• Excited bottomonia in quark-gluon plasma from lattice QCD

      Larsen, Rasmus; Meinel, Stefan; Mukherjee, Swagato; Petreczky, Peter; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (ELSEVIER, 2020-11-26)
      We present the first lattice QCD study of up to 3S and 2P bottomonia at non-zero temperatures. Correlation functions of bottomonia were computed using novel bottomonium operators and a variational technique, within the lattice non-relativistic QCD framework. We analyzed the bottomonium correlation functions based on simple physically-motivated spectral functions. We found evidence of sequential in-medium modifications, in accordance with the sizes of the bottomonium states.
    • Exploring the stability of communication network metrics in a dynamic nursing context

      Brewer, Barbara B.; Carley, Kathleen M.; Benham-Hutchins, Marge; Effken, Judith A.; Reminga, Jeffrey; Univ Arizona (ELSEVIER, 2020-05)
      Network stability is of increasing interest to researchers as they try to understand the dynamic processes by which social networks form and evolve. Because hospital patient care units (PCUs) need flexibility to adapt to environmental changes (Vardaman et al., 2012), their networks are unlikely to be uniformly stable and will evolve over time. This study aimed to identify a metric (or set of metrics) sufficiently stable to apply to PCU staff information sharing and advice seeking communication networks over time. Using Coefficient of Variation, we assessed both Across Time Stability (ATS) and Global Stability over four data collection times (Baseline and 1, 4, and 7 months later). When metrics were stable using both methods, we considered them "super stable." Nine metrics met that criterion (Node Set Size, Average Distance, Clustering Coefficient, Density, Weighted Density, Diffusion, Total Degree Centrality, Betweenness Centrality, and Eigenvector Centrality). Unstable metrics included Hierarchy, Fragmentation, Isolate Count, and Clique Count. We also examined the effect of staff members' confidence in the information obtained from other staff members. When confidence was high, the "super stable" metrics remained "super stable," but when low, none of the "super stable" metrics persisted as "super stable." Our results suggest that nursing units represent what Barker (1968) termed dynamic behavior settings in which, as is typical, multiple nursing staff must constantly adjust to various circumstances, primarily through communication (e.g., discussing patient care or requesting advice on providing patient care), to preserve the functional integrity (i.e., ability to meet patient care goals) of the units, thus producing the observed stability over time of nine network metrics. The observed metric stability provides support for using network analysis to study communication patterns in dynamic behavior settings such as PCUs.
    • Propagation in a Fisher-KPP equation with non-local advection

      Hamel, François; Henderson, Christopher; Univ Arizona, Dept Math (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-04-15)
      We investigate the influence of a general non-local advection term of the form K *u to propagation in the one-dimensional Fisher-KPP equation. This model is a generalization of the Keller-Segel-Fisher system. When K is an element of L-1(R), we obtain explicit upper and lower bounds on the propagation speed which are asymptotically sharp and more precise than previous works. When K is an element of L-P(R) with p > 1 and is non-increasing in (-infinity, 0) and in (0, +infinity), we show that the position of the "front" is of order 0(t(p)) if p < infinity and O(e(lambda t)) for some lambda > 0 if p = infinity and K(+infinity) > 0. We use a wide range of techniques in our proofs. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    • Constructed Realities: Claude Cahun's Created World in Aveux Non Avenus

      Pustarfi, Erin F; Univ Arizona, Dept Art Hist (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-04-15)
      In her 1930 publication, Aveux non Avenus, Claude Cahun used the relationship between her inwardly focused poetic writing and symbolic photomontages to construct a unique reality for self-expression. This article focuses on three chapters and respective photographic images from the publication to relate Cahun's, and by association her partner Marcel Moore's, discussion on sexuality and gender expression. The utopian dreamscape created investigates issues of narcissism and otherness, female homosexuality, dandyism and going beyond gender, individual and social critique, mocking the antiquated views of art and writing, accepting and breaking taboos, while allowing for other departures from the accepted norm. Through analysis of the publication and supporting evidence from early influences, it can be seen that Cahun created a world in Aveux non Avenus where she could exist in a space between the established feminine-masculine binary of 20th-century Europe.
    • Family matters in racial logics: Tracing intimacies, inequalities, and ideologies

