collective-level perception of appropriateness. In this article, we refine this multi-level understanding of legitimacy by adding a third, meso-level construct of 'consensus', which we define as the agreement between evaluators' propriety beliefs. Importantly, validity and consensus are distinct and can be incongruent, given that an institutionalized perception can hide underlying disagreement. Disentangling validity from consensus is a crucial extension of the multi-level theory of legitimacy, because it enables an improved understanding of the legitimacy processes that precede sudden and unanticipated institutional change. In particular, while previous works considered revised propriety beliefs as the starting point for institutional change, our account emphasizes that the disclosure of the actual (vs. merely assumed) belief distribution within a social context may instigate institutional change. To study the interplay of propriety, validity, and consensus empirically, we propose a set of experimental designs specifically geared towards improving knowledge of the role of legitimacy and its components in institutional change.
    • Patent Pools and the Pandemic: A Renewed Debate

      Malkawi, Bashar; Univ Arizona, James E Rogers Coll Law (Council on Foreign Relations, 2020-08-14)
      As countries are still in the thick of fighting the COVID-19 health crisis and scientists and pharmaceutical companies are in the process of uncovering the molecular secrets of this novel coronavirus and developing potential vaccines, we need to revisit the issue of patent pools. During normal times in today's complex world, to produce certain goods and services, any manufacturer would have to obtain licenses to several interrelated patents, something that is known as the complements problem. Where there are many patents to obtain, this will complicate matters for innovation and indeed could lead to underuse of technologies and heavy patent costs. In order to simply the process, patent pools can be created between patent owners that bundle multiple pieces of intellectual property together, rather than on a patent-by-patent basis, into a single license so that they can license their patents to other parties collectively. Patent pools thus reduce transaction costs for licensees and preserve the financial incentive for patent holders to commercialize their products. All this seem easy and straightforward—in an ideal world. In reality, however, patent pools can create anticompetitive practices.
    • Biochemical responses of water-stressed triticale (X Triticosecale wittmack) to humic acid and jasmonic acid

      Bijanzadeh, Ehsan; Emam, Yahya; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Coll Agr & Life Sci, Sch Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS GROUP, 2020-08-14)
      The efficacy of humic acid (HA) and jasmonic acid (JA) application to modulate the adverse effects of water stress on pigment content, relative water content (RWC), antioxidant enzyme activity, and ion balance of two triticale genotypes (ET-83-3 and ET-84-8) was investigated in a pot experiment under controlled conditions. Application of both HA and JA in ET-84-8, increased chlorophyll a and b content 19.9 and 21% under water stress, respectively. Carotenoid content was also increased from 7.7 mg/g fresh weight to 9.5 mg/g fresh weight under water stress. Furthermore, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities and proline content were increased 34.8%, 13% and 99.5%, respectively when ET-84-8 genotype was exposed to HA and JA together. RWC of water-stressed plants was lowered in both genotypes however, the decreasing rate was greater in ET-84-8genotype. Higher K‏+ accumulation in water-stressed ET-84-8 genotype was accompanied by an increase in pigment content, CAT and POD activity as well as RWC. There was a negatively significant relationship between the main shoot grain yield and the malondialdehyde (MDA) activity. Significant and positive relationships were also found between the main shoot grain yield with CAT activity as well as RWC. Overall, it was found that concomitant foliar application of HA (1.0 mM) with JA (50 µM) was able to alleviate the inhibitory effects of water stress in the ET-84-8 genotype via enhancing proline content, CAT and POD activity, and lowering MDA.