• Comparison of Perceived and Observed Hand Hygiene Compliance in Healthcare Workers in MERS-CoV Endemic Regions

      Alshammari, Modhi; Reynolds, Kelly A; Verhougstraete, Marc; O'Rourke, Mary Kay; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun Environm & Policy, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth (MDPI, 2018-10-07)
      This study investigated healthcare workers' perceptions of hand hygiene practices by comparing personal reports, as assessed by questionnaires, to direct observations of the workers' hand hygiene practices. The study employed a cross-sectional research design. Observations were made using a 16-item checklist, based on three sources: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), World Health Organization (WHO), and Boyce and Pittet's guidelines of hand hygiene. The checklist was used for both direct-observation and self-reported data collection purposes. Pearson correlation and Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) were utilized to statistically determine the relationship between healthcare workers' reports of hand hygiene practices and observed hand hygiene behaviors. The study was conducted in the outpatient examination rooms and emergency departments of three types of hospitals in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia where Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is endemic and is observed in routine cases and outbreaks. The total sample size included 87 physicians and nurses recruited while on duty during the scheduled observation periods, with each healthcare worker being observed during individual medical examinations with at least three patients. No statistically significant correlations between the healthcare workers' perceptions of hand hygiene practices and healthcare workers' actual behaviors were evident. Based on the self-report questionnaires, significant differences were found between physicians' and nurses' hand hygiene practices reports. Healthcare workers clearly understand the importance of careful hand hygiene practices, but based on researchers' observations, the medical personnel failed to properly implement protocol-driven hand hygiene applications. However, the significant differences between physicians' and nurses' self-reports suggest further inquiry is needed to fully explore these discrepancies.
    • Identifying Predictive Characteristics of Opioid Medication Use among a Nationally Representative Sample of United States Older Adults with Pain and Comorbid Hypertension or Hypercholesterolemia

      Axon, David R; Vaffis, Shannon; Marupuru, Srujitha; Univ Arizona, Dept Pharm Practice & Sci, Coll Pharm (MDPI, 2020-09-15)
      The prevalence of older adults with pain and comorbid cardiovascular conditions is increasing in the United States (U.S.). This retrospective, cross-sectional database study used 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data and hierarchical logistic regression models to identify predictive characteristics of opioid use among a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults (aged ≥50 years) with pain in the past four weeks and comorbid hypertension (pain-hypertension group) or hypercholesterolemia (pain-hypercholesterolemia group). The pain-hypertension group included 2733 subjects (n = 803 opioid users) and the pain-hypercholesterolemia group included 2796 subjects (n = 795 opioid users). In both groups, predictors of opioid use included: White race versus others, Hispanic versus non-Hispanic ethnicity, 1 versus ≥5 chronic conditions, little/moderate versus quite a bit/extreme pain, good versus fair/poor perceived mental health, functional limitation versus no functional limitation, smoker versus non-smoker, and Northeast versus West census region. In addition, Midwest versus West census region was a predictor in the pain-hypertension group, and 4 versus ≥5 chronic conditions was a predictor in the pain-hypercholesterolemia group. In conclusion, several characteristics of older U.S. adults with pain and comorbid hypertension or hypercholesterolemia were predictive of opioid use. These characteristics could be addressed to optimize individuals' pain management and help address the opioid overdose epidemic.
    • Use of a Cross-Sectional Survey in the Adult Population to Characterize Persons at High-Risk for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

      Pleasants, Roy A; Heidari, Khosrow; Ohar, Jill; Donohue, James F; Lugogo, Njira; Richard, Chelsea L; Kanotra, Sarojina; Mannino, David M; Kraft, Monica; Liao, Winston; et al. (MDPI, 2019-01-18)
      Rationale/Objective: The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) health survey has been used to describe the epidemiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the US. Through addressing respiratory symptoms and tobacco use, it could also be used to characterize COPD risk. Methods: Four US states added questions to the 2015 BRFSS regarding productive cough, shortness of breath, dyspnea on exertion, and tobacco duration. We determined COPD risk categories: provider-diagnosed COPD as self-report, high-risk for COPD as >= 10 years tobacco smoking and at least one significant respiratory symptom, and low risk was neither diagnosed COPD nor high risk. Disease burden was defined by respiratory symptoms and health impairments. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models with age as a covariate. Results: Among 35,722 adults >= 18 years, the overall prevalence of COPD and high-risk for COPD were 6.6% and 5.1%. Differences among COPD risk groups were evident based on gender, race, age, geography, tobacco use, health impairments, and respiratory symptoms. Risk for disease was seen early where 3.75% of 25-34 years-old met high-risk criteria. Longer tobacco duration was associated with an increased prevalence of COPD, particularly >20 years. Seventy-nine percent of persons >= 45 years-old with frequent shortness of breath (SOB) reported having or being at risk of COPD, reflecting disease burden. Conclusion: These data, representing nearly 18% of US adults, indicates those at high risk for COPD share many, but not all of the characteristics of persons diagnosed with the disease and demonstrates the value of the BRFSS as a tool to define lung health at a population level.