      Peterson, V. Spike; Univ Arizona, Int Relat, Sch Govt & Publ Policy; Univ Arizona, Dept Gender & Womens Studies; Univ Arizona, Inst LGBT Studies (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2020-04)
      This article seeks to advance our understanding of how intimate relations and racial logics are co-constituted and matter - subjectively, culturally, materially, and politically - in our colonial present of economic inequalities, nationalist populisms, anti-migrant discourses and xenophobic hostilities. Addressing these crisis conditions is urgent, yet critical interventions indicate that prevailing accounts inadequately address the scale, complexity, and fluidity of racisms operating today. This article proposes to think racial logics 'otherwise' by drawing on interdisciplinary scholarship and intersectional analytics to produce a genealogy of state/nation formation processes, imperial encounters, and legitimating ideologies that illuminates how 'intimacy builds worlds'.(1) A deep history of political centralisation reveals that regulation of intimate, familial relations is a constitutive feature of successful state-making and crucial for understanding how modernity's 'race difference' is produced and how the racialisation of 'Other' ('non-European', undesirable) sexual/familial practices figures in contemporary crises. Locating intimate relations - 'family' - in (birthright) citizenship, immigration regimes, and political-economic frames helps clarify the amplification of global inequalities and the power of stigmatisations to fuel nationalist attachments and anti-migrant hostilities. Foregrounding intimacy and integrating typically disparate lines of inquiry advances our analyses of today's often opaque yet intense racisms and their globally problematic effects.
    • A critical analysis of recreational water guidelines developed from temperate climate data and applied to the tropics

      Verhougstraete, Marc P; Pogreba-Brown, Kristen; Reynolds, Kelly A; Lamparelli, Claudia Condé; Zanoli Sato, Maria Inês; Wade, Timothy J; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Community Environm & Policy; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-03-01)
      Recreational water epidemiology studies are rare in settings with minimal wastewater treatment where risk may be highest, and in tropical settings where warmer temperature influences the ecology of fecal indicator bacteria commonly used to monitor recreational waters. One exception is a 1999 study conducted in Sao Paulo Brazil. We compared the risk and exposure characteristics of these data with those conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) in the early 1990s that are the basis of the World Health Organization's (WHO) guidelines on recreational water risks. We then developed adjusted risk difference models (excess gastrointestinal illness per swimming event) for children (<10 years of age) and nonchildren (>= 10 years of age) across five Brazil beaches. We used these models along with beach water quality data from 2004 to 2015 to assess spatial and temporal trends in water quality and human risk. Risk models indicate that children in Brazil have as much as two times the risk of gastrointestinal illness than non-children. In Brazil, 11.8% of the weekly water samples from 2004 to 2015 exceeded 158 enterococci CFU/100 ml, the highest level of fecal streptococci concentration measured in the UK study. Risks associated with these elevated levels equated to median NEEAR-Gastrointestinal Illness (NGI) risks of 53 and 96 excess cases per 1000 swimmers in non-children and children, respectively. Two of the five beaches appear to drive the overall elevated NGI risks seen during this study. Distinct enteric pathogen profiles that exist in tropical settings as well as in settings with minimal wastewater treatment highlight the importance of regionally specific guideline development. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    • Molecular characterization of two previously undescribed begomovirus-associated alphasatellite molecules infecting malvaceous species in Cameroon

      Leke, W N; Kvarnheden, A; Avelar, S; Brown, J K; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (SPRINGER WIEN, 2020-03)
      Two begomovirus-associated alphasatellites were isolated from okra and a malvastrum plant (Malvaceae) in Cameroon. The complete nucleotide sequences of the okra- and malvastrum-infecting alphasatellites were 1375 and 1416-1418 nucleotides, respectively, and both exhibited features characteristic of other alphasatellites. Based on pairwise sequence comparisons, these previously undescribed alphasatellites are members of distinct species in the genera Colecusatellite and Gosmusatellite and have been tentatively named "pepper yellow vein Mali alphasatellite" and "cotton leaf curl Gezira alphasatellite3", respectively. Taken together with previous studies, alphasatellites endemic to Cameroon appear to be more diverse and infect plants of many more species and families than currently recognized.
    • Getting Caught: A Collaboration On- and Offstage between Theatre and Anthropology

      Giordano, Cristiana; Pierotti, Greg; Univ Arizona, Expt Dramaturgy (MIT PRESS, 2020-03)
      How does an ethnographer remain affected by worlds encountered after leaving the field of research? How does a theatrical deviser build theatrical worlds from empirical research that convey affective experience rather than just dramaturgically sound documentary-style narrative? Affect Theatre is a thinking and acting space for exploring these questions.
    • Jens Walther’s Abstieg vom Zauberberg (1997): A Literary Reflection on the World of Publishing in the Postmodern World

      Classen, Albrecht; Univ Arizona, Dept German Studies (SPRINGER, 2020-03)
      The world of book publishing is currently undergoing a major paradigm shift, but this was already fully under way in the 1990s. In the German novel Abstieg vom Zauberberg, published in 1997 by an anonymous author under the pseudonym Jens Walther, we are given an excellent insider view of the concrete situation within literary publishing houses and how they operate behind the scene and in public to secure the best possible titles and to fend off manuscripts that appear to be trivial literature. The author proves to be highly educated in the history of German and western literature at large and also demonstrates great expertise regarding book fairs, book reviews, and book prizes, framing all this by a somewhat twisted love story involving a young author, Anna Becker, and two men, first the young Johannes Rieger, then his father Helmut Rieger, both representing the fictional publishing house Engsfeld.
    • Interpersonal Focus in the Emotional Autobiographical Memories of Older and Younger Adults

      Polsinelli, Angelina J.; Rentscher, Kelly E.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.; Moseley, Suzanne A.; Mehl, Matthias R.; Univ Arizona, Psychol Dept (HOGREFE & HUBER PUBLISHERS, 2020-03)
      The present study examined the interpersonal focus within autobiographical memories (AMs) of older and younger adults from the perspective of socioemotional selectivity theory (SST). Specifically, we measured interpersonal focus directly through rater codings (relational vs. individual focus) and social word use, and indirectly through personal pronoun use. Forty-five older (M-age = 76.76) and 25 younger (M-age = 18.64) adults recalled positive and negative AMs, which were then coded and processed through computerized text analysis software to obtain word-use counts. Consistent with SST, the positive AMs of older adults were more interpersonally focused compared to negative AMs and younger adults. The results suggest that the positive life experiences of older adults tend to be associated with a high degree of social importance and focus on others.
    • Degradation of Ir-Ta oxide coated Ti anodes in sulfuric acid solutions containing fluoride

      Ma, Dongni; Ngo, Vanda; Raghavan, Srini; Sandoval, Scot; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Environm Engn; Univ Arizona, Dept Mat Sci & Engn (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-03)
      The lifetime of IrO2-Ta2O5 coated titanium anodes has been investigated using a galvanostatic accelerated life test (ALT) method in 2 M (2000 mol/m(3)) H2SO4 solutions containing fluoride. Fluoride addition in the concentration range of 25 - 200 ppm significantly reduces the lifetime of films through localized thinning and in some cases, complete removal of film. While the presence of fluoride does not affect the overpotential for oxygen evolution, it lowers the efficacy of oxygen evolution. Complexation of fluoride by aluminum ions reduces the deleterious effects of fluoride. Based on thermodynamic and XPS analyses, a degradation mechanism has been proposed.
    • Denoising scanner effects from multimodal MRI data using linked independent component analysis

      Li, Huanjie; Smith, Stephen M; Gruber, Staci; Lukas, Scott E; Silveri, Marisa M; Hill, Kevin P; Killgore, William D S; Nickerson, Lisa D; Univ Arizona, Dept Psychiat (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2020-03)
      Pooling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data across research studies, or utilizing shared data from imaging repositories, presents exceptional opportunities to advance and enhance reproducibility of neuroscience research. However, scanner confounds hinder pooling data collected on different scanners or across software and hardware upgrades on the same scanner, even when all acquisition protocols are harmonized. These confounds reduce power and can lead to spurious findings. Unfortunately, methods to address this problem are scant. In this study, we propose a novel denoising approach that implements a data-driven linked independent component analysis (LICA) to identify scanner-related effects for removal from multimodal MRI to denoise scanner effects. We utilized multi-study data to test our proposed method that were collected on a single 3T scanner, pre- and post-software and major hardware upgrades and using different acquisition parameters. Our proposed denoising method shows a greater reduction of scanner-related variance compared with standard GLM confound regression or ICA-based single-modality denoising. Although we did not test it here, for combining data across different scanners, LICA should prove even better at identifying scanner effects as between-scanner variability is generally much larger than within-scanner variability. Our method has great promise for denoising scanner effects in multi-study and in large-scale multi-site studies that may be confounded by scanner differences.
    • Quality standards, implementation autonomy, and citizen satisfaction with public services: cross-national evidence

      Song, Miyeon; An, Seung-Ho; Meier, Kenneth J.; Univ Arizona, Sch Govt (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2020-02-27)
      This article investigates whether citizens' evaluations of service performance are related to archival measures of performance, and how institutional context shapes this relationship contingent on administrative autonomy - standards, human resources, and financial autonomy. Using cross-national education data, this study finds that student performance is positively associated with parental evaluations of schools. Perceptions are more closely aligned with performance when agencies have greater autonomy in managing employees, and when national-level bureaucracies set performance standards. This research advances our understanding of the role of administrative autonomy in citizen satisfaction and provides implications for the institutional designs that can benefit performance assessment.
    • Extraterrestrial amino acids and L-enantiomeric excesses in the CM2 carbonaceous chondrites Aguas Zarcas and Murchison

      Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; McLain, Hannah L.; Aponte, José C.; Parker, Eric T.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Hill, Dolores H.; Connolly, Harold C.; Lauretta, Dante S.; Univ Arizona, Lunar & Planetary Lab (WILEY, 2020-02-25)
      The abundances, distributions, enantiomeric ratios, and carbon isotopic compositions of amino acids in two fragments of the Aguas Zarcas CM2 type carbonaceous chondrite fall and a fragment of the CM2 Murchison meteorite were determined via liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. A suite of two- to six-carbon aliphatic primary amino acids was identified in the Aguas Zarcas and Murchison meteorites with abundances ranging from similar to 0.1 to 158 nmol/g. The high relative abundances of alpha-amino acids found in these meteorites are consistent with a Strecker-cyanohydrin synthesis on these meteorite parent bodies. Amino acid enantiomeric and carbon isotopic measurements in both fragments of the Aguas Zarcas meteorites indicate that both samples experienced some terrestrial protein amino acid contamination after their fall to Earth. In contrast, similar measurements of alanine in Murchison revealed that this common protein amino acid was both racemic (D approximate to L) and heavily enriched in C-13, indicating no measurable terrestrial alanine contamination of this meteorite. Carbon isotope measurements of two rare non-proteinogenic amino acids in the Aguas Zarcas and Murchison meteorites, alpha-aminoisobutyric acid and D- and L-isovaline, also fall well outside the typical terrestrial range, confirming they are extraterrestrial in origin. The detections of non-terrestrial L-isovaline excesses of similar to 10-15% in both the Aguas Zarcas and Murchison meteorites, and non-terrestrial L-glutamic acid excesses in Murchison of similar to 16-40% are consistent with preferential enrichment of circularly polarized light generated L-amino acid excesses of conglomerate enantiopure crystals during parent body aqueous alteration and provide evidence of an early solar system formation bias toward L-amino acids prior to the origin of life.
    • Non-enzymatic Lysine Lactoylation of Glycolytic Enzymes

      Gaffney, Dominique O; Jennings, Erin Q; Anderson, Colin C; Marentette, John O; Shi, Taoda; Schou Oxvig, Anne-Mette; Streeter, Matthew D; Johannsen, Mogens; Spiegel, David A; Chapman, Eli; et al. (CELL PRESS, 2020-02-20)
      Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate enzyme structure and function to expand the functional proteome. Many of these PTMs are derived from cellular metabolites and serve as feedback and feedforward mechanisms of regulation. We have identified a PTM that is derived from the glycolytic by-product, methylglyoxal. This reactive metabolite is rapidly conjugated to glutathione via glyoxalase 1, generating lactoylglutathione (LGSH). LGSH is hydrolyzed by glyoxalase 2 (GLO2), cycling glutathione and generating D-lactate. We have identified the non-enzymatic acyl transfer of the lactate moiety from LGSH to protein Lys residues, generating a "LactoylLys'' modification on proteins. GLO2 knockout cells have elevated LGSH and a consequent marked increase in LactoylLys. Using an alkyne-tagged methylglyoxal analog, we show that these modifications are enriched on glycolytic enzymes and regulate glycolysis. Collectively, these data suggest a previously unexplored feedback mechanism that may serve to regulate glycolytic flux under hyperglycemic or Warburg-like conditions.
    • Sustainable Agriculture Practices as a Driver for Increased Harvested Cropland among Large‐Scale Growers in Arizona: A Paradox for Small‐Scale Growers

      Mpanga, Isaac K.; Neumann, Gunter; Schuch, Ursula K.; Schalau, Jeff; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2020-02-20)
      Extreme climate variability is a major factor threatening crop production in Arizona State. However, limited information exists on how growers are adapting with land-use practices. Using data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Agricultural Census (2012 and 2017) of the US Department of Agriculture, this study investigates trends of land-use practices among small- and large-scale growers and their possible effects on harvested cropland. From 2012 to 2017, there are reductions in total farmlands (-0.5%) and vegetable production lands (-4%) with varying temperatures, precipitation, and drought severity index. However, harvested crop- and vegetable land increased by 3% and 11%, respectively, which was mainly influenced by large-scale growers. This coincided with an increase in sustainable land-use practices such as conservation agriculture no-till (103%), reduced tillage (71%), and cover cropping (123%) which are most popular among large-scale growers. Manure application also increased by 30%. However, there were reductions in other practices such as intensive tillage (-9%), use of commercial fertilizers (-0.2%), nematicides (-63%), and chemical diseases control (-16%). Unfortunately, non-sustainable practices (irrigation, insecticide, and herbicide application increased by 27%, 39%, and 10%, respectively. This study reveals potential benefits of sustainable agricultural practices in Arizona and a need for increased adoption among small-acreage growers.
    • Exalted Purchases or Tainted Donations? Self‐signaling and the Evaluation of Charitable Incentives

      Savary, Jennifer; Li, Charis X.; Newman, George E.; Univ Arizona (JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD, 2020-02-20)
      It is common for charities to bundle donation requests with some type of product, such as a tote bag, pen, or coffee mug. The current studies find that people are more likely to donate when those bundles are framed as "charitable purchases" vs. "donations with a gift." We show that this effect arises because consumers want to avoid the negative self-signal associated with receiving a gift in exchange for donating. Five experiments provide evidence for the role of self-signaling, identify key moderators of the framing effect, and demonstrate the downstream consequences for people's likelihood of donating in the future. More broadly, the current studies lend further evidence to the role of self-signaling in charitable giving and provide greater clarity regarding how and when different donation solicitation techniques may be most effective.
    • Functional characterization of the idtF and idtP genes in the Claviceps paspali indole diterpene biosynthetic gene cluster

      Kozák, László; Szilágyi, Zoltán; Tóth, László; Pócsi, István; Molnár, István; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (SPRINGER, 2020-02-19)
      Claviceps paspali is used in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of ergot alkaloids. This fungus also biosynthesizes paspalitrems, indole diterpene (IDT) mycotoxins that cause significant economic losses in agriculture and represent safety concerns for ergot alkaloid manufacture. Here, we use Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to replace the idtP and the idtF genes in the IDT biosynthetic gene cluster of C. paspali with a selectable marker gene. We show that the Delta idtP knockout mutant produces paspaline, the first IDT intermediate of the pathway. The Delta idtF strain produces unprenylated IDTs such as paspalinine and paspaline. These experiments validate the function of idtP as the gene encoding the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that oxidizes and demethylates paspaline to produce 13-desoxypaxilline, and that of idtF as the gene that encodes the alpha-prenyltransferase that prenylates paspalinine at the C20 or the C21 positions to yield paspalitrems A and C, respectively. In addition, we also show that axenic cultures of the wild type, the Delta idtP and the Delta idtF mutant C. paspali strains fail to produce an assembly of IDTs that are present in C. paspali-Paspalum spp. associations.
    • Four-fold Anisotropy of the Parallel Upper Critical Magnetic Field in a Pure Layered d-wave Superconductor at T = 0

      Lebed, A. G.; Sepper, O.; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys (MAIK NAUKA/INTERPERIODICA/SPRINGER, 2020-02-19)
      It is well known that a four-fold symmetry of the parallel upper critical magnetic field disappears in the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) region in quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) d-wave superconductors. Therefore, it has been accurately calculated so far as a correction to the GL results, which is valid close to superconducting transition temperature and is expected to be stronger at low temperatures. As to the case T = 0, some approximated methods have been used, which are good only for closed electron orbits and unappropriate for the open orbits which exist in a parallel magnetic field in Q2D superconductors. For the first time, we accurately calculate the four-fold anisotropy of the parallel upper critical magnetic field in a pure Q2D d-wave superconductor at T = 0, where it has the highest possible value. Our results are applicable to Q2D d-wave high-T-c and organic superconductors.
    • Reducing Injuries, Malingering, and Workers’ Compensation Costs by Implementing Overt Integrity Testing

      Cooper, Dylan A.; Slaughter, Jerel E.; Gilliland, Stephen W.; Univ Arizona, Eller Coll Management (SPRINGER, 2020-02-17)
      Workers' compensation costs are a substantial expense for employers. Given mixed results of training and job redesign interventions designed to reduce accidents leading to claims, organizations may wish to reduce these costs by screening job applicants with integrity tests. Building on theories of workplace safety and malingering (i.e., faking or exaggerating injuries for personal gain), we argue that overt integrity tests predict workers' compensation claims through both workplace injuries and malingering. Analyses of archival data from three organizations (study 1) found screening job applicants reduced workers' compensation claim rates and related costs, demonstrating a return on investment of 734% in one sample and 866% in another. In a three-wave survey of working adults (study 2), integrity test scores related directly to malingering, and indirectly to workplace injuries through motivation to work safely and compliance with safety rules. Analyses of three common dimensions of overt integrity tests (substance abuse, aggression, and theft) found theft scores directly related to malingering, and indirectly related to injuries through lower safety compliance. Substance abuse scores were related to higher rates of injury through lower safety motivation and compliance. Aggression scores were not related to malingering or injuries. We conclude that screening job applicants with overt integrity tests can be a cost-effective way to reduce unnecessary workplace injuries, malingering, and the related workers' compensation claims.