• Acoustic source localization in anisotropic plates without knowing their material properties: an experimental investigation

      Sen, Novonil; Gawroński, Mateusz; Packo, Pawel; Uhl, Tadeusz; Kundu, Tribikram; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil & Architectural Engn & Mech; Univ Arizona, Dept Aerosp & Mech Engn (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2019-04-01)
      An integral aspect of modern infrastructural engineering is to constantly monitor the health of a structure either actively or passively in order to ensure its safe performance throughout the design life. For passive structural health monitoring, it is important to estimate the location of an acoustic source that may be caused by events such as impact of a foreign object with the structure, failure of a structural element, formation of cracks, etc. Such an acoustic source generates acoustic waves that propagate through the medium. These waves can be captured by ultrasonic sensors mounted on the structure at some pre-selected locations and, subsequently, analyzed to predict the location of the acoustic source. Over the years, several researchers have proposed techniques for acoustic source localization in both isotropic and anisotropic structures. While acoustic source localization in isotropic structures is relatively simple, introduction of anisotropy adds a layer of difficulty to the problem due to the fact that waves do not propagate with the same speed in all directions. This study presents acoustic source localization techniques for anisotropic plates based on the analysis of the wave front shapes typically observed in anisotropic plates and presents experimental verification of the techniques. Three different geometric shapes are considered as the assumed wave front shapes: a rhombus, an ellipse and a parametric curve. A slightly modified version of the rhombus-based technique from the original approach is proposed. The experimental study is performed on two plates with different degrees of anisotropy.
    • Acoustic source localization in non-homogenous plates

      Yin, Shenxin; Cui, Zhiwen; Kundu, Tribikram; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil & Architectural Engn & Mech (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2019-04-01)
      In a nonhomogeneous specimen, if the acoustic source and receiving sensors are located in different media then the acoustic source localization becomes very difficult. In this paper, a recently developed source localization technique is extended to non-homogeneous plates by appropriately considering and modeling the refraction phenomenon. The modified technique is applied to two-layered structure. The proposed new technique gives a relatively simple way to localize the acoustic source without the need to solve a system of nonlinear equations, and thus it avoids the problem of multiplicity, converging to local minima instead of global minimum and giving wrong solution. The proposed technique works for both isotropic and anisotropic structures. The finite element simulation shows that this modified technique considering refraction at material interfaces can localize the acoustic source better than when this modification is not considered.
    • An assessment of in-field non-destructive testing methods for detection of internal defects in standing live trees

      Taskhiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Hafezi, Mohammad Hadi; Holloway, Damien; Turner, Paul; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil Engn & Engn Mech (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2019-04-01)
      Harvesting trees that contain internal defects such as knots and cracks are neither financially nor environmentally sustainable. In hardwood plantations, it is impossible to produce sawlogs from knotty or cracked timber. The challenge is to identify internal defects in a timely and cost-effective manner prior to harvesting. The aim of this paper is to investigate non-destructive testing (NDT) methods to rapidly detect the presence of internal defects in standing live trees in plantation plots. The study highlights that whilst several methods exist, few have been actively applied in-field harvesting operations to optimise log handling and to increase transportation efficiencies. Key constraints are portability of the NDT equipment for use in-field, speed versus accuracy of measurements undertaken and the usability of different evaluation approaches for decision-support. In this paper, the field assessment involved using two non-destructive techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) and ultrasonics that use electromagnetic and ultrasonic sound waves respectively to penetrate the internal structure of standing trees. These assessment techniques can assist forest growers to more accurately evaluate the quality of growing stems in the field. They also open the opportunity to investigate differences across a wide selection of growing conditions and forest types to generate data that may support the generation of a software algorithm for predictive imputation of likely internal defect rates within particular forests and under particular growing conditions. The plan being to integrate this predictive imputation software into existing geographical information systems owned by industry partners to enable accurate mapping of land areas where high ratios of defects are likely to be detected to further optimise infield harvesting.
    • Linear and non-linear analysis of composite plates using guided acoustic waves

      Alnuaimi, Hamad; Amjad, Umar; Russo, Pietro; Lopresto, Valentina; Kundu, Tribikram; Univ Arizona, Aerosp & Mech Engn Dept; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil & Architectural Engn & Mech (SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2019-04-01)
      Guided acoustic wave techniques have been found to be very effective for damage detection. In this investigation Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) transducers are used to generate guided acoustic waves for structural health monitoring of a variety of composite specimens. Multiple sets of composite plate specimens are inspected for impact induced damage detection using PZT transducers. Composite samples are divided into two groups for comparative studies i.e. glass fiber composites and basalt fiber composites. They are damaged by impactors having different levels of impact energy. A chirp signal is excited and propagated through the specimens in a single sided excitation/detection setup to investigate the damages induced by impacts of varying intensity. Signal processing of the recorded signals for damage analysis involved both linear and nonlinear analyses. Linear ultrasonic analysis such as change in the time-of-flight of the propagating waves, Fast Fourier Transform and S-Transform of the recorded signals were tried out while the nonlinear ultrasonic analysis involved the Sideband Peak Count or the SPC technique.