• Detection of initiation of corrosion induced damage in concrete structures using nonlinear ultrasonic techniques

      Arumaikani, Thirumalaiselvi; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Kundu, Tribikram; Civil and Architectural Engineering and Mechanics, University of Arizona (Acoustical Society of America, 2022-02)
      Structural failure caused by corrosion of the reinforcing steel in concrete structures is quite common. In most cases, corrosion cracks appear on the surface at a late stage, leaving inadequate time for taking any measures. This paper investigates the detection of corrosion damage in reinforced concrete elements by using nonlinear ultrasonic (NLU) techniques. Various linear ultrasonic and NLU techniques were adopted to identify the most sensitive technique and ultrasonic parameters for corrosion induced damage detection at its early stage. It is observed that the linear techniques are not very effective in detecting corrosion induced damage. The sideband peak count-index (or SPC-I), a relatively new and promising technique, has been found to be an excellent indicator for the detection of corrosion induced damage initiation. However, its efficacy for detecting corrosion induced damage has not yet been reported. The present study shows that the SPC-I-based NLU technique outperforms (with the highest sensitivity) all other NLU techniques for detecting the onset of corrosion in steel and micro-crack formation in the surrounding material. As the corrosion progresses and cracks appear on the surface of the concrete, the efficiency of the SPC-I slowly weakens and other technique(s) are found to be quite efficient at that stage.
    • Humans attend to signal duration but not temporal structure for sound detection: Steady-state versus pulse-train signals

      Wright, B.A.; Dai, H.; Department of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, College of Science, University of Arizona (Acoustical Society of America, 2021)
      Most sounds fluctuate in amplitude, but do listeners attend to the temporal structure of those fluctuations when trying to detect the mere presence of those sounds? This question was addressed by leading listeners to expect a faint sound with a fixed temporal structure (pulse train or steady-state tone) and total duration (300 ms) and measuring their ability to detect equally faint sounds of unexpected temporal structure (pulse train when expecting steady state) and/or total duration (<300 ms). Detection was poorer for sounds with unexpected than with expected total durations, replicating previous outcomes, but was uninfluenced by the temporal structure of the expected sound. The results disagree with computational predictions of the multiple-look model, which posits that listeners attend to both the total duration and temporal structure of the signal, but agree with predictions of the matched-window energy-detector model, which posits that listeners attend to the total duration but not the temporal structure of the signal. Moreover, the matched-window energy-detector model could also account for previous results, including some that were originally interpreted as supporting the multiple-look model. Taken together, at least when detecting faint sounds, listeners appear to attend to the total duration of expected sounds but to ignore their detailed temporal structure